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La RiSpublique Francaise 













CoPTKiGHT, Canada, 1922, bt The Copp Clark Companf, Limited, 
Toronto, Ontario. 


The first American edition of this Grammar was published 
March 26, 1901. It was received with favor, and since that date 
nimierous reimpressions have been made to meet the demands 
of the public. 

The present re\'ision has been undertaken for the purpose of 
introducing such changes as time and experience have suggested 
as likely to be useful, without however disturbing the original 
character of the book, or changing the paragraph numbers. The 
use of the phonetic symbols adopted by the Association Phon^tique 
Internationale has been retained throughout the book, wherever 
needed to aid in the teaching of pronunciation. The pronunciar 
tion of all French words in the French-English portion of the 
Vocabulary is given by phonetic transcription based upon the 
Didionnaire PhonUique of Michaelis and Passy. 

The most considerable changes have been made in the Exercises 
I-XXXIX of Part I, which have been rewritten by Professor A. 
Coleman of the Romance Department of the University of Chicago, 
who, with great unselfishness and in a spirit of admiration for the 
Grammar, has cooperated with the authors and publishers in their 
effort to make the book more useful to teachers and students. 
The grammatical part of each lesson remains substantially as it 
was in the original edition. In the Exercises an attempt has been 
made, in accordance with advanced methods of teaching, to provide 
an abundant and varied apparatus for oral practice and for train- 
ing in accuracy of pronunciation, in writing from dictation, and 
in composition; also a section of useful Classroom Expressions has 
been introduced for the convenience of both teachers and stu- 
dents. In fact, it is everywhere emphasized throughout the book 
that learning to speak the language is of prime importance. The 
Vocabulary of Part I has been revised; words which are not of 



common use have been excluded, and liberal provision has been 
made for drill on the uses and meanings of the words given. 

Attention is called to the following important new features of 
Part I: 

1. In the Lesson vocabularies and in the text of the Exer- 
cises great emphasis is laid on Verb Forms, particularly on the 
learning of the forms and the use of a number of common irregular 

2. The difficult topic of Tense Usage is especially dealt with, 
particularly the functions of the present, the imperfect, and the 
past indefinite forms in past narration. 

3. A great variety of driU work and abundant opportunity for 
Oral Practice, based on continuous reading passages, have been 

4. Much stress is laid on the acquisition of a Working Vocabu- 
lary: (a) by abundant repetition and review of the vocabulary 
in the Exercises; (6) by pointing out differences in usage between 
words nearly aUied in meaning; (c) by the introduction of many 
common idioms; (d) by formal Review Exercises. 

Amongst the new features to which special attention is directed 
are also the photographic reproductions of important buildings, 
parks, paintings, sculpture, etc., as well as the Map of France, 
the appearance of which here is due to the courtesy of the 
Literary Digest. 

The first thirty-nine lessons of Part I contain enough grammatical 
material for four semesters with younger pupils beginning in the 
Secondary School and for two semesters with beginning classes of 
High School seniors or of College freshmen. As a rule the A sec- 
tions are composed of passages for reading, which can also be used 
for dictation and oral practice, and the B sections of various types 
of grammar drill. These are followed by composition and trans- 
lation exercises, as well as by special exercises in pronunciation 
and dictation. 

In regard to the Exercises in Pronunciation in which phonetic 
transcription is employed, teachers must use their discretion. They 
may be omitted by those who regard them as unnecessary. 

There is little doubt that it is sound pedagogy to spend enough 
time on the essentials of French grammar contained in these Les- 



sons of Part I to go through them, or most of them, twice with 
great care; for it is only by such repetition, with abundant illustra- 
tive exercises, that beginners can acquire that trained sense for 
the correct form of expression and the proper grammatical con- 
struction which is essential to ^ real knowledge of a foreign tongue. 

In Part I, Exercises XIri.1, consisting of interesting Anecdotes, 
have been retained in their entirety, and may, like Exercises 
I-XXXIX, also be used in teaching by the direct method. . They 
have been found useful as furnishing easy reading material in 
French as well as drill in elementary grammar, particularly in 
the regular and irregular verb forms treated in Part II. The 
French Reader has been dropped from the present edition. 

By virtue of a decree of the French Minister of Public Instruction, 
dated February 26, 1901, certain deviations from commonly ac- 
cepted rules of granmiar were permitted as optional at all official 
examinations. In the Appendix will be found a list of these devia- 
tions affecting the various sections of the Grammar. 

Special acknowledgments for suggestions regarding various 
parts of the book are due to Professor J. Home Cameron of the 
University of Toronto and to Professor G. D. Morris of Indiana 
University. The manuscript of the new Exercises to Part I was 
read by Messrs. Antony Constans and James Kessler of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, by Miss Edna C. Dunlop of Parker High School, 
Chicago, and by Professor E. C. Hills of Indiana University. To 
Professor Hills are due particularly thanks for excellent suggestions 
in regard to the order of the material. The authors are indebted 
also to Professor H. C. Lancaster of Johns Hopkins University 
and to Professor D. H. Camahan of the University of Illinois for 
reading the proofs of Part I; to the Publishers for their liberal 
jx)licy which made available all this invaluable assistance; and to 
Dr. Alexander Green of the Editorial Office, for rendering the 
volume more accurate in contents and more attractive in appearance. 

Ociober, 1920 

NoTB.^ — The re\nsed edition of the Elementary French Grammar cor- 
responds to §§ 1-226 of the revised Complete French Grammar which fur- 
nishes also a systematic treatment of modem French grammar and syn- 
tax, with Composition Exercises, for later study and general reference. 



Phonetic Introduction 1 

Exercise in Ptionetic Transcription 12 

Useful Classroom Expressions 14 



I. Definite Article. Gender. Case. Agreements ... 17 

II. Indefinite Article 20 

III. Possessives. N^ation. Interrogation 23 

IV. Pronoun Objects 26 

V. Plural Forms. Possessive Adjective (continued) . . 28 

VI. Present Indicative of avoir. Partitive Noun and Pro- 
noun. En 32 

VII. Avoir (continued). Interrogation (continued) .... 36 

VIII. Present Indicative of fitre 39 

IX. Regular Conjugations: Present Indicative of donner. 
Interrogation (continued). Demonstrative ad- 
jective 43 

X. Plural Forms. Contractions. Use of 11 y a .... 47 
Review of Vocabulary and Pronunciation No. 1 . . 50 
XI. Indefinite Pronoun on. Interrogation (continued). 

Present Indicative of faire 52 

XII. Feminine of Adjectives. Position of Adjectives. 

Interrogative Adjectives. Y 56 

XIII. Present Indicative of donner, finir, vendre. General 

Noun. Tout 60 

XIV. Partitives (continued). Avoir + Undeterminate Noun 

(besoin, etc.) 64 

XV. Past Participles. Past Indefinite. Word-order. 

Idiomatic Present Indicative 68 

XVI. Comparatives. Superlatives. Comparison of Ad- 
verbs. Present Indicative of aller 72 

XVII. Agreement of Past Participle. Relatives 76 




XVIII. Tenses with etre 80 

Vocabulary Review No, 2 84 

XIX. Pronoun Objects. Orthographical PecuUarities: 

commencer, manger, and mener 86 

XX. Personal Pronoun Objects. Pronominal Adverbs: 

y, en. Reflexive Verb. Possessive Force of Article 90 
XXI. Imperfect Indicative. Use of the Imperfect. Im- 
perfect of faire 94 

XXII. Future Indicative. Use of the Future 100 

XXIII. Disjunctive Personal Pronouns. Ce + etre .... 104 

XXIV. Impersonal Verbs 107 

Vocabulary Review No. 3 Ill 

XXV. Infinitive. Present Participle. Present Indicative 

of pouvoir. II faut 113 

XXVI. Present Subjimctive. Use of the Subjunctive. 

Tense Sequence. Present Indicative of vouloir . . 119 
XXVII. Imperative (coniinued). Position of Objects 

{continued) 124 

XXVIII. Conditional Mood. Conditional Sentences .... 128 

XXIX. Use of Article. Present Indicative of savoir .... 133 

Vocabulary Review No. 4 137 

XXX. Possessive Pronouns. Present Indicative of dire . . 139 

XXXI. Demonstrative Pronouns 144 

XXXII. Relative Pronouns. Present Indicative of connaitre. 148 

XXXIII. Interrogative Pronouns 153 

XXXIV. Indefinite Pronouns 158 

Vocabulary Review No. 5 164 

XXXV. Numerals: Cardinal, Ordinal. Fractions 166 

XXXVI. Dates, Titles. Seasons, Months 171 

XXXVII. Time of Day 176 

XXXVIII. Past Definite. Use of the Past Defmite 180 

XXXIX. Imperfect Subjunctive. Tense Sequence. Meanings 

of devoir and votiloir 184 

Vocabulary Review No. 6 188 


XL. La Th6iere du Matelot 190 

XLI. L'Arabe et les Perles 191 

XLII. Le Paysan et les ifcpis de B16 192 

XLIII. Le Tr6sor du Laboureur 194 



XLIV. Louis XIV et Jean Bart 195 

XLV. La Fourmi et le Brin d'Herbe 197 

XLVL Le Bon Samaritam 198 

XLVIL M. Laffitte et I'fipingle 200 

XLVIIL Le Sifflet de Benjamin Franklin 201 

XLIX. Henri IV et le Paysan 203 

L. Thomas et les Cerises 205 

LI. Fr6d6ric le Grand et son Page . 207 


The Verb 1 

The Noun 92 

The Article . 95 

The Adjective 119 

The Pronoun 134 

The Adverb 174 

The Numeral 186 

The Preposition 193 

The Conjunction 203 

The Interjection 206 

Abbreviations 208 

Exercises on Part II (Detached Sentences) la-La 209 

Exercises on Part II {Continuous Prose) Lla-LXXVa .... 259 

Vocabularies : 

French-English 273 

English-French 307 

Index 343 

Appendix: Tolirances 352 

Courtesy of V. S. Army Air Service 

L'Arc de Triomphe, Paris 

k Vol d'Oiseau 



1. General Distmctioiis. The pronunciation will be 
explained, as far as possible, by comparison with English 
sounds, but it must never be forgotten that the sounds of 
two languages rarely correspond. Important general distinc- 
tions between English and French are the following: 

1. English has strong stress (§7) and comparatively weak action of 
the organs in articulation. 

2. French has weak stress, while the action of the organs in articula- 
tion is very energetic. 

3. Hence, French sounds, both vowels and consonants, are almost 
all 'narrow,' i.e., uttered with tenseness of the organs concerned in 
their articulation. (To imderstand 'narrow' and 'wide,' compare 
the narrow sound of i in ' machine' with its wide sound in 'stt.') 

4. Tongue and lip positions for French vowels are more definite, 
and more promptly taken, than in English. Lip-rounding (as in 
'who,' 'no,' 'law') and lip-retraction (as in 'let,' 'hat') are much 
more definite and energetic in forming French vowels. 

5. The tongue, both for vowels and consonants, is, in general, 
either further advanced or further retracted than in forming English 
sounds requiring tongue action. 

6. English long vowels (like a in *lody') shade off into other vowels 
(especially in the South of England), while all French vowels are free 
from this off-glide, and are uniform throughout their utterance. 

7. The nasal vowels of French are foreign to standard English. 
They are formed by allowing the soft palate to hang freely, as in ordi- 
nary breathing, thus causing the air to escape through both nose and 
mouth at once. If, for example, the a of 'father' be uttered with the 




soft palate hanging freely, the resulting sound will be approximately 
that of the nasal [a] in tante [td:t]. The position of the soft palate 
in forming this sound may be readily observed with a mirror. It 
must be carefully noted that there is absolutely no sound of n, m, or 
ng, in French nasal vowels, and hence that great care must be taken 
neither to raise the tongue nor close the lips until the sound is complete, 

2. Sounds. The French language has thirty-seven sounds, 
exclusive of minor distinctions. French spelling, Hke that 
of English, is irregular and inconsistent. Hence, to avoid 
confusion in indicating the pronunciation, we shall employ 
a phonetic alphabet (that of the Association Phonetique 
Internationale), in which each sound is represented by its 
own symbol, and each symbol has but one sound. 

3. Table of Sjrmbols. In the following table, the ex- 
amples are in ordinary orthography, the heavy type indi- 
cates the sounds which correspond to the symbols, and the 
phonetic transcription is given within brackets: 





ni, vive [ni, vi:v] 



pu, muse [py, my:z] 



ete [ete] 


creux, creuse Pcr0, kr0:z] 



le [l9] 



pres, pere [pre, pt'.T] 



fin, prince [fe, pre:s] 



neuf, neuve [ncef, noeiv] 



im, humble [de, de:bl] 



patte, part [pat, pa:r] 



pas, passe [pa, pais] 



tant, tante [ta, ta:t] 


note, tort [not, ta:r] 



rond, ronde [r5, r3:d]] 


sot, chose [so, So:z] 



tout, tour [tu, tuir] 



viande [vjaid] 



lui [Iqi] 



oui [wi] 


beau, robe [bo, rob] 
dame, fade [dam, fad] 
fort, neuf [fo:r, noef] 
gant, dogue [ga, dog] 
aha! [a(h)a] 
car, roc [kar, rok] 
long, seul [l3, soel] 
mot, dame [mo, dam] 
ni, &ne [ni, a:n] 
agneau, digne [ajio, diji] 
pas, tape [pa, tap] 
drap, par [dra, par] 
si, pense [si, pais] 
chou, lache [^u, laiS] 
tas, patte [ta, pat] 
vin, cave [ve, kaiv] 
zone, rose [zoin, roiz] 
je, rouge [sa, ruis] 
sign of length 


4. The Alphabet. The letters of the alphabet, with their 
French names, are as follows: 




ji [3i] 


esse [csj 










eUe [el] 




d6 [de] 


emme [em] 


v6 Qve] 




enne Qen] 


double v^ [dublavej 


effe [eQ 




iks [iks] 






i grec [i grek] 


ache [aS] 




t^e [zedj 




erre [er] 

Note. — These names are often all treated as mascuhnes (un a, on h, 
etc.)f hut some treat f, h, 1, m, n, r, s, as feminines (une h, one r, etc.)< 

6. Other Orthographic Signs. In addition to the letters 
of the alphabet, the following signs are used: 

1. The acute accent ' Fr. accent aigu [aksategy], e.g., I'fiti, 
I'Ecosse. Note. — The word 'accent' doos not denote stress; see §7. 

2. The grave accent ^ Fr. accent grave Cak8dgra:v3, e.g., voili, 
pdre, o^ 

3. The circumflex accent * Fr. accent circonflexe [aksosirkSfleks], 
e.g., Ane, tdte, ile, hdte, flfite. 

4. The cedilla ^ Fr. c6dille [sediij], used under c to give it the 
sound of [s], before a, o, u (§17, 13), e.g., facade, le^on, commenfait. 

5. The diaeresis " Fr. trSma [trema], shows that the vowel bearing 
it is divided in pronunciation from the preceding vowel, e.g., NoSl, 

6. The apostrophe ' Fr. apostrophe ([apastror], shows omission of 
final vowel before initial vowel sound, e.g., I'amie (= la amie), I'ami 
(= le ami), I'homme (= le homme), s'il (= si fl), § 19. 

7. The hyphen - Fr. trait d'union [tredynjs], used as in En^ish. 

6. Syllabication. 

1. A single consonant sound between vowel sounds, including the 
four nasalized vowels, alwaj-s belongs to the following syllable. 

Ex.: Ma-rie, in-di-vi-si-bi-li-te, bon-t^, con-scien-cicu-s(e)-mont. 

2. When the second of two consonant sounds is I or r, both usually 
belong to the following syllable, except Ir, rl and a few more. 

Ex.: ta-bleau, 6-cri-vain, ap-frii-quer. 


3. other combinations of consonants representing two or more 
sounds are divided. 

Ex.: par-ler, per-dre, es-ca-lier, sep-tem-bre. 

N.B. — Great care should be taken to avoid the consonantal end- 
ing of syllables, so frequent in English. Compare French ci-te, ta-bleau* 
with English ' ci<-y/ ' taWeau.' 

Parallel rules hold in script and print where division occurs. 

7. Stress. 

'Stress' is the force with which a syllable is uttered as compared 
with other syllables in the same group. In French, the syllables are 
uttered with almost equal force, a very sUght stress falling on the last 
syllable of a word of two or more syllables, or, on the last but one, if 
the last vowel of the word is [a]. 

Ex.: Che-val, par-ler, par-lai, per-dre, cr6-di-bi-li-te (compare the 
strong stress of English 'cred-i-6iMt-y'). 

Note. — In connected discourse the rule above stated varies consider- 
ably, but a full treatment of the subject would exceed the limits of an ele- 
mentary work. The safest practice for the beginner is to pronounce all 
syllables with almost equal force. All vowels except [a], see § 19, whether 
stressed or unstressed, are carefully sounded and not slurred over as in 

8. Vowel Qixantity. The most important general rules are: 

1. Final vowel sounds (including nasals) are usually short, e.g., 
fxni [fini], vie [vi], loue [lu], parle [parle], rideau [rido], mais [me], 
donner [done], enfant [afa], parlerons [parl(a)r5]. 

2. Stressed vowels are long before the sounds [v], [z], Qs], [j], 
[r final], e.g., rive [ri:v], ruse [ryiz], rouge [ruis], femlle [fce:j], 
faire [feir]. 

3. Of stressed vowels standing before other consonant sounds, 
nasals are long, e.g., prince [pre:s]; [o], [0], long, e.g., faute [fo:t], 
meule [m0:l]; [a], long (almost always), e.g., passe [pais]; [e], long 
or short, e.g., reine [rem], renne [ren]; other vowels regularly short, 
e.g., cap [kap], poche [poS], coupe [kup], pipe [pip], seul [soel], 
lune [lyn]. 

Note. — It is possible to distinguish also between 'long' and 'half 
long' vowels, but it has been thought best to omit, in an elementary work, 
the rules relating to this distinction, and to indicate only 'long' vowels in 
the transcriptions. 



9. Tongue Position. The relative position of the tongue 
for the various vowels may be seen from the following dia- 
gram. Rounded vowels are enclosed in parentheses: 

greatest— > *— least ' 

i (y) (u) 

e (0) (o) 

e £ (oe) (<S) (o) (3) 

a a 
least—* *— greatest . 

N.B. — In the following descriptions of sounds, the word 
'like' means, of course, only 'resembling,' or 'approximately 
like' (§1). The examples given after the word 'also' show 
the less common orthographical equivalents. 

10. i,y 

1. i — Like i in 'machine'; the comers of the mouth are slightly 
drawn back (§1, 4); avoid the sound of i in 'sit'; avoid 'off-^de' 
(§ 1, 6); narrow (§ 1, 3). 

Ex.: ni [ni], vive [vi:v]; also, lie [i:ll lyre [Ti:r]. 

2. y — Has no counterpart in English. The tongue position is 
practically the same as for [i] above; very tense lip-rounding (§ 1, 4); 
narrow (§ 1, 3). The sound may be best acquired either by prolonging 
Q], and at the same time effecting the rounding, or by holding the Ups 
roimded and taking the tongue position of [i]. 

Ex.: pu [py], muse [myiz]; also fftt [fyl il eut [il y], nous elimes 
[nuzym], j'ai eu [se y]. 

11. e, 0, 9 

1. e — Like the first part of the sound of a in *doy,' but with the 
lips more retracted (§ 1, 4); avoid 'off-glide' (§ 1, 6); narrow (§1, 3). 
Ex.: 6t6 [ete]; also, parlor [parle], donnai [done]. 

6 A FRENCH GRAMMAB §§ 12-13 

2. — Has no counterpart in English. The tongue position is prac- 
tically the same as for [e], with rounding of the lips for o (§ 1, 4); 
narrow (§1, 3); best acquired by combining, as explained for [y] 
above, the lip-rounding with the [e] position. 

Ex.: weux Ckr0], creuse [kr0!z]; also, boeufs [b0], yeux (j0]. 

3. a — Like English e in 'the man,' or a in 'Louisa,' but slightly 
rounded; best acquired by relaxing the tension of the organs required 
for the production of the [0] sound. 

Ex.: le [b], premier [pramje]; also, monsieur [m8sj0], faisant 

12. e, g, oe, CB 

1. e — Like the sound of e in 'let,' with the mouth more definitely 
open and the lips more retracted (§ 1, 4); narrow (§ 1, 3). 

Ex.: prds [pre], pere [pe:r]; also, fete [fe:t], terre Ctesr], secret 
[sakre], parlais [parle], paix [pe], reine [rem]. 

Note. — The e of a stressed syllable followed by a syllable con- 
taining e mute has almost always this sound (orthographically denoted 
by d, §, or e + double consonant), e.g., je mdne ([men], tdte Cte:t2, 
ch6re [Seir], j'appelle [apel], ancienne [cisjen]. This principle ac- 
counts for the apparent irregularities of certain verbs and adjectives. 

2. g — The [e] soimd nasalized (§1, 7), but slightly more open. 
Ex.: fin [fe], prince Cpre:s]; also, faim [fe], sainte [seit], Reims 

[rgis], plein [pie], simple [se:pl], symbole [sebol], syntaxe [sgtaks], 
viendrai [vjedre], soin [swe]. 

3. oe — Has no counterpart in English. It has practically the 
tongue position of [s], combined with definite rounding of the lips for 
[a]; narrow (§1, 3); best acquired by combining, with the [e] posi- 
tion, the roimding described. 

Ex.: neuf [noef], neuve [nceiv]; also, cceur Pcoe:r], ceil [oeij], 
orgueil [orgoeij]. 

4. oe — The [ce] sound nasalized (§1, 7), but sUghtly more open. 
Ex.: tin [de], htunble [de:bl]; also, a jeun [asde], parftim [parfcfe]. 

13. a, a, a 

1. a — This sound is similar to but requires wider mouth opening 
than a of 'pat,' and lowering of the tongue, though with the point still 


touching the lower teeth; narrow (§ 1, 3). It is generally short, 
resembling English 'madam.' 

Ex.: patte [pat], part Cpa:r]; also, li [hi], femme [fam], moi 
[mwa], boite Q)wa:t]; and, by exception, parlAmes [parlaml parlAtes 
[parlatl parlAt [parla]. 

2. a — Like a in 'father'; the mouth well of)en, the tongue lying 
flat, and so far retracted that it no longer touches the lower teeth; 
lips absolutely neutral, i.e., neither rounded nor retracted; avoid 
especially rounding, as of a in 'fall.' 

Ex.: pas [pa], passe [pars]; also, p4te [pa:tl rot [rwo], po*le 

3. a — The [a] sound nasalized (5 1, 7). (Written an, am, en, em.) 

Ex.: tant [ta], tante [td:t]; also, Ijunpe Qfirp], enfant [flifa], 
entre [a:tr], membre [mdrbr]. 

14. 3, 3, o 

1. — Like the vowel in 'lair,' but with definite bell-like rounding 
(§ 1, 4), avoid 'off-glide' to u (§ 1, 6); narrow (§ 1, 3). 

Ex.: note [not], tort [torr]; also Paul [pol], album [albom]. 

2. 3 — The [a] sound nasalized (§1, 7), but slightly more close. 
Ex.: rond [r5], ronde [r3:d]; also tomber [tsbe], comte [k3:t]. 

3. o — Like o in 'omen,' but with more protrusion and much tenser 
rounding of the Ups (§1, 4); avoid 'off-glide' to u (§ 1, 6); narrow 
(§ 1, 3). 

Ex.: sot [so], chose [So:z], fosse [fo:s]; also, cdt^ [kote], cAte 
[koit], faute [fo:t], beaut6 [borte]. 

15. u 

1. n — Like oo in 'pool' but with more protrusion and much tenser 
roimding of the Ups (§1, 4); avoid 'off-gUde' to w (§1, 6); narrow 
(§ 1, 3). 

Ex.: tout [tu], tour [tu:r]; also, goftt [gu], ao(it [uj 

s a french grammar §§ 16-17 


16. j, II, w 

When the sounds [i], Ly]> Qu], § 10 and § 15, come before a vowel 
of stronger stress, they are pronounced with the tongue sUghtly closer 
to the palate, and hence assume a consonantal value, indicated by 
\j2, [q], [w], respectively. They are sometimes called semi-vowels. 

1. j — Like very brief and narrow y in 'yes.' 

Ex.: viande [vjaid]; also, yeux [j03, aieul [ajoel], fille [fi:]], 
travailler [travaje], travail [travaj], the last three being examples 
of I mouillee. 

2. q — Has no counterpart in English, but is similar to a w pro- 
noimced with the tongue pressed close to the lower teeth; may also 
be acquired by at first substituting [y] for it, and afterward increasing 
the speed of the utterance and the elevation of the tongue until it can 
be pronounced in the same syllable with the vowel which always follows. 

Ex.: lui DqiDj huit [tjit]; also, nuage [nqais], ^cuelle [ekqel]. 

3. w — Like very brief and narrow w in 'we/ 'west.' It is best, 
however, to proceed from the sound of [u] in the manner described 
for [q] above. 

Ex.: oui [wi]; also, poids [pwa], tramway [tramwe]. 

17. The remaining consonantal sounds can be sufficiently 
described by noting the differences between their mode of 
formation and that of the nearest English sounds (see § 1). 

1. b — Like b in '6ar&.' 

Ex.: beau [bo], robe [rob], abb^ [abe]. 

2. d — Like d in 'did,' but with the tongue so far advanced that 
its point, or upper surface, forms a closure with the inner surface of 
the upper teeth and gums; or the point of the tongue may be thrust 
against the lower teeth, the upper surface forming a closure with the 
upper teeth and gums. It must be remembered that in forming English 
d (also 1, n, r, s, t, z) the tongue touches at some little distance above 
the teeth (§1, 5). 

Ex.: dame [dam], fade [fad], addition [axiisjS]. 

3. f — Like f in '/at.' 

Ex.: fort [fo:r], neuf [nccf], difficile [difisil]. 


4. g — Like g in 'go.' 

Ex.: gant [gd], dogue [dogl guerre [g£:r]; also, second [sag 5]. 

5. h — In orthography the letter h is known as 'h mute' (Fr. h 
muet or h muette), or 'h aspirate' (Fr. h aspire or h aspiree), according 
as it does, or does not, cause elision (§19). ITie learner may r^ard it, 
in either case, as absolutely silent. 

Ex.: h mute in I'homme [bm], iliistoire [listwairl ITi^roIne 
Deroin]; h aspirate in le h^ros [la ero], le hetre [la e:trl la haine 
[la e:n], la hAte [la ait], je hais [sa e]. 

In hiatus, however, a sound resembling, but much weaker than h 
in */iat,' is permissible, and is actually used by many Frenchmen. 
Ex.: aha! [aha], leh^roe [la hero], fldau [fleho]. 

6. k — Like k in 'taifce'; avoid the slight aspiration which generally 
follows the English sound. 

Ex.: car [kar], roc [rjk], accorder [akarde]; also, Chretien [kretj€]» 
cinq [sc:k], bouquet [buke], acqudrir [akeri:r], kilo [kilo], mazime 

7. 1 — Like 1 in 'l&w,' but with the tongue advanced as for [d] 

Ex.: long D3], seul [soel], aller [ale], mille [mil], village [vilats]. 
For soft I see § 16, 1. 

8. m — Like m in 'man,' 'dumb.' 

Ex.: mot [mo], dame [dam], honune [am]. 

9. n — Like n in 'not,' 'man,' but with the tongue advanced as 
for [d] above. 

Ex.: ni [ni], &ne [a:n], donner [done]. 

10. ji — Somewhat like ny in *ban-yan,' except that [p] is a single, 
not a double, sound, and is formed by pressing the middle of the tongue 
against the hard palate, the tip being usually thrust against the lower 

Ex.: agneau [ajw], digne [diji]. 

11. p — Like p in 'pan,' 'top'; avoid the slight aspiration which 
generally follows the English sound. 

Ex.: paa [pa], tape [tap], appUqtier [aplike]. 


12. r — Has no English counterpart. It is formed by trilling the 
tip of the tongue against the upper gums, or even against the upper 
teeth. This r is called in French r linguale. The tongue must, of 
course, be well advanced towards the teeth, and not retracted and 
turned upward, as in our r sound (§1, 5). The sound may be advan- 
tageously practised at first in combination with d, e.g., 'dry,' 'drip,' 
'drop,' 'drum' (as in Scotch or Irish dialect), and afterwards in com- 
binations in which it is less easily pronounced. 

Ex.: drap [dra], par [par], torrent [tora], rond [r3]. 

Note. — Another r sound (called in French r uvulaire), used especially 
in Paris and in the large cities and towns, is formed by withdrawing and 
elevating the root of the tongue so as to cause a trilling of the uvula. This 
r is usually more difficult for English-speaking people to acquire. 

13. s — Like s in 'sea,' 'cease,' but with the tongue advanced as for 
[d] above. 

Ex.: si [si], pense [pa:s], casser [ka:se]; also scene [sein], place 
[plas], fafade [fasad], legon [lasS], regu [rasy], commenfait [komoss], 
commenfons [komasS], reftimes [rasyin], portion [porsjS], soixante 

14. S — Like sh in 's/ioe,' but with the tongue more advanced 

Ex.: chou [Su], Idche Da:S], also, schisme [Sism]. 

15. t — Like t in 'iall,' but with the tongue advanced as for [d] 
above; avoid the slight aspiration which generally follows the English 

Ex.: tas [ta], patte [pat]. 

16. V — Like v in '»ine,' 'cawe.' 

Ex.: vin [ve], cave [ka:v]; also, wagon [vago], neuf heures [ncev 

17. z — Like z in 'zone,' or s in ' rose,' but with the tongue advanced 
as for [d] above. 

Ex.: zone [zo:n], rose [ro:z]; also, deux heures [d0zoe:r], exact 

18. 3 — Like z in 'azure' or s in 'pleasure,' but with the tongue 
more advanced (§ 1, 5). 

Ex.: je [38], rouge [mis]; also mangeant [mdsal Jean [3a]. 


19. A douUed consonant has usually the same sound as a single 
consonant, e.g., aller [ale], ville [vil], tranqiiille [trdkil], donner 
[done], terre [t£:r]. Exceptions are, however: 

(1) The liquid 1, Fr. I mouillSe [muje], i.e., double 1 after i \j] 
(§ 16, 1), e.g., fiUe [fi:j], biUet [bije], bataille [bata:j], veiUer [veje], 
feuille [fceij]. 

N.B. — Note also that Uquid 1 may be spelled -ail, etc., e.g., travail 
[trava:j], soleil [sokij], etc. 

(2) The verb forms acquerrai [akerre], courrai [kurre], mourrai 

(3) The doubled consonant in such words as illegal, intellectuel, 
intelligence, litterature, connexe, immoral, etc., is pronounced double, 
i.e., given double its usual length, by many people. But foreigners be- 
ginning French may neglect this manner, regarded by many as an 

18. Liaison. Final consonants are iisuaDy silent, but in 
oral speech, within a group of words closely connected 
logically, a final consonant (whether usually sounded or not) 
is regularly sounded, and forms a syllable with the initial 
vowel sound of the next word. This is called in French 
liaison [IjezS] = linking, joining. 

Ex. : C'est^un petit^omme [se-toe-pa-ti-tom]. 

1, A few of the consonants change their sound in liaison, thus, 
final s or x = z, d = t, g = k, f = v, e.g., nos^_,ami8 [no-za-mi], 
quand^on parle [kd-t3-parl]; the t of et is silent; for examples see 
Exercise in Phonetic Transcription. 

2. The n of a nasal is carried on, and the nasal vowel loses its nasal- 
ity in part, or even wholly, e.g., un bon^ami [de-bS-na-mi, or de-bo-na- 

19. Elision. The letters a, e, i, are entirely silent in cer- 
tain cases: 

1. The a and e are silent and replaced by apostrophe in le, la, je, 
me, te, se, de, ne, que (and some of its compounds) before initial vowel 
or h mute (not, however, je, ce, le, la after a verb); so also i of si be- 
fore il(s). 

Ex.: L'arbre (= le arbre), I'encre (= laencre), j'ai (= jeai), qu'a-t-ii 
(= que a-t-il), jusqu*^ (= jusque h), s'U (= si il). 

12 A FRENCH GRAMMAR §§ 20-21 

2. In prose the letter e is silent at the end of all words (except when 
e is itself the only vowel in the word), silent in the verbal endings 
-es, -ent, silent within words after a vowel sound, and in the combina- 
tion ge or je [s]. In verbs which have stem g [3], g becomes ge [3] 
before a or o of an ending, to preserve the [3] sound. 

Ex.: rue [ry], donnee [done], rare [ra:r], place [plas], ai-je [eis], 
table [tabl], sabre [sa:br], prendre [praidr], tu paries [typarl], ils 
parlent [ilparl], gaiete [gete], mangeons [ma333, Jean [5a]. 

Note. — In ordinary discourse, this sound is usually slighted or wholly 
omitted in most cases in which consonantal combinations produced by its 
weakening or elision can be readily pronounced, but beginners will do well 
to sound it fully, except in the cases above specified. The treatment of the 
[a] in verse is beyond the scope of this work. 

20. Punctuation. The same punctuation marks are used 
in French as in English, but not with identical values. 

1. Their French names are: 

• point - trait d'union [ ] crochets 

, virgule — tiret, m tiret de f . , 

; point et virgule separation \ 

: dexiz points . . . points suspensifs * asterisque 

? point d'interrogation " " giullemets f croix de renvoi 

! point d'exclamation ( ) parenthese 

2. They are not used exactly as in English, especially the colon and 
the dash, the latter being very useful in showing a change of speaker 
in dialogue. 

Ex.: « Qui est 1^? dis-je. — Personne. — Quoi ! persoime ! — Per- 
sonne, dit-il. » 

21. Capitals. Some of the differences between French 
and English in the use of capital letters (Fr. lettres ma- 
juscules, capitales) may be seen from the following examples: 

Un Uvre canadien 6crit en fran9ais par un Canadien. Toronto, 
le lundi 3 Janvier. Je lui ai dit ce que je pensais. 


[The sign (:) in unstressed syllables indicates 'half long.'] 

Tu aimeras le Seigneur ton Dieu de tout ton cceur, de toute 
ty eimra 1 sqicezr t5 dj0 d tu t5 koeir, da tut 


ton &me, de toute ta force, et de toute ta pens6e; et ton 
t5n a:m, da tut ta fors, e d tut ta pa:se; e t3 

prochaiu comme toi-m6me . . . 
pra^g kam twa me'.m . . . 

Un homme descendait de Jerusalem h Jericho; et il est 
oen om desa:de d seryzalcm a seriko; e il e 

tomb6 parmi des brigands, qui I'ont d6pouill6, ils I'ont charg6 
t3:be parmi de briga, ki 1 5 depuje, i 1 5 Sarse 

de coups, et ils sont partis, en le laissant h moiti6 mort. Et 
d ku, e i 85 parti, a I k'sa a mwatje m3:r. e 

par hasard un pr^tre descendait par ce chemin-1^, et en le 
par aza:r 6b prettra desaide par sa Si^S la, e a I 

voyant, il a pass6 outre. De m6me aussi un Invite, arriv^ 
vwaja, il a pa:se utr. dd me:m otsi cc levit, ari:ve 

dans cet endroit, il est venu, et en le voyant, il a pass^ outre, 
da at d'drwa, il e vny, e a 1 vwa.ja, il a pase utr. 

Mais un Samaritain, qui voyageait, est venu li, et en le voyant, 
me ce samaritf, ki vwajase, e vny la, e Q 1 vwajd, 

il a 6t4 ^mu de piti^; et il s'est approch^ pour bander see 
il a ete emy d pitje; e il s et apraSe pur bd:de se 

blessures, en y versant de I'huile et du vin; puis il I'a mis sur 
blesyir, an i versa da 1 qil e dy v2; pqi i la mi syr 

sa propre bete pour le conduire h une auberge, et il a pris soin 
sa propra be:t pur la k5:dqi:r a yn obers, e il a pri swg 

de lui. Et le lendemain il a tir6 deux deniers, et il les a 
d Iqi. e 1 la:dme il a ti:re d0 danje, e il lez a 

donnas k I'aubergiste, en disant, * prends soin de lui, et ce que 
dDne a 1 obcrsist, a diizfi, pro swg de Iqi, e s ka 

tu d^penseras de plus, moi je te le rendrai h mon retour.* 
ty depasra d plys, mwa 3 ta 1 ra:dre a m3 rtuir. 

— Reprinted by kind permission of M. Paul Passy, from his Ver- 
sion populaire de Vtlvangile de Luc en transcription phonetique. Note, 
however, that in pronouncing ils the 1 may be sounded. 




Qu*est-ce que c'est que cela? 

[keskasekasla'Q What is that? 

C'est un (une) . . . [s£tce(yn)] It 
is a. . . 

Que veut dire (Que signifie) cela? 
[k8v0di:r (kasijiifi) sala?] What 
does that mean? 

Comment dit-on en fran^ais (en 
anglais)? [komfiditS afrase 
(finagle)?] How do you say. in 
French (in English)? 

On dit — en francs [3di — 
afrase] You (People) say — 
in French. 

Commencez . . . Prononcez . . . 
Ecrivez . . . Pcomase . . . pron5se 
. . . ekrive . . .] Begin . . . Pro- 
nounce . . . Write . . . 

Comment ecrivez-vous? Com- 
ment ecrit-on? Pcomate- 
krivevii? komatekritS?] How 
do you (people) write (spell) . . .? 

Comment? Plait-il? Vous dites? 
[koma? pktil? vudit?] What 
did you say? 

Merci bien. Merci mille fois. 
[mersibjg. mersi milfwa.] 
Thank you very much (a thou- 
sand times). 

n nV a pas de quoi. [ilnjapadkwa] 
De rien. [darje] You are wel- 
come. Don't mention it. 

Voulez-vous bien . . .? [vulevnbjg 
...?] Will you...? 

Quelle le^on avons-nous aujour- 
d'hui? [kellasD avSnu ojuirdqi?] 
What lesson have we to-day? 

A quelle page (legon) en sommes- 
nous? [akelpais (lasS) asomnu?] 
What page (lesson) are we on? 

Au haut, au milieu, au bas de la 
page, [o o, omilj0, obadlapais] 
At the top, middle, bottom of 
the page. 

Commencez. Continuez. Celasuf- 
fit. Qkomase. kotinqe. sala 
syfi] Begin. Continue. That 
will do. 

Le suivant. La suivante. [lasqiva. 
la sqivfist] Next (boy, girl). 

Lisez la phrase suivante, s'il vous 

Read the next sentence, please. 

Prononcez distinctement toutes 
les syllabes. [pronDse disteikta- 
ma tutlesilab] Pronounce all 
the syllables distinctly. 

Comprenez-vous? fkopranevu?] 
Do you understand? 

Je comprends. Je ne comprends 
pas. [39k5pra. sankoprapa] I 
understand, I do not understand. 

Comprenez-vous ce que j'ai dit? 
ce que vous avez lu? fkSprgnevu 
skasedi? skavuzavely?] Do 
you understand what I said? 
what you read? 



Traduisez le passage que vous 
avez lu. [tradqize bposats 
kavuzavelyj Translate the pas- 
sage that you have read. 

C'est tres bien fait, Robert. 
Felicitations ! [setrebjefe, robeir. 
felisitosJD!] Well done, Robert. 

Expliquez. Repondez en francs, 
en anglais. Ceksplrke. rep3de 
dfrase, anagk] Explain. An- 
swer in French, in English. 

Faites attention. Je vous prie de 
faire attention. [fetzatosjS. 
savupridafeiratosjo] Pay atten- 
tion. I beg you to pay atten- 

Allez au tableau. £crivez la 
phrase au tableau, [alezotablo. 
ekrivelafra:zotablo] Go to the 
board. Write the sentence on 
the board. 

Quelle est la faute? Quelles sont 
les fautes? [kd c la fo:t? kels^le 
fo:t?] What is (are) the mis- 

Quel changement faut-il faire? 
[kelSa:3ma fotilfeir?] What 
chan^ must be made? 

Maintenant c'est bien (c'est 5a). 
Ce n'est pas bien de dire . . .; 
il ne faut pas dire ; on ne devrait 
pas dire; on ne dit pas . . . 
[metna scbjg, 8£ sa. sanepa- 
bjedadin:; il na fo pa di:r; 3n- 
davTE pa di:r; 3ndipa] It (thai) 
is right now, (that's it). It 
(that) is not right to say . . . 

Vous avez raison. Vous avez tort. 
[vuzaverczS. vuzaveto:rJ You 
arc right (wrong). 

Conunencez k la page — . £tudiez 

jusqu'i la page — . Pcamose 

alapa:3 — . etydjc syskala 

pa: 3 — D Begin on page — . 

Study as far as page — . 
Est-ce clair? C'est clair, n'est-ce 

pas? [eskleir? sekleir nespa?3 Is 

that clear? That is clear, isn't 

Savez-vous? Je ne sais pas. 

Qsavevu? 3dnsepaJ Do you 

know? I do not know. 
IToubliez pas. Avez-vous oubli6? 

[nubli jepa . avcvuzubU je ?3Don' t 

forget. Have you forgotten? 
Dites-moL Rep^tez. Qditmwa. 

repete] Tell me. Repeat. 
Qu'avez-vous? Je n'ai rien. 

Pcavevu? sanerje] What is 

the matter with you? Nothing. 
Qu'y a-t-il de nouveau? [kjntilda- 

nuvo?] What is the news? 
J'en suis bien content (fftch6). 

[sosqibjekjtd (faje)] I am very 

glad (sorry) about it. 
Je pense (crois) que oui (non). 

[33 pais (krwa) k8wi(n3)] I 

think so (not). 
C'est dommage. Tant mieux. 

Tant pis. [scdomais. tdmj*. 

tfipi] It's a pit}'. So much the 

better. So much the worse. 
Ce n'est pas la peine de . . . [sane- 

palapendal It isn't worth while 

to . . . 
Je ne suis pas d'accord avec vous 

[sansqipadakotr aVekvu] I do 

not agree with you. 
Ni moi (lui, elle) non plus, [nimwa 

(Iqi, el) n5ply] I (he, she) 




y a-t-il quelque chose k corriger? 
[jatilkelkaSoiz akorise?] Is there 
anything to correct? 

D faut ajouter. [ilfotasutej You 
must add. 

Asseyez-vous. [asejevu] Sit down. 

iScoutez bien. Je vais vous in- 
diquer la lefon pour demain. 

[ekutebje. savevuzedike lals5 
pu'.rdamej Listen attentively. 

I am going to assign the lesson 
for to-morrow. 
Preparez pour demain. [prepare 
puirdamej Prepare for to- 

Bon jour, mesdames (messieurs). 
C'est fini. A demain. [b53u:r 
medam (mesj0). ss fini. adms] 
Good-by, Ladies, (Gentlemen). 
Class is over. I shall see you 

f La DERNiiiRB Classe » 

d'AlpboDse Daudet 



22. Definite Article. 1. The definite article has the 
following forms in the singular: 

ile Cla], before a masculine noun beginning with a consonant, 
la [la], before a feminine noun beginning with a consonant. 
I' P], before any noun beginning with a vowel or h mute. 

Le pere, la mSre. The father, the mother. 

L'enfant (m. or/.), /'homme. The child, the man. 

2. The definite article must be repeated before each noun 
to which it refers: 
L'oncle et la tante. The uncle and (the) aunt. 

23. Gender. 1. All French nouns are either masculine 
or feminine: 

Le papier (w.), la plume (/.). The paper, the pen. 

2. Names of male beings are masculine, and names of 
female beings feminine, as in English. 

24. Case. French nouns have no case endings. The 
direct object {accusative) is expressed by verb + noun; the 
indirect object (dative) by the proposition a + noun; the 
possessive (genitive) by de + noun, and these prepositions 
must be repeated before each noun to which they refer: 

La mSre aime Venfant. The mother loves the child. 

J'ai la plimie de Robert. I have Robert's pen (the pen of 

Je doime I'argent a Marie et d I give the money to Mary and (to) 
Jean. John. 



25. Agreements. French has the following agreements, 
and they are usually expressed by change of form: (1) Verb 
and subject, in number and person; (2) adjective and noun, 
in gender and number; (3) pronoun and antecedent, in 
gender and number. 


bonjour 1 [bosuir] good day ! j'ai [se] I have 

I'argent m. [larsa] money j'aime [seim] I love, like 

Tenfant m.,/. [lafa] child; Marie aime [mariem] Mary likes, 

boy, giri loves 

rhomme [bm] man je donne [sadon] I give 

le livre [liivr] book Jean donne [sadon] John gives 

la mere [ms:r] mother est [e] is 

I'oncle [ISikl] uncle fennez ! [ferme] close ! 

le papier [papje] paper montrez-moi ! [motremwa] 

le pere [psir] father show me ! 

la plume [plym] pen ouvrez ! [uvre] open ! 

la porte [port] door voici [vwasi] here is (are) 

la table [tabl] table voiia [vwala] there is (are) 
la tante [tait] aimt 

Jean [3a] John oft? [u] where? 

Louise [lwi:z3 Louise & [a] to, at, in 

Marie [man] Mary de [da] of, from 

Robert [robeir] Robert sur [syr] on 
et [e] and 

A. 1. Bonjour! Bonjour, Robert! 2. Ou est le livre? 
3. Le livre est sur la table. 4. Ouvrez le hvre, Jean. 5. Fer- 
mez le livre, Marie. 6. Ouvrez la porte, Robert. 7. Fermez 
la porte, Jean. 8. Montrez-moi la porte, Marie. 9. Voil^ 
la porte. 10. Montrez-moi le papier, Marie. 11. Voil^ le 
papier sur la table. 12. Oii est la plume de Robert (§ 24, 
example 2) ? 13. Voil^ la plume de Robert sur la table. 14. Et 
oii est le papier de Marie? 15. Voici le papier de Marie sur 
la table. 16. L'enfant aime I'oncle Jean. 17. L'homme aime 
I'enfant. 18. L'oncle Jean aime l'enfant. 19. J'aime I'oncle 
Jean et tante * Marie. 20. Je donne la plume h I'oncle Robert. 

* LinkiDg will be indicated by ^^ in the reading passages of Lessons I-X. 

* Note the idiomatic omission of the article before tante in 19 and 21. 

§25 LESSON I 19 

21. Je donne le papier k tante Marie. 22. L'homme & la 
porte est le p6re de Marie. 23. La m6re de Jean est la tante 
de Louise. 24. Le p^re de Jean donne le papier k Marie. 
25. La m^re de Marie donne le papier k Robert. 26. Oii est 
I'argent de Louise? 27. J'ai I'argent de Louise. 28. Montrez- 
moi I'argent de Robert. 29. Voil^ I'argent de Robert sur la 
table. 30. J'ai le livre de Louise. 31. Louise aime le livre. 
32. Je donne le livre k Louise. 33. Ou est le livre, Marie? 
34. Voil^ le livre, Louise. 

ExEEcisE IN Pronunciation 

(1) Read aloud the series: Q], [e], [e], [a], [a], [d], [o], 
[u] (see §§ 9-15). Write in phonetic characters all the words 
of the vocabulary in which any of these sounds occur. 

(2) Read aloud: [a], [yj, [5], [i] (see § 11, 3; § 10, 2; 
§ 14, 2; § 13, 3). Write in phonetic characters all the words 
of the vocabulary in which these sounds occur. 

(3) List the ways in which the following sounds in the vocabu- 
lary are spelled in the standard orthography: [i], [e], [ej, 
[a], [o], [u], [o], [y], [5], [a J. 

(4) What kind of vowels are [5] and [a]? Does the tongue 
go to the position for the letter n in the pronunciation of the 
spellings an, en, on (see §1,7)? Is this true in the word donne? 

(5) In Robert, papier, Marie, are the syllables divided as in 
English? What is the difference (see §6, 1, 3)? Is this dif- 
ference important? 

(6) What happens to the article when we write Phomme, 
Penfant (see § 19)? Is the article pronounced as a separate 
word or as a part of the following word? Write in phonetic 
characters: I'oncle, I'argent. 

(7) In le papier, I'enfant, ouvrez, fennez, on what syllable 
does the stress seem to fall (see § 7 and note) ? How does this 
differ from the English paper, infant, open f In which language 
is the syllable stress the stronger? Pronounce difficile 
[difisil], president [prezida], important [gporta], appartement 
Qacartama], Clemenceau [klemaso], and compare the syllable 
stress with the corresponding English words. 


(8) What two pronunciations does the spelling ai have in 
this vocabulary? Mention the words. 

(9) What ways are there of spelhng the sound [a]? 

(10) What is the pronunciation of the spelUng oi? of the 
spelling ou? 


26. Indefinite Article. It has the following forms, which 
must be repeated before each noun to which they refer: 

f un foe (n)l, before any masculine noun. 
A or an = ■' 

une [yn], before any feminine noun. 

Un livre et une plume. A book and (a) pen. 

Vn homme Qoenom], une ecole. A man, a school. 


le crayon [krejs] pencil il a [ila] he (it) has 

la fenetre [lafneitr] window elle a [ela] she (it) has 

madame [madam] Madam vous avez [vuzave] you have 

mademoiselle [madmwazel] avez-vous?[avevu]haveyou? 

Miss il ecrit [ilekri] he writes 

monsieur [m3sj0] sir, Mr. elle ecrit [elekri] she writes 

le morceau [morso] piece vous ecrivez [vuzekrive] you 

le mot C™o] word write 

le professeur [profescEir] teacher, ecrivez-vous [ekrivevu] are 

professor {used for both men you writing? do you write? 

and women) ecrivez ! [ekrive] write ! 
le tableau noir [tablonwair] black- 

non [nS] no 
oui [wi] yes; 

un [ce(n)] a, an; one avec [avek] with 

deux [d0] two derriere [derjeir] behind 

trois [trwa] three devant [dava] in front of, 

quatre [katr] four before 

A. 1. Bonjour, mes^enfants [mezafa] {lit., my children)] 
2. Bonjour, monsieur (madame, mademoiselle)! 3. O^ est la 
porta? 4. Voil^ la porte. 5. Voici une fenetre [ynfaneitrj. 
6. Voici une table. 7. Voil^ un tableau noir. 8. La table est de- 
vant le professeur; elle est devant le professeur. 9. Le tableau 

§ 26 LESSON 21 

noir est demure le professeur; il est demure le professeur. 
10. Le professeur 6crit sur le tableau noir. 11. II ^rit un 
mot, deux mots, trois mots, quatre mots Qkatramo].^ 12. Marie 
6crit sur un morceau de papier avec un crayon. 13. Robert 
^rit avec une plume. 14. II 6crit sur un morceau de papier. 
15. II 4crit le mot « derri^re ». 16. Marie 6crit le mot 
c devant ». 17. Marie, 6crivez le mot « bonjour ». — Oui, 
monsieur (madame, mademoiselle). 18. fieri vez-vous, Louise? 

— Non, monsieur. 19. ficrivez-vous sur le tableau noir, Jean? 

— Non, monsieur. 20. ficrivez-vous avec un crayon? — Oui, 
monsieur. 21. Sur un morceau de papier? — Oui, monsieur. 
22. Avez-vous^un crayon, Jean? 23. Oui, monsieur, j'ai un 
crayon et une plume. 24. Voili un livre. II est sur la 
table, devant le professeur. 25. Marie a un, deux, trois, 
quatre crayons [krej5]. 26. Voil^ une enfant. 27. EUe a 
deux, trois, quatre plumes [plym]. 28. Avec la plume elle 
6crit un, deux, trois, quatre mots. 

B. (1) Write the proper forms of: le, la, un, une, before 
tableau noir, professeur, mot, morceau, papier, fen6tre, crayon. 

(2) Make all reasonable combinations of: avec, devant, der- 
ri^re, sur, mth la plume, le crayon, le tableau noir, I'enfant, 
I'oncle, la fen^tre, Louise, le professeur. 

(3) Supply proper forms of * have ': 1. J un crayon. 

2. Vous un morceau de papier. 3. Elle deux 

plumes. 4. Robert trois tantes. 

Supply suitable form^ of ' write ': 5. le mot, Marie. 

6. vous, Jean? 7. Robert, le mot avec une plume. 

8. II trois mots avec le crayon. 9. Elle quatre 

mots avec la plume. 

C. Translate into French: 1. I have the book. 2. Have you a 
book, John? 3. Yes, sir, here is the book on the table. 4. Open 
the book, John, and show me the word "pen." 5. There is 
Robert's pencil. 6. Louise writes on the blackboard. 7. The 
blackboard is behind the teacher. 8. He writes on a piece of 
paper. 9. Marie, are you writing a word? 10. Yes, sir, she 
writes one, two, three, four words. 

* See § 19. note. 

22 a fkench grammar $26 

Exercise in Pronunciation 

(1) Pronounce: un livre, une table, une porte, une fenStre, 
un crayon, une plume, un pere, une mere, un^oncle, ime tante, 
un^enfant, un^omme. 

(2) Substitute for vm, ime, before each noun above, the proper 
form of le, la. How many cases of ehsion (see § 19) are there? 

(3) Why do we write phonetically and pronounce: depeir, 
but cenoikl, denom; oeliivr, but cenafa; lehivriBsyirlatabl, but 
3a etdenafa? What do we call this carrying over of a sound to 
the next word (see § 18) ? 

(4) Note in A the spelling mots, crayons, plumes, pronounced 
Cmo], CkrejS], [plym]. Does the addition of the -s in spelUng 
change the pronunciation? 

(5) Pronounce the last syllable of: fermez, ouvrez, ecrivez, 
avez. What is the ending of the second person of French verbs 
in spelUng? Make the phonetic symbol for this spelUng. 

(6) Pronounce [d0]. How must the Ups and the tip of the 
tongue be placed to make [0] (see §11,2)? It is very important 
to hold the tongue and Ups in the right position for this sound. 
Pronounce bleu [h\0], feu [f0], peu [p0]. How does position 
for this sound differ from that for words like le [la], de [da] 
(see § 11, 3), professeur [profesoeir] (see § 12, 3)? If we add 
these vowels to those found in Lesson I (Exercise in Pro- 
nunciation), how many does it give us thus far? 

(7) What new way of spelling the sound [o] in this vocabu- 

(8) Write and indicate by a hyphen the syllable division: 
tableau (see § 6, 2), devant, professeur, morceau, madame, 
Marie, avec, fenetre. 

(9) Write in phonetic characters and read aloud: un livre, 
une table, un pere, une mere, un homme, un enfant, une 
enfant, un oncle, une tante, une fenetre. How many cases of 
Hnking are there in these examples? 

(10) Observe by the phonetic transcription of monsieur that 
the spelling indicates the pronunciation only in part. From the 
pronunciation how would you expect the word to be spelled? 

§S 27-29 LE8SON m 23 


27. Some Possessives. Observe the following, and re- 
member that possessive adjectives must be repeated before 
each noun to which they refer (for pronunciation, see § 32). 

Mon (W4.) livre et ma (/.) plume. My book and (my) pen. 

Ton (rn.) livre et ta (/.) plimie. Thy (your) bookand (thy, your) pen. 

Son (rn.) livre et sa (/.) plume. His or her book and pen. 

Votre (m.) livre et votre (/.) pliune. Your book and (>our) pen. 

28. Negation. With verbs, not or no = ne .. . pas, with 
the verb placed between them, ne becoming n* before a 
vowel (§19, 1): 

Je n'ai pas, vous n'avez pas. I have not, you have not. 

29. Interrogation. In questions, the personal pronoun 
subject comes after the verb, as in English, and is joined to 
it by a hyphen, or by -t- if the verb ends in a vowel: 
Avez-vous? a-t-il? est-elle id? Have you? has he? is she here? 


le cahier pcaje] notebook, ex- 
ercise book 

la classe QdaisJ classroom, class 

la craie [kre] chalk 

le frftre [fre:r] brother 

la le^on [lalsj] lesson 

la maison [mez5] h«u9e; k la 
maison at home, at the 
merd [mersi] thanks, thank 

la place [plas] seat, place 

la sceur [sceirj sister 

que? [ka] what? 

allez! [ale] go! 
i'#cris [sekri] I write, am 
writing, do write 
vous ecrivez [ vuzekri ve] you write, 
are writing, do write 

U (eUe) 6crit Xfl(d)ekri] he (she) 
writes, is writing, does 
je suis [saeqi] I am 
vous §tes [vuzetj you are 

Stes-vous? [etvu] are you? 
vous faites [vuf etj you do, are 
faites-vous? [fetvu] are 
you doing? 

aussi [osi] also, too 
bien [bj€] well, comforta- 
comment [koma] how 
id [isi] here 

maintenant [mctna] now 
trSs [tre] very 

dans [da^ in, into 
ou [u3 or 


A. (1) 1. Bonjour, mes^enfants! 2. Bonjour, monsieur 
(madame, mademoiselle)! 3. Comment^allez-vous (are you)? 
4. Bien, merci. Et vous? 5. Tres bien, merci. 6. AUes^^ 
la porte, Jean. 7. Ouvrez la porte! 8. Fermez la porte! 
9. Merci. AUez^^ votre place. 10. Allez^a la fenetre, Louise. 
11. Merci. Allez^a votre place. 

(2) 1. Je ne suis pas^a la maison. 2. Je suis dans la classe. 
3. Mon professeur est dans la classe aussi. 4. J'6cris la 
legon dans mon cahier. 5. Mon fr^re 6crit sa legon dans son 
cahier. 6. Que faites-vous, Robert? 7. ficrivez-vous dans 
votre cahier? 8. Oui, monsieur (madame, mademoiselle), je 
suis^a ma place et j'^cris dans mon cahier. 9. Jean n'est pas^^ 
sa place maintenant. 10. II n'^crit pas dans son cahier. Ou 
est-:_^il? 11. II a un morceau de craie. 12. II 6crit sur le tableau 
noir. 13. Que faites-vous, Louise? 14. Je suis^a ma place. 
15. J'ai une plume, mais je n'^cris pas. 16. Avez-vous votre 
cahier? 17. Non, monsieur, je n'ai pas mon cahier dans la 
classe. 18. II n'est pas^ici. II esl^^^a la maison. 

B. (1) Use four possessive adjectives with each of the follow- 
ing nouns: crayon, plume, enfant, fr^re, soeur, oncle. 

(2) In what two ways may each of the following possessives 
be translated: sa m^re, son enfant, sa tante, son frdre? 

(3) What is, therefore, the difference between the agreement of 
the possessive adjective in French and in English as indicated by 
combinations like: 1. Marie a son crayon. 2. Robert a sa 
plume. 3. Louise a son papier. 4. Jean est-il devant sa 

(4) Change to negative (taking as model for the negative ques- 
tions: n'a-t-elle pas son crayon? ^hasn't she her pencil?^)'. 
1. Henri [ari] 6crit. 2. Louise a trois fr^res. 3. Vous avez 
quatre crayons. 4. Avez-vous deux freres? 5. Louise est 
la sceur de Robert. 6. Est-elle la tante de I'enfant? 7. Est-il 
votre professeur? 8. A-t-il le morceau de papier? 9. ficrit-il 
h. sa mdre? 10. AUez k la fenetre. 11. ficrivez-vous sur un 
morceau de papier? 12. Aime-t-elle son fr^re? 13. II aime 
sa sGeur. 

§29 LESSON III 25 

(5) Prepare complete sentences, some affirmative and som£ negc^ 
live, in answer to the following questions: 1. Ou etes-vous? 
2. Que faites-vous? 3. Jean est-il dans la classe maintenant? 
4. A-t-il sa plume? 5. Oil est-il maintenant? 6. A-t-il deux 
plumes? 7. ficrit-il dans son cahier ou sur le tableau noir? 
8. !ficrit-il avec son crayon ou avee un morceau de craie? 

C. Translate into French: 1. How are you, (my) boys? 2. Are 
you in your seat, Robert? 3. What are you doing? 4. Mary, 
are you writing your lesson? 5. Is John writing with a piece 
of chalk ? 6. Am I at home or in the classroom ? 7. Where 
is my brother now? 8. Is his sister here? 

Exercise in Pronunciation 

(1) Pronounce suis [sqi], being careful to project the lips 
tensely and hold the tongue tip well forward as for [y] and [i] 
(see § 16, 2). It is well to pronounce in succession [y-i], Cy~il 
and then try to combine them in one sound. This sound is 
not like that of oui [wi] (see § 16, 3), in which the lips and tongue 
are less tensely advanced. Practise with nuit [nqi], huit Cn'O. 
lui Qqi]. Contrast the sound of Louis Qwi] with that of 
lui [Iqi]. 

(2) Pronounce: soeur [soeir] (see § 12, 3), classe pdais] 
(see § 13, 2), maintenant [mgtna] (see § 12, 2). Note the 
difference in the sound value of the letter a in la, voilft, papier, 
mademoiselle, argent, allez, place, and in classe, pas. 

(3) What new way of spelling the sound [o] is there in this 
vocabulary? What sound has the spelling -ain in maintenant? 
-ien in bien? -ier final in papier, cahier? What new way of 
spelling the sound [e] have we in this vocabulary? We have 
had now three ways of spelling this sound: find an example of 

(4) All cases of linking are indicated in the sentences in 
part A of the Exercise given above. Which consonant sounds 
seem to be oftenest linked thus far? 

(5) Divide and pronounce by syllables: 6cris (see §6, 2), 
€crivez, maison, maintenant, aussi, ouvrez, fermez, cahief} 
papier, morceau, mademoiselle. 





30. Some Pronoun Objects. Him or it = le (m.), and 
heroTit = hi{f.) both becoming 1' before a vowel or h mute 
(§ 19, 1). They come next before the verb, or before voici 
and voila: 

Oa est la pliune? Je Pai. 
Oa est le livre? Le voici. 
OA est Marie? La voili. 

Where is the pen? I have it. 
Where is the book? Here it is. 
Where is Mary? There she is. 

Note. — Voici and Voiltl are derived from vols = see + ici = here and 
vols = see + 14 = there (literally, see here, see there), and, owing to theii 
verbal force, govern words directly like transitive verbs. 


un (une) apres-midi [denapremidi^ il 
afternoon j 

une ecole [ynekol] school 
uneleson [l9s5] de fran^ais, a je 
French lesson il 

la lettre [letr] letter 
un livre de frangais, a French 
book, a book for learning 
French je 

la main Cme] hand 

le matin [mate] morning il 

le monsieur [m9sj0] gentleman 
le soil [swa:r3 evening je 

anglais [agle] English . , 

frangais [frase] French 

j'etudie [etydi] I am studying, le 

do study 
il etudie [etydi] he is studying, 

je ferme [ferm] I am closing 

A. 1. Le matin je vais^^ I'^cole. 2. L'apr^s-midi je retourne 
h la maison. 3. Le soir je reste h la maison et j'etudie ma 
le^on de frangais. 4. — Que faites-vous le matin, Louise? 
6. — Je vais^^ I'^cole. 6. — Et Henri, que fait-il I'aprds- 

fait [fe] he does, is doing 

'ouvre [u!vr] I am opening, do 

reste [rest] I stay, am staying 

reste [rest] he stays, is stay- 

reste-t-U? [restatil] does he 
stay? is he staying? 

retourne [sartum] I go back, 

retourne [rstum] he goes 
back, returns 

vais [ve] I go, am going 

main, in my (his, her, your, 

our, their) hand 
matin (le soir, I'apres-midi), 

in the morning (evening, 

pardon! [pard5] I beg your 

pardon! Excuse me! 

$30 LESSON lY 27 

midi? 7. — II retourne k la maison. 8. — Reste-t-il k la 
maison le soir? 9. — Oui, il reste k la maison le soir et il 
6tudie sa legon d'anglais. 10. — Montrez-moi votre legon de 
franyais, Jeanne [3an]. 11. — La voici; j'ai la le9on quatre. 

12. — Et vous, Robert, vous n'avez pas votre livre de frangais. 

13. — Pardon, mademoiselle, je I'ai k la main; le voici. 

14. Mais je n'ai pas mon livre d'anglais; il est;_^ la maison. 

15. — Vous etes^^ votre place, Louise. 16. — Pardon, made> 
moiselle, je ne suis pas^^ ma place; Marie esti^ ma place. 

17. Je suis^^ la place de Jeanne et j'^cris dans son cahier. 

18. — Et Henri? 19. — Le voil^ k sa place demure Louise. 
20. II 4crit sa legon dans mon cahier avec sa plume. 

B. Substitute for each direct object the proper prorumn: 1. Je 
ne ferme pas la porte. 2. J'ouvre la porte. 3. Je ferme la 
porte. 4. J'6cris la lettre maintenant. 5. Je ne donne pas 
le morceau de craie k Louise. 6. J'ai la plume k la main. 
7. Yeilk la maison. 8. Voici le cahier. 9. Voici ma place. 
10. Voil^ mademoiselle Louise. 11. Voici madame Dupont 
[dypo]. 12. Voil^ monsieur Dupont. 13. Voil^ un monsieur 
k la porte. 14. Vous^^crivez la le^n de fran^ais. 

C. Trar^slate into French: 1. I have your pen; I have it, 
I haven't it. 2. You have my notebook; you have it, you 
haven't it. 3. The teacher has a piece of chalk; he has it, 
he hasn't it. 4. I am studying my French lesson; I study 
it, I don't study it. 5. He is giving John the book; he gives 
it to John. 6. I beg your pardon, sir; he doesn't give it to 
John. 7. I open his door; I open it. 8. He is in his house. 
9. He has his pen in his (la) hand. 10. He is not stud3ring 
his French lesson. 11. He is studying it. 

D. Translate into French: 1. Do you go (Allez-vous) to (the) 
school in the afternoon? 2. No, I go to school in the morn- 
ing. I return home in the afternoon. 3. What do you do in 
the evening? 4. I stay at home and study my French les- 
son. I am studying (the) Lesson IV now. 5. You haven't 
your notebook. 6. I beg your pardon, sir; there it in behind 
my French booL 

28 a french grammar §§ 31-32 

Exercise in Pronunciation 

(1) Pronounce slowly by syllables, with attention to syl- 
lable stress: matin, apres-midi, etudie, franjais, anglais, 
montrez, pardon, monsieur, retourne. 

(2) What is the difference in pronunciation between et and 
est? Is there any difference between them in regard to link- 
ing (see §18, 1)? 

(3) In what words so far has the spelUng combination ai 
been pronounced [e]? What sound value does this combina- 
tion seem to stand for oftenest? 


31. Plural Forms. 1. The plural of a noun or an adjec- 
tive is regularly formed by adding -s to the singular: 

Le grand roi, la grande reine. The great king, the great queen. 

Les grandi rois, las grandes reines. The great kings, the great queens. 

2. The plural of the definite article le, la, V is les: 
Les [le] livres, les Dez] enfants. The books, the children, 

3. The plural of the personal pronoun le, la, V is also 

Je les^jai. I have them (books, pens, etc.). 

32. The Possessive Adjective. 1. The following are 
its forms in full (for agreement and repetition, see § 27) : 

Masculine Feminine Plural. 

mon Cm3] ma [ma] mes [me], my 

ton [t5] ta [ta] tea [te], thy, your 

son [83] sa [sa] ses [se], his, her, its 

notre [notr] notre [notr] nos [no], our 

voire [votr] votre [votr] vos [vo], your 

leur [loeir] leur [loerr] leurs [loe:r], their 

2. The forms mon, ton, son, are used instead of ma, ta, 
sa before feminines beginning with a vowel or h mute: 

Mon [mon] amie (/.). My friend. 

Son [s3n] histoire (/.). His story. 

Son [83n] autre plume (/.). His other pen. 




3. Since son (sa, ses) means his, her, or its, it can be 
known only from the context which is meant 


un ami [denami] friend 

une amie Cynami] friend 

le doigt [dwa] finger 

cinq [sgk] five 
six [sis] six 
sept [set] seven 
huit Cqit] eight 
neuf [noef] nine 
dix [dis] ten 

j'ecris [sekri] I am writing 
il ecrit [ekri] he is writing 
nous 6crivons [nuzekrivS] we are 

vous Icrivez [vuzekrive] you are 
toivezi [ekrive] write! {im- 

i'6tudie [etydi] I am studying 

il Studie [etydi] he is studying 

nous etudions [nuzetydjo] we are 

vous €tudiez [vuzetydje] you are 
gtudiezi [etydje] study! (tw- 
je ferme [fenn] I am closing, 
do close 
eile fenne [ferm] she is closing 
nous fermons [fenn53 we close 
vous fermez [ferme] you close 
f^mez! [ferme] close! shut! 

i'ouvre [u:vr] I am opening 
elle ouvre [u:vr] she opens 
nous ouvrons [nuzuvro] we open 
vous ouvrez [vuzuvre] you open 
ouvrez! [uvre] open! {im- 

je reste [rest] I stay, am stay- 
il reste [rest] he stays 
nous restons [rests] we are stay- 
vous restez [reste] you stay 

restezi [reste] stay! {impera- 

je retoume [sartum] I go back 
elleretoume [ratum] she goes 
nous retoumons [nurtumS] we 

vous retoumez [vurtume] you 
retoumez! [ratume] go back! 
return! {imperative) 

je suis [sqi] I am 
il est [ile] he (it) is 
elle est [ele], she (it) is 
nous sommes [sam] we are 
vous etes [vuzet] you are 

je vais [ve] I am going 
il va [va] he is going 

aujourd*hui [osurdqi] to-day 

combien de? [k5bj?da] how many ? how much? (followed 
by a noun naming the object of inquiry) 


A. (1) 1. Ouvrez vos livres, mes^amis. 2. Que faites-vous? 
3. — Nous^ouvrons nos livres. 4. — Fermez vos livres, 
5. — Nous les fermons. 6. — Nous^avons^aujourd'hui la 
le5on cinq [sgk]. 7. Ouvrez vos livres a la legon cinq. 
8. — Nous les^ouvrons. 9. — fieri vez dans vos cahiers: je 
ferme, il ferme, nous fermons, vous fermez. 10. J'ouvre, il 
ouvre, nous^ouvrons, vous ^ouvrez. 11. Je reste, il reste, nous 
restons, vous restez. 12. Je retourne, il retourne, nous re- 
tournons, vous retournez. 13. J'^tudie, il 6tudie, nous^6tudions, 
vous^^tudiez. 14. J'ai, il a, nous^avons, vous^avez. 15. Je 
suis, il est, le mot est sur le tableau, il est sur le tableau; ou 
est votre plume? Elle est^£i la maison, nous sommes, vous^etes. 
16. J'6cris, il 6crit, nous^^crivons, vous^^crivez. 17. Je vais, 
il va, nous^allons, vous^allez. 

(2) 1. — Maintenant fermez vos cahiers. 2. — Nous les 
fermons. 3. — Merci, mes^amis. 4. AUez^^ la porte, 
Louise et Marie. 5. Que faitesrvous? 6. — Nous^allons^a 
la porte. 7. — Retournez^^ votre place. 8. — Je vais^^ 
ma place. 9. — Od 6tes-vous maintenant, mes^amies? 
10. — Nous sommes^^ nos places. 11. — Combien de mains 
avez-vous, mes^enfants? 12. — Nous^avons deux mains. 
13. — Montrez-moi vos mains. 14. — Les voici. 15. Et 
nous^avons dix [di] doigts. 

B. (1) What seems to be the ending of the verb that corresponds 
to nous? Find one exception in A. What ending seems to cor- 
respond to vous? Find two exceptions in A. 

(2) Substitute the possessive adjective for the article-and-de 
phrase: 1. La plume de Jean; les plumes de Jean. 2. Le 
p6re de Jeanne; les fr&res de Jeanne. 3. La m6re de Marie 
et de Pierre; les fr^res de Marie et de Pierre. 4. La maison 
de Robert; les maisons de Robert. 5. L'^cole de Louise; 
r^cole de Louise et de Marie. 6. La legon de I'enfant; les 
legons de I'enfant. 7. La legon de deux enfants; les legons 
de trois enfants. 8. Devant la maison de Marie. Derridre 
la maison de Pierre. 

(3) Make the nouns plural: notre ami, votre doigt, sa main, 
leur cahier, votre enfant, son professeur, sa place, notre soeur. 


^ ' 




• 1 

. 1 

I -^riy-i 





{32 LESSON V 31 

C. Translate into French: 1. Our friend, our friends; your 
finger, your fingers; his (her) hand, his (her) hands; their 
hands; her (his) letters, their letters. 2. What are you doing, 
Robert? 3. I am writing a letter to my mother. John 
is writing a letter to his sister. 4. Louise is writing to her 
father. She is writing her letter; he is writing his letter. 
5. Write your letters, (my) children! 6. Do you open their 
letters? No, sir, we do not open their letters. 7. Henry's 
father does not open his letters; he does not open them. 8. Do 
you open your children's letters? No, sir, we do not open 
them. 9. I am at my place in the classroom. I have my 
books, my notebook, and my pen. 10. My friend John is 
at his seat, too. He has his pen in his hand. He is writing his 
French lesson in his notebook. 11. There he is in front of 
the window. He goes to school in the morning, but he does not 
stay at school. He returns home in the afternoon. 12. Show 
me your French book, John. Here it is on my table. — Excuse 
me, sir; I haven't it at (the) school. It is not here; it is at 

Exercise in Pronunciation 

(1) Pronounce after the teacher: depeir, defreir, denom, 
dfenoikl, sSpeir, sofreir, s5n5:kl; saraezo, 85nekol; lapetr, lameir, 
lezafa; latast, lafreir, lezSikl; bmat^, laswair, lezapremidi; 
Setydi melsS, 39lezetydi; sekri, salezekri; 58donvoliivr arobeir, 
Sdledan arobeir. 

Observe the elision of the [a] in the pronunciation of mes 
legons [mels5]. The sound [a], which is called often " mute 
e," disappears when the preceding syllable ends in a vowel 
sound followed by a single consonant sound, as in: las lemons 
OelsS], ses lefons [selso]. 

(2) In how many different ways are un, son, les pronounced ? 
What decides this? What name do we give to the joining of 
words as in mezafa, sslezekri, sonoikl? Do we say <£nekol or 

(3) Write phonetically and pronounce: le doigt, les doigts; 
I'ami, les amis ; men amie, mes amies. Do these nouns change 
in sound in the plural, or only in spelUng? 

32 A FRENCH GRAMMAR §§ 33-34 

(4) Pronounce: dedwa, denom; d0me, d0zafa; trwaplas, 
trwazekol; katrokrejo, katrami; selso, sekami; sifreir, si:zdfa; 
seraezo, setom; qikaje, i{itapremidi; ncemorso, ncevami; diswair, 

In how many ways is each numeral pronounced? On what 
does the change depend? 

(5) Write phonetically and read aloud: un doigt, detix doigts, 
etc., up to 10; un enfant, deux enfants, etc., to 10. 

(6) Write phonetically the answers to: 1. Combien de doigts 
avez-vous? 2. Combien de tantes avez-vous? 3. Combien 
de professeurs de fran^ais avez-vous? 4. Combien de crayons 
avez-vous k I'ecole? 5. Combien de crayons avez-vous k la 
maison? 6. Combien d'oncles avez-vous (ou Combien avez- 
vous d'oncles)? 

(7) What have you to say about linking between: (a) Pro- 
noun subject and verb? (b) Article and noun? (c) Posses- 
sive adjective and noun? (d) Forms of verb ' to be ' and their 

Look for cases of each in A above. 


33. Present Indicative of avoir, to have 

1. Affirmative 2. Negative 

/ have, etc. I have not, etc. 



je n'ai pas 


tu as 


tu n'as pas 




il n'a pas 


nous avons 


nous n'avons pas 


vous avez 


vous n'avez pas 


lis ont 


ils n'ont pas 


34. Pronouns in Address. You is regularly vous; the 

form tu = thou or you is used in familiar address: 

Avez-vous ma pltune, monsieur? Have you my pen, sir? 

As-/u ta plume, mon enfant? Have you your pen, my child? 

N.B. — Translate you by vous in the exercises, unless the use of tu is 
required by the context. 

$5 35-36 LESSON VI 33 

36. Contractions. De + le and de + les are always con- 
tracted into du and des; the remaining forms are not con- 
tracted, thus, de la, de 1' in full: 

La plxune du [dy] frere. The brother's pen. 

Les plumes des [de] soeurs. The sisters' pens. 

But: La idume de Televe. The puiul's pen. 

36. The Partitive Noun and Pronoun. 1. Some or any, 
whether expressed or implied before a noun in English, is 
regularly expressed in French by de + the definite article: 

Avez-vous de la craie? Have you (some) chalk (lit., 'of 

the chalk')? 
A-t-elle du pain? Has she (any) bread? 

J'ai de rencre. I have (some) ink. 

A-t-il des freres? Has he (any) brotheis? 

2. In a general n^ation the partitive is expressed by de 


D n'a pas de pain. He has no bread. 

n n'a pas (f amis. He has no friends. 

3. Some or any as a pronoun = en, which must be ex- 
pressed in French, even when omitted in English (cf. § 80): 

A-t-il de Tencre? — H en a. Has he (any) ink? — He has 

A-t-il une plume? — D en a une. Has he a pen? — He has one. 

N.B. — En, like the other partitive expressiona, is often equal to Eng- 
lish of it, of them, especially when the object of the verb is a numeral not 
followed by its noun. 

A-t-il une plume? — H en a une. Has he a pen? — He has one. 

Combien de lettres ecrivez-vous? — How many letters do you write? — I 
yen ecris quatre aujourd'hui. am writing four (of them) to-day. 

4. The position of the pronoun en in the sentence is dif- 
ferent from the usage of English: en alwaj's comes directly 
h^ore the verb, except in one instance (cf. § 113): 

Avez-vous des crayons? Have you (any) pencils? 

Oui, monsieur, j'cn aL Yes, sir, I have some. 





un eleve [ceneleiv] pupil 
une eleve [yneleiv] pupil 
le mtjr [my:r] wall 
le plafond [plaf 3] ceiling 
le plancher [plaje] floor 
le pupitre [pypitr] desk 

aller [ale] to go 
je vais [ve] I am going, go, do 

il va [va] he is going, goes 
nous aliens [nuzals] we go, are 

vous allez [vuzale] you are going, 
il commence Ptoma:s] he is 
Scoutez! [ekute] listen! (im- 
nous entrons (dans) [nuzatrS da] 
we enter, go in 

il marche [marS] he walks, is 
walking, does walk 
parler [parle] speak (infini- 

je sors [soir] I go out, am going 

il sort [sa:r] he goes out 
nous sortons [sorts] we go out 
vous sortez [sorte] you go out 
nous voulons [vul5] we wish, 

want, are willing 

vous voulez [vule] you wish, 

want, are willing 

en [a] of it, of them (pronoun) 
en [a] in (preposition; to be 
tised by pupils only in ex- 
pressions found in text) 

apres [apre] after 
par [par] by 

j'en suis [sasqi] I belong to it, am of it, of them. 
n'est-ce pas?[nespa] don't you? don't we? isn't it true? 

A. 1. ficoutez, mes^amis. Nous sommes^en classe de 
frangais. En etes-vous, Robert? 2. — Oui, monsieur (made- 
moiselle), j'en suis, et mon^amie Marie en^est^aussi. 3. Nous 
sommes dix^616ves et le professeur. 4. Nous^avons des livres, 
des crayons et du papier. 5. Le professeur en^a aussi, II a 
aussi de la craie. 6. Nous^^tudions le frangais. 7. — Vous 
voulez parler frangais, n'est-ce pas? 8. — Oui, monsieur, 
nous voulons parler frangais. 9. — Eh bien (Well then), 
6coutez: La classe a quatre murs. 10. Voila les murs de la 
classe. 11. Voil^ le plafond, et vous marchez sur le plancher. 
12. Combien de portes la classe a-t-elle (has the classroom)? — 
EUe en^a une. 13. — Combien de fenetres? — Elle en^a 
trois. 14. — Les^^l^ves ont des pupitres et le professeur a 
une table. 15. Elle est devant le professeur, et le professeur 

1 36 LESSON VI 35 

est devant les^^l^ves. 16. Nous^entrons dans la classe par la 
porte, nous^allons^^ nos places, nous^ouvrons les livres et la 
le^on commence. 17. Apr^ la classe, nous fermons les livres 
et nous sortons par la porte. 18. Nous sortons par la fen^tre, 
Pierre [pjeir]. 19. — Pardon, mademoiselle, nous ne sortons 
pas par la fenStre. 

B. (1) Using in turn as svbjeds je, il, elle, vous in place oj 
nous, rewrite affirmatively and negatively, the sentences 16-19 
of A: Nous entrons dans la classe, etc^ to the end. 

(2) Substitute the partitive expression for the article and read 
aloud: les doigts, les mains, le papier, les anus, les amies, les 
apr6s-midi, la craie, les mots, 

(3) Supply the partitive expression and read aloud: 1. lis 

ont fr&res et sceurs. 2. Nous ouvrons portes 

et fenetres. 3. lis ont doigts et mains. 

4, Donnez-moi papier et plumes. 5. Mademoiselle 

a craie. 6. Elle 6crit mots dans son cahier. 7. Nous 

6crivons mots dans nos cahiers. 8. Vous donnez 

papier ^ Robert. 9. II a craie k la main. 

(4) a. Write affirmative and negative answers, using the parti- 
tive pronoun: 1. Avez-vous des fr^res? 2. A-t^il du papier? 
3. Avons-nous des doigts? 4. fites-vous de notre classe? 

5. £tudions-nous des legons? 6. Ont^ils des sceurs? 7. Avez- 
vous de la craie h la main? 

b. Write negative ansicers to the questions under a, first keeping 
the noun objects, and then substituting the partitive pronoun for 
the noun objects. 

(5) Conjugate: 1. Je n'ai pas d'amis. 2. Je n'en ai pas. 

C. Translate into French: 1. You are in the classroom, (my) 
children. 2. You have paper, pens, pencils, and notebooks. 
3. The classroom has doors, windows, and walls. 4. Listen, 
Louise, you are not writing your lesson. 5. I have no paper, 
sir. 6. You haven't any? Excuse me, you have some. There 
it is in front of Robert. 7. I have no chalk. Pierre has some 
chalk in his hand, and Jeanne has some too. 8. How many 
fingers have you? I have ten. 9. There are ten of us (we are 
ten) pupils in the classroom with our teacher. 10. Do you 

36 A FRENCH GRAMMAR §§37-38 

belong to (Are you of) the French class, Marie? 11. Yes, sir, 
I belong to it, and Henri belongs to it too. 12. What do 
you want? We want to speak French. 

D. (1) After several readings aloud, first by the teacher, 
then by the class in concert, the pupils should be asked to retell 
orally and in writing the facts about the classroom in A. 

(2) Dictation: Lesson V, A. 

Exercise in Pronunciation 

Write phonetically and pronounce: un oncle, des oncles; 
un eleve, des eleves; un mot, des mots; une tante, des tantes; 
un pupitre, des pupitres; tm plancher, des planchers; un mur, 
des murs. What is the plural of un, une? 


37. Present Indicative of avoir {continued)' 

1. Interrogative 

2. Negative Interrogative 

Have It ete. 

Have I not? etc. 

ai-je? [eis] 

n'ai-je pas? [neispa] 

as-tu? [aty] 

n'as-tu pas? [natypa] 

a-t-il? [atil] 

n'a-t-il pas? [natilpa] 

avons-nous? [av5nu] 

n'avons-nous pas? [navonupa] 

avez-vous? [avevu] 

n'avez-vous pas? [navevupa] 

ont-ils? [3til] 

n'ont-ils pas? [notilpaj 

38. Interrogation. 1. When the subject of an inter- 
rogative sentence is a noun, the word order is noun-verb- 
L*homine est-il I&? Is the man there? 

2. This form of question may be combined with an inter- 
rogative word: 

Mais Jean o& est-il? But where is John? 

Combien de plumes Jean a-t-il? How many pens has John? 

3. What? (as direct object or predicate of a verb) = que? 
See also §19, 1: 

Qu'avez-Tous Ul? What have you there? 





le beurre [bce:r] butter 
la bouche Cbu:S3 mouth 
la dent [da] tooth 
lalangue [Ia:g] tongue, lan- 
une oreille [ore:]] ear 
le pain [pt] bread, loaf of bread 
la tete [te:t] head 
les yeux m. [Iezj03 eyes 

onze [3:z3 eleven 
douze [du:z3 twelve 
treize [treiz] thirteen 
quatorze [katorz] fourteen 
quinze Qcgiz] fifteen 

il donne [don] he is giving, 

nous donnons [donS] we are giving, 
we give 

vous donnez [done] you are giving 

nous ecoutons [nuzekuts] we lis- 

vous Icoutez [vuzekute] you are 

j'entends [dta] I hear, do hear 
il entend [ata] he hears 
nous entendons [nuzatadS] we do 

vous entendez [vuzatade] you are 

je mange [ma: 3] I am eating 
elle mange [mors] she is eating 
nous mangeons [ma 13 3] we do eat 
vous mangez [maise] you eat 

je parle [pari] I am sp>eaking 
elle parle [pari] she talks, speaks 
nous parlous [pari 3] we talk 
vous parlez [parle] you speak 

je vois [vwa] I see, do see 
elle volt [vwa] she sees, is seeing 
nous voyons [vwaj 3] we do see 
vous voyez [vwaje] you are seeing 

mais [mr] but, why {not in a 
queMion) ; mais non! Why 

A. (1) 1. ficoutez, Jean! ficoutez, mes^jamis! Que faites-vous? 
2. — Nou8^6coutons. 3. — ficrivez dans votre cahier, Marie! 
4. Marie oil 6crit- elle? 5. — Elle ^crit dans son cahier. 
6. — Donnez votre plume k Robert. 7. — Que donnez- 
vous h Robert, Henri? 8. Je donne ma plume k Robert. 
9. — Qu'avez-vous k la main, Louise? 10. — J'ai k la main 
mon livre de frangais. 11, — N'avez-vous pas^aussi votre 
crayon k la main? 12. — Oui, mademoiselle; et j'ai aussi 
des livres et du papier, mais Pierre n'en^a pas. 

(2) 1. — Combien de tetes avez-vous, Maurice [moris]? 
2. — J'en^ai une, et Henri en^a une et le professeur en^a une 
aussi. 3. — N'avez-vous pas deux mains, Pierre? 4. — Oui, 
mademoiselle, j'en^ai deux. 5. — Et combien de doigts Louise 


a-t-elle? 6. — Elle en^a dix [dis] et Marie a dix doigts [didwa] 
aussi. 7. — Combien de mains Robert a-t-il? II en^a deux. 
8. Nous^avons des^oreilles, des^yeux et une bouche. 9. Dans 
la bouche nous^avons une langue et des dents. 10. — Le 
professeur a-t-il des^oreilles aussi? — Oui, il en^a deux. 

11. — Que faites-vous avec vos^oreilles, mes^amis (mon^ami)? 

12. — Nous^entendons (j'entends) avec les^oreilles, nous 
voyons (je vois) avec les_j-eux, nous parlons (je parle) avec 
la langue et la bouche, et nous mangeons (je mange) avec les 
dents. 13. — Que mangez-vous? — Nous mangeons du 
pain avec du beurre. 14. — Qu'avez-vous dans la bouche? 
— J'ai un morceau de pain dans la bouche. 

B. (1) Say in French: I (we, you) open; I (we, you) close; 
I (we, you) go in; I (we, you) go out; I (we, you) stay; I 
(we, you) study; I (we, you) write; I (we, you) listen; I 
(we, you) hear; I (we, you) see; I (we, you) talk; I (we, you) 
eat; hsten, eat, speak, stay, go out, come in, write; I (we, you) 
go; I am, we (you) are. 

(2) Complete: 1. Vous voyez avec . 2. J'entends avec 

. 3. Nous mangeons avec . 4. Vous parlez avec 

. 5. mangez-vous? 6. Je pain avec 

beurre. 7. Combien doigts avez-vous? 8. J' ai 

dix {See A, (2), 6). 9. Et combien yeux [j0] {preceding 

[a] elided) le professeur a-t-il? 10. II a deux. 

(3) Study the examples of the use of en in A, (2) and try to 
make a rule for the use of en with numerals. 

C. Translate into French: 1. Do you want some butter with 
your bread? 2. I have no bread. 3. But you have some 
butter. 4. I beg your pardon, I have none (haven't any). 
5. Has the man ears and eyes and teeth? 6. He has ears and 
eyes, but he has no teeth. 7. How many ears has he? 8. He 
has two. 9. I hear with my (the) ears and see with my (the) 
eyes. 10. Have you no teeth? 11. I have teeth and I am 
eating some bread, but I have no butter. 12. Do you want 
some? Why (Mais) yes, sir (miss). 13. I have ten fingers; 
he has ten. 14. There are fifteen of us pupils (We are fifteen 
pupils) in the classroom. 15. I see fifteen in the classroom. 

§ 39 LESSON Yin 39 

ExEBciSE IN Pronunciation 

(1) Read: siliivr, siizami, eldnasis; noeda, noevami, vuzfina- 
veAoef; didwa, navSnupadiizami? bprofesoeiranadis. 

In how many ways are the words for 6, 9 and 10 pronounced? 

In how many ways are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 pronounced (see 
Lesson V, Exercise in Pronunciation, 4)? Explain. 

Count: oiz, duiz, treiz, katarz, kgiz. 

Count 1-15, putting after each numeral a noun beginning 
with a consonant, and then one beginning with a vowel. For 
example: 6 crayons, 6 eldves. Write out the combinations in 
phonetic characters. 

(2) What two ways do you know of spelling the sound [g^ 
What three ways of spelling the sound [o]? What sound does 
the letter o (not in combination or nasal) usually represent? 
One exception so far: what is it? What sound does the letter 
a (not in combination or nasal) usually represent? ^Name the 
two exceptions up to this point. What sound does the combina- 
tion ai (not nasal) usually represent? Name the two exceptions. 
What is the position of your lips in pronouncing [p} as in porta, 
©reille, so as to get the French quality (see § 14, 1)? Note 
how the -eille of oreille gives Ce:j]. Pronounce le soleil [soleijj, 
sun. What is the name of this sound? (See § 16, 1). 


39. Present Indicative of itre, to be 

1. Afl&rmative 2. Negative 

/ am, etc. I am not, etc. 

je suis [sdsqiD je ^^ suis pas [ssnsqipa^ 

tu es [tye] tu n'es pas [tynepa] 

il est [lie] il n'est pas [ilnepKi] 

nous sommes [nusom] nous ne sommes pas [nunsompa] 

vous etes [vuzet] vous n'etes pas [%'unetpa] 

ils sont [ils33 ils ne sont pas [ilnssspa^ 




3. Interrogative 
Am If etc. 
suis-je? [8qi:s3 

•s-tu? [ety] 

est-a? [etil] 

sommes-nous? [somnu] 
etes-vous [etvu] 

sont-ils? [s3til] 

4. Negative Interrogative 
Am I not? etc. 
ne suis-je pas? [nasqiis 

n'es-tu pas? [netypa] 

n'est-il pas? [netilpa] 

ne sommes-nous pas? [nasomnupa] 
n'etes-vous pas? [nstvupa] 

ne sont-ils pas? [nasotilpa] 

40. Observe that 11 and elle mean not only he and she, but 
also it, since there are but two genders of nouns in French: 
Oft est la plTime? Elle est ici. Where is the pen? It is here. 

Oft sont les pliunes? £He5sontici. Where are the pens? Theyaxehere. 


la carte D^art] map, card 
le contraire [k3tre:r] opposite 
la France [frais] France 
le jour Csuir] day 
la nuit [nqi] night 

autre [otrj other 
bon Q)3] good 
ferme [ferme] closed 
ouvert [uvEir] open 
petit [pati] small, little 
tout [tu] all; {as a 'pronoun) 

quinze [keiz] fifteen 
seize [setz] sixteen 
dix-sept [disset] seventeen 
dix-huit [dizqit] eighteen 
diz-neuf [dizncef] nineteen 
vingt [ve] twenty 

comprendre [k3pra:dr] un- 
derstand (infin.) 
Je comprends [kopra] I under- 
stand, do understand 

il comprend QcSpra] he does 

nous comprenons D^5pran3] we 

vous comprenez p5:3pr9ne] you 


compter [k3te] coimt (infin.) 
comptez! [k3te] count! (im- 

dormir Qdormiir]] sleep 

(infin.), be asleep 
entendre [ataidr] hear 

manger [[maise] eat (infin.) 
ilsrestent, elles restent [rest] 
they stay, remain 
noustachons (de) [ta:S3] we are 

trying (to), etc. 
voustachez (de) [taije] you are 
trying (to), etc. 

bien [bje] well, very well 
potir [pur] for, in order to 
c'est [se] it is, that is 

voulez-vous bien? [vulevubje] will you (please)? 
are you willing to? 

Sio LESSON vm 11 

A. (1) 1. — Oil 6tes-vous, mes^mis? 2. — Nous sommes^ 
I'^cole, dans la classe. 3. — Que voyez-vous, Louise? 4. — Je 
vois une porte, des fenltres, des murs, un plafond, un plancher, 
un tableau noir, et notre professeur. 5. — C'est tout, Pierre? 

6. — Non, monsieur (mademoiselle); je vois aussi des livres, 
des plumes, des cahiers, vingt^616ves, des crayons, des pupitres. 

7. Sur le mur je vois une carte de France. 8. — C'est bon, 
Pierre. Vous voyez tout. 9. Voulez-vous bien compter 

les 616 ves? 10. Jeanne: — un^616ve, deux^^l^ves 

ving1i_^616ves. 11. — Bien! combien d'616ves 6tes-vous? 
12. — Nous sommes ving1;^616ve8. 13. — Et la porte, 
esWile ouverte [uvert]? 14. Non, mademoiselle, elle est 
ferm^e [ferme]. 15. — Et les fen^tres, son^elles ouvertes? 
16. — Une des fenStres est^ouverte et les deux^autres sont fer- 

(2) 1. — Que faites-vous en classe? 2. — Nous^^tudions 
le frangais. 3. Le professeur parle frangais, nous^^coutons 
et nous tdchons de comprendre. 4. — Comprenez-vous les 
mots f ouverte » et t ferm6e »? 5. — Oui, mademoiselle. 
Nous^ouvrons la porte, elle est^ouverte. 6. Nous^entrons 
dans la classe et nous fermons la porte. Elle est fermie 
maintenant. 7. — Bon! Votre bouche es^elle ouverte? 

8. — Oui, mademoiselle. Je I'ouvre pour parler et pour man- 
ger. 9. — Et vos^oreilles? — EUes sont^ouvertes. Elles 
restent [rest] ouvertes pour entendre, 10. — Et vos^^eux, 
restent-ils [restatil] ouverts [uve:r]? 11. — Non, made- 
moiselle, je les^ouvre le matin; le jour ils restent ouverts. 
La nuit je les ferme pour dormir. 12. — Bien! t Porte 
ouverte » est le contraire de t porte ferm^. » 13. Ccoutez 
bien: mes,_^eux sont_ouverts [uveir], les deux portes 
sonli^ouvertes [uvert]. 14. Henri est-^il petit [pati]? Louise 
est^^elle petite [pstit]? 

B. (1) Where reasonably possible, make every verb in A 

(2) Substitute the proper personal pronoun for the rioun object 
in: 1. Je vois une porte. 2. Nous 6coutons le professeur. 
3. II compte les 616 ves. 4. Ouvrez-vous la fen^tre? 5. Com- 


prenez-vous le mot? 6. Vous ne voyez pas mes dents. 7. Ne 
voyez-vous pas mes dents? 8. Ne fermez-vous pas les yeux 
pour dormir? 9. Je vols une carte de France. 10. Je ne 
comprends pas le mot. 11. Avez-vous des amis? 12. Nous 
avons des dents. 13. Nous entendons des mots. 14. Nous 
voyons nos amies. 15. J'entends le mot. 

(3) Make sentences of the groups of words, supplying lacking 

words and using as many partitives as possible: 1. J'ai, ne 

pas, en. 2. II, dents, a. 3. Soeurs, avez-vous? 4. J'ai, 
quatre. 5. Vous tachez, la nuit, de dormir. 6. II voit, portes, 

et fenetres. 7. Nous, en, voyons, ne pas. 8. Entendez- 

vous? ne pas. 9. Porte ouverte, porte ferm^e, le 

contraire. 10. Portes, ouvertes, mais, f enures, ferm6es. 
11. Pierre, petit et Louise, petite. 

C. Translate into French: 1. Are your books open? Are the 
windows open? 2. Has the classroom windows and doors? 

3. It has windows, doors, walls, desks, a ceiUng, and a floor. 

4. Have the pupils books? Yes. There are the pupils' books. 

5. They have notebooks too, and pens, and paper, and pencils, 
but they have no chalk. 6. The teacher has some in his hand, 

7. What are you doing? We are listening to the teacher. 

8. She is speaking French and we are trying to understand 
her. 9. Do you understand her, Marie? Yes, I understand 
her. 10. That's good. 

D. The differences of spelling and pronunciation of ouvert, 
ouverte; petit, petite are due to a difference in what? To judge 
by ferme, fermee, do these same differences appear in every case? 
Would the addition of an s for the plural make any difference 
in the pronunciation of any of these words? 

Exercise in Pronunciation 

ficrivez en caract^res phon^tiques et prononcez: 1. Je vols 
vingt 616 ves. 2. Ou etes-vous, mes amis? 3. Vous voyez 
les livres. 4. Nous entrons dans la classe. 5. Vos yeux restent 
ouverts. 6. Nous studious le frangais. 7. Vous ouvrez la 
porte. 8. II compte les 616ves. 

§§41-43 LESSON IX 43 


41. The Regular Conjugations. French verbs are con- 
veniently divided, according to the infinitive endings -er, 
-ir, -re, into three conjugations: 


Donner [done] to give Finfr [finiir] to finish Vendre [va:dr] to sell 

Like these are conjugated all regular verbs with corre- 
sponding infinitive endings. 

42. Present Indicative of donner, to give 
1. Affirmative 2. Negative 

/ give, am giving, etc. I do not give, am not giving, etc. 

je donn e [sadon] je ne donn e pas [ssndonpa] 

tu donn es [tydon] tu ne donn es pas [tyndonpa] 

il donn e [ildon] il ne donn e pas [ilnadanpa] 

nous donn ons [nuddnS] nous ne donn ons pas [nundonSpa] 

vous donn ez [vudone] vous ne donn ez pas [v'undonepa] 

ils donn ent [ildon] ils ne donn ent pas Cilnsdonpa] 

3. Interrogative 4. Negative Interrogative 

Am I giving f do I give f etc. Am I not giving f do I not give f etc. 

donne-je? [doners] ne donne-je pas? [nadonerspa] 

donnes-tu? [donty] ne donnes-tu pas? [nadontypa] 

donne-t-il? [dontil] ne donne-t-il pas? [nadantilpa] 

donnons-nous? [donSnu] ne donnons-nous pas? [nadononupa] 

donnez-vous? [donevu] ne donnez-vous pas? [nadoneviipa] 

donnent-ils? [dontil] ne donnent-ils pas? [nadontilpa] 

43. Interrogation. By prefixing the words est-ce que? 
literally, is it that? any statement may be turned into a 
question : 

Vous avez mon canif . You have my penknife. 

Est-ce que vous avez mon canif? Have you my penknife? 
Est-ce que vous n'aimez pas la Don't you like walking? 


Note. — The first singular interrogative form (e.g., donnS-je? suis-je? 
etc.) is avoided in most verbs, and must be avoided in some, by using est-ce 
Que? In the exercises, use est-ce que? everywhere with the 1st singular. 


44. The Demonstrative Adjective. 1. The following are 
its forms, and they must be repeated before each noun to 
which they refer: 

!ce [sa], before a masculine beginning with a consonant, 
cet [set], before a m. beginning with a vowel or h mute, 
cette [set], before any feminine. 
These, those = ces [se], before any plural. 

2. To distinguish this from that, or for emphasis, add 
-ci (= ici) and -la respectively to the noun: 

Ce livre, cet honime, cette amie. This (or that) book, man, friend. 
Ce crayon-ci et ces plumes-Zd. This pencil and those pens. 

a. In the combinations c'est and ce sont the demonstrative pronoun 
ce is often equal to English it (standing for and pointing to the real 
subject that follows), he, she, they. 

C'est mon ami Pierre. It (he) is my friend Pierre. 

Ce sont les enfants de ma tante. They are my aunt's children. 
Est-ce [es] vous? C'est vous. Is it (that) you? It is you. 


un ige [cenais] age nous nous appelons [nunuzaplS] 
un an [oenfi] year we are named, etc. 

le cousin [kuze] cousin vous vous appelez [vuvuzaple] 
la cousine [kuzin] cousin you are named 

la fille [fiij] daughter, girl * regarder [ragarde] look (at) 

le fits [fis] son jg regarde [sargard] I look at 

le garfon [gars5] boy -^ ^^g^^^ [regard] he is looking 

la marche [marS] walkmg ^^^^ regardons [nurgardo] 

le sport [spoir] sport ^^^^ regardez [vurgarde] 

fort [fo:r] strong dites [dit] say, tell {impera' 

grand [gra] large, tall tive of dire) 

quel? TO. [kel] what? ^ ^ x ri.-i.--n 

attentivement [atativma] 

aimer [eme] like, love attentively 

i'aime [em] I (do) like, love comment? [koma] how? 

lentement [lat(9)ma] slowly 
Je m'appelle [mapel] I am plus [ply] more 

named, my name is vite [vit] rapidly, quickly 

11 s'appelle [sapel] he is named parce que [parska] because 

{44 LESSON IX 45 

EXERCISE IX (Continued) 

quel &ge avez-voxis [kelaisavevu] how old are you? 

j'ai trois ans [setrwoza] I am three; il a quinze ans, he is fifteen. 

s'a vous plait [silvupk] please. 

* Endinga like donner, but obeerv-e the pronimciation of the pres. indica- 
tive. See Leeson V, Exercise in Prtmundation, (1). 

A. (1) 1. Comment vous^ppelez-vous Cvuzaplevu *], mon 
ami? 2. — Je m'appelle Maurice, monsieur (mademoi- 
selle). 3. — Quel kge avez-vous? 4. — J'ai quinze ans. 
5. — Vous^^tes grand Cgra]! Est-ce que votre p^re est grand 
aussi? 6. — Oui, monsieur (mademoiselle), il est grand, mais 
ma m6re est petite; elle n'est pas grande [graid]. 7. — Est-ce 
que vous^avez des fr^res et des sceurs? 8. — Oui, monsieur 
(mademoiselle), j'ai un fr^re et trois sceurs. 9. Mon fr^re 
s'appelle fidouard [edwa:r], et mes sceurs s'appellent Germaine 
[sermen], Jeanne et Ad61e [adel]. 10. fidouard a treize ans; 
il est petit; mais tr^ fort (fo:r). 11. Germaine a huit,^ans, 
Jeanne a dix-sept^ans, et Ad^le en^ dix-neuf. 12. EUes sont 
grandes (^gra!d] et fortes [fort]. 13. Moi, je suis trds fort 
aussi et j'aime les sports. 14. J'aime le tennis [tenisX le 
baseball pbesbal] et la marche. 15. Mes sceurs aiment le 
tennis; mais^elles n'aiment pas la marche. 

(2) 1. — Est-ce que cette petite fille-ci est^une de vos sceurs? 
2. — Non, mademoiselle, c'est (she is) la soeur de ce petit 
gar^on-l^. 3. — Et ces trois petit€s filles-E? 4. — Non, mes 
sceurs ne sont pas^^ I'^cole; elles sont^^ la maison. 5. Ces 
grandes filles-li sont les^nfants de mon^oncle. 6. Ce sont 
{They are) mes cousines, et cet^61^ve-ci est son fils. 7. C'est 
(He is) mon cousin. 8. — Est-ce que cet^61^ve-l^ 6coute le 
professeur? 9. — Oui, il I'^oute attentivement, mais^l ne 
comprend pas tr^ bien, parce que le professeur parle tr^ 
vite. 10. Parlez plus lentement, monsieur, s'il vous plait. 
11. Nous^^coutons tr^^attentivement mais nous ne vous 
comprenons pas. 

• Obser\'e the disappearance of the [a] in the pronunciation of appelw 
[apie]. See Lesson V, Exercise in Pronunciation, (1). 


B. Write, supplying the proper form: ce, cet, cette, or ces; 

enfant (/.), deve (m. and /.), fille, gargon, 

apres-midi, carte, cartes, yeux, jour, 


C. (1) Translate into French: 1. I count the pupils. 2. He 
studies his lesson. 3. She enters (in) the classroom. 4. We 
eat bread and butter. 5. You look at the map, 6. They 
begin the lesson. 7. Don't I speak French? (see § 43, note) 
8. Doesn't he listen to the teacher? (two ways) 9. Don't 
we look at the map? (two ways) 10. Don't they study? 
11. I do not close the door. 12. She does not eat butter. 
13. We do not eat any. 14. You do not return home in the 
morning; you return home in the afternoon. 15. They do 
not come in. 

(2) 1. I count the pupils; he counts them; they count the 
windows; we count them. 2. We do not stay at home in the 
morning; they stay at home in the evening. 3. He opens 
the door; they open it; it is open. 4. Look at the map! 
What do you see? 5. They look at it; they study it. 6. Come 
in! They enter (in) the classroom by the door. 7. They eat 
bread; they eat some. 8. Do you want (Voulez-vous) some 
bread? 9. Do you want some? Don't you want any? We 
eat none. 

(3) Dites en frangais: 1. My name is Robert. 2. Her name 
is Adele. 3. His name is Joflfre [sofr]. 4. What is your 
name? 5. Their (/.) name is Hugo [ygo]. 

D. Dictation: Lesson VII, A, (2). 

Exercise in Pronunciation 

(1) ficrivez en caracteres phon^tiques et prononcez: 1. Ce 
garQon est petit. 2. Cette fille est petite. 3. Cette maison 
est grande. 4. Cet^homme est grand. 5. Cet^enfant est 
fort. 6, Mademoiselle est forte. 7. Le cahier est^ouvert. 
8. La porte est^ouverte. 

(2) Pronounce the feminine of grand, ouvert, petit 

§§ 45-47 LESSON X 47 


46. Plural Forms. Note the following exceptions to the 
rule (§31) that the plural of nouns and adjectives is formed 
by adding -s to the singular: 

1. Nouns in -s, -x, -z, and adjectives in -s, -x, remain unchanged in 
the plural, e.g., bras, bras, amt{8); voix, voiac, vaiceis); nez, nez, 
noseis); bas, bas, low; vieux, vieuac, old. 

2. Nouns and adjectives in -an, nouns in -eu, and a few nouns in 
-ou, add -X instead of -s, e.g., couteau, couteoux, knife, knives; beau, 
beaux, fine; jeu, jeux, game{s); bijou, bijoux, jewelis); cailloi/, cail- 
loux, j)ebble{s), and a few rarer nouns in -ou. 

3. Nouns, and the commoner adjectives, in -al change -al to -au 
and add -x (as above), e.g., general, generoux, generdis); mat, 
rivoux, rival{s), except bal, bals, ball{s), and a few rarer nouns. 

4. (Eil, yeux, eye(s); del, cieux, nky, skies, heavenis). 

46. Contractions. The forms i + le and a + les are 
always contracted into au and aux respectively; the remain- 
ing forms are not contracted, thus, ^ la, a 1' in full: 

Je parle au [o] frdre. I speak to the brother. 

Aux [o] soeurs, aux [oz] hommes. To the sisters, to the men 
But: Je parle d la sceur, a rhomme. 

47. Use of z7 y a [ilja]. 1. There is and there are are not 
only translated by voila, but also by il y a: 

Voifd des plumes sur la table. There are some pens on the table. 

n y a des plumes sur la table. There are some pens on the table. 

2. Observe, however, that voila answers the question 
'where is?' 'where are?* and makes a specific statement 
about an object to which attention is directed by pointing or 
the like, while il y a does not answer the question 'where is?' 
'where are?' but makes a general statement. Voila is 
stressed, il y a is unstressed, just as in English there is (are) 
is usually stressed or unstressed according as it points out 
or merely makes a general statement. 




3. n y a governs nouns just as other transitive verbs do: 

Je donne des plumes k Marie. 
U y a des plumes s\xt la table. 

I give (some) pens to Mary. 
There are (some) pens on the table. 


le bas [ba] stocking 
le bijou [bisu] jewel 
le bout [bu] tip, end 
le bras [bra] arm 
le cheval [laSval] horse 
le corps Di3:r] body 
le couteau [kuto] (table-)knife 
la difference [diferais] difference 
le general [seneral] general 
la jambe [3a!b] leg 
le nez [ne] nose 
un ceil [denceij] eye 
le pied [pje] foot 
le pluriel [plyrJEl] plural 
la voix [vwa] voice 

beau [bo] fine, handsome, 

vieux rvj0] old 
vingt et un [vetece] 21 
vingt-deux [v£td03 22 
vingt-trois [vettrwa] 23 

vingt-quatre [vetkatr] 24 
vingt-cinq [vetsek] 25 
vingt-six [vetsis] 26 
vingt-sept [vetset] 27 
vingt-huit [vetqit] 28 
vingt-neuf [vetnoef] 29 
trente [trait] 30 

quelle? /. [kel] what? 
qui? [ki] who? whom? 

desirer [deziire] wish, want 
lire [li:r] read 
porter [porte] wear, carry 
prononcer [pronoise] pro- 

distinctement [distekt (a ) ma] 

en fran^ais [frase] in French 

entre [Qitr] between 
pourquoi? [purkwa] why? 
quand? [ka] when? 

A. (1) 1. II y a ving^t un ou vingt-deux^^ldves dans cette 
classe de fran^ais. 2. Ils^^tudient le frangais pares qu'ils 
dfeirent le lire, le comprendre et le parler. 3. Pourquoi 
^tudiez-vous le fran^ais? 4. D6sirez (voulez)-vous lire des 
livres frangais, mes^amis? 5. — Oui, monsieur, nous voulons 
(desirous) lire les livres de Victor Hugo, de Maupassant 
[mopasa], de Balzac [balzak], d'AnatoIe France [anatolfrais], 
de Dumas [dyma], de Voltaire [volts ir], de Beaumarchais 
[bomaree], de Lesage [lasais], de Moli^re [moljeir], et nous 
d^sirons (voulons) comprendre le frangais et le parler aussi. 
6. — Eh bien, mes^amis, 6coutez-moi tres^attentivement parce 
que je vais vous parler en frangais. 


Victor Hugo 

{47 LESSON X 49 

(2) 1. Entendez-vous ma voix? — Oui, monsieur. 2. — Com- 
prenez-vous les mots quand je parle lentement? 3. — Oui, 
monsieur, mais nous ne comprenons pas quand vous parlez 
vite. 4. — Eh, bien, 6coutez. Je vais parler lentement et 
prononcer distinctement. 5. J'ai un corps. Voici mon corps. 

6. Voici mes deux bras. Au bout de mes deux bras, j'ai deux 
mains. 7. II y a cinq doigts k cette main et cinq doigts k 
cette main; combien de doigts est-ce que j'ai? 8. Voici 
mon nez. Est-ce que j'ai un nez ou deux nez? 9. Et Louise, 
combien de nez a-t-elle? 10. A-t-elle trois^eux? Et un 
cheval combien d'yeux [dj0] a-t-il? 11. Et combien d'yeux 
[dj0] ont douze chevaux? 12. Et vous^vez deux jambes 
QsQib] et deux pieds Cd0pje], Henri, n'est-ce pas? 13. Et les 
chevaux combien de jambes ont^ils? — Ils^en^ont quatre. 
14. — Combien de jambes ont sept chevaux? 15. — Qu'avez- 
vous aux pieds? — J'ai des bas aux pieds. 16. — Oil portez- 
vous les bas, aux mains? 17. — Non, monsieur, je les porte 
aux pieds et aux jambes. 18. — Qu'avez-vous au bout des 
jambes? 19. — J'ai mes deux pieds au bout de mes jambes. 

B. 1. Alle^au tableau (noir), Jean. 2. £crivez^aupluriel:le 
bras, la voix, un g^n^ral, un couteau. 3. Maintenant 6crivez^au 
singulier: les yeux, les chevaux. 4. Dit-on {Do we, people, 
say) : « II y a \'ingt-trois^616ve8 dans cette classe, » ou t Voili 
vingt-trois^^l^ves dans cette classe? » 5. Dit-on: t II y a mes 
deux bras*, ou « Voil^ mes deux bras »? 6. Dit;^n: t II y 
a notre professeur de fran^ais », ou « Voili notre professeur 
de frangais »? 7. Quelle est la difference entre: t Voil^ 
deux^ei^ves qui n'^coutent pas! » et « II y a deux^616ve8 qui 
n*6coutent pas »? 

C. Translate into French: 1. There are twenty-nine pupils 
in this French class. 2. The teacher speaks to the pupils in 
French. 3. He speaks slowly and the pupils try (tftchent de) 
to understand him. 4. He says (dit) : " What is your name? 
How old are you? Why do you study French? " 5. " My 
name is Edward. I am sixteen. 6. I am studying because 
I wish to read, understand, speak, and write (the) French. 

7. Will you (Voulez-vous bien) speak slowly?" 

50 a french grammar §47 

Exercise in Pronunciation 

(1) Write phonetically and pronounce: men bras, mesbras; 
sa voix, leurs voix; un bas, vos bas; son pere est vieux; ses 
amis sent vieux; void leurs couteaux; ces enfants sont beaux; 
les bijoux de cette dame sont tres beaux. 

(2) Compare the pronunciation of the singular and plural 
of the new words. Do they differ as to pronunciation from 
words that make their plural according to §31? What will 
usually indicate to the ear the plural of such words? 

(3) Write phonetically and read aloud: un general, des 
generaux; un cheval, des chevaux; k I'ceil, aux yeux; au del, 
aux deux. 

(4) Is this a mere spelling change as in livres, bijoux? 

(5) Count aloud 1-30, putting after each numeral, first a 
noun beginning with a consonant and then one beginning with 
a vowel: e.g., vingt-dnq couteaux, vingt-cinq amis. Note 
that the final letter of vingt is heard as t in 21-29. 

(6) Note the pronunciation of bras, tu as (§ 33), as compared 
mth bas, pas. What is the usual pronunciation of the letter 
a (alone and not nasal)? Is this true of ftge? of nous tSchons? 

(7) Contrast the pronunciation of le soir, pourquoi, je vols, 
la voix, void, voil^ with that of trois. What seems to be 
the usual sound value of the spelling oi? 


No. 1 

(1) Nommez (Name) les parties (parts) du corps (12) dont 
(of which) vous savez (know) le nom (name). 

(2) Quels sont les membres (members) d'une famille (family) ? 

(3) Nommez tous (pluriel de tout) les objets (objects) dans 
la classe dont vous savez le nom. 

(4) Donnez les contraires de: nous ouvrons; le jour; petit; 
vite; nous sortons; ils ouvrent. 

(5) What words or expressions do you think of in connection 
with the following? le gar<jon; le corps; I'oncle; le crayon; 
le plafond; I'apres-midi; en anglais; devant; voil^; le cahier; 

$47 LESSON X 51 

d6sirez-vous? pourquoi; j'^coute; la nuit; la fille; la famille; 
le matin; de. 

(6) Fill in blanks with appropriate words: 1. Oil sont vos 

mains? Les voilll au de mes . 2. J' votre voix, 

mais je ne vons pas. Pourquoi? Parce que vous parlez 

tr^ . 3. J'^tudie le fran^ais je desire les livres 

de Balzac. 4. Les hommes ont deux ; les en ont 

quatre. 5. II vingt-trois dans cette classe. 6. Nous 

avec les dents; nous avec les oreilles; nous avec 

les yeux. 7. Nous de la salle de classe par la porte. 

8. Donnez-moi un de pain avec du . 9. Sur le mur 

11 y a une de France. 10. Nous tdchons de vous , 

mais vous tr^ vite; vous parler plus ? 11. Je 

ferme les yeux pour . 12. Quel age a-t-il? II vingt 

. 13. J' avec ma plume dans mon . 14. Com- 
ment vous vous? Je m' Henri; ma sceur s' 

Louise. 15. Montrez votre professeur de fran5ais, s'il 

. Le , monsieur. 

(7) What verbs do you know (seven or eight) that indicate the 
activities (a) of the brain, the eyes, or the ears, or (b) of the limbs t 

Use each in a serUence. 


(1) To judge from words like papier, pied, what sound value 
does the spelling ie usually have? Indicate in phonetic 

(2) What is the sound value of the combination ien, as in 
bieiif combien? Of the combinations in, ain? Of the combina- 
tion un as in un, Verdun? 

(3) What two sounds has the letter c? Compare morceau, 
ciel, c'est, gargon, fran^ais with carte, crayon, compter, and 
make a rule {see § 5, 4). 

(4) What two sounds has the letter s? Compare soir, soeur, 
professeur with maison, vous avez, and make a rule (see, in 
part, § 18, 1). 

(5) Pronounce: avec, voir, par, soeur, anglais, est, doigt, 
nuit, huit, fermez, les yeux, cousin, aimer (Lesson I), cheval 

52 A FRENCH GRAMMAR §§48-40 

[Saval], general, grand, fils. Are final consonants usually- 
sounded in French? How does fils compare in sound with 
other words ending in s as far as we have gone? 

(6) What are the usual sound values for the spellings -on, 
-en, -an, -in, -ain, -un, -ien? For the spelling -eu? Contrast 
beurre with vieuz, yeux. For the spelling -ai? Contrast j'ai, 
maison, with franjais, s'il vous plait, vous faites. 

(7) Compare the French sound 1 with English 1 (§ 17, 7). 
Where is the tip of the tongue for French 1? 

(8) Compare French r with English r (§ 17, 12). Is the tongue 
brought farther forward in French? In French avoid using the 
English r. The French lingual r is sharper, 

(9) Pronounce slowly and distinctly with attention to syU 
lable division: general, desirer, regarder, attentivement, vous 
comprenez, apres-midi, nous ecrivons, porter, vous vous ap- 
pelez, bonjour, merci, monsieur, mademoiselle. 


48. An Indefinite Pronoun. 1. One, some one, we, you, 
they, people, used indefinitely, are represented in French by 
on, with the verb always in the singular: 

On [5] parle de Jean. We (you, they, etc.) speak of John. 

2. When following a verb with a final vowel, on is joined 

toitby-t- (cf. §29): 

Par o& commence-t-on? Wliere do we (etc.) begin? 

3. An on construction often corresponds to an English 
passive, especially when the agent is not mentioned: 
Ensuite on apporte le potage. Next the soup is brought. 

49. Interrogation. Observe the frequently used inter- 
rogative phrase qu'est-ce que? = what? which is made up 
of que? (§ 38, 3) + est-ce que? (§ 43): 

^'a-t-il? or Qu'est-ce ^'il a? What has he? 

{50 LESSON XI 53 

60. Present Indicative of faire, to do, make {meg), 

I do, am doing, etc. We do, are doing, etc. 

je fais [safe] 

tu fais [tyf e3 
ilfait [ilfe] 

nous faisons [nufdzd] 
vous faites [vuf ct] 
ils font [ilf3] 


I'algSbre /. [Talseibr] algebra 
rarithmetique /. [Taritmetik] 

une assiette [as jet] plate 
la bonne [boo] maid, nurse 
la cuiller [kqijeir] spoon 
le dessert [deseir] dessert 
le diner [dine] dinner 
la fourchette [furjet] fork 
le fruit [frqi] fruit 
une histoire [istwair] history, 

le journal [sumal] newspaper 
le latin [lat€] Latin 
le legimie [legym] vegetable 
les mathematiques /. [mate- 

matik] mathematics 
le potage [potais] soup 
la question [kEstjo] question 
la salle [sal] large room, hall 
la salle i manger [salamase] 

dining room 
les sciences naturelles /. [sjfiis- 

natyrel] natural science 
la tasse [ta:s] cup 
la viande [vjfiid] meat 

fige [a:3e] old, aged 

s'amuser [samyze] enjoy one- 
self, have a good time 

apporter [aporte] carry (to), 

commencer (&) [kamose] be* 

diner [dine] dine 
jouer [swe] play 
nous lisons [liz3] we are reading 
il prend [pro] he takes, is tak- 
preparer [prepare] prepare 
repondezl [rep5de] reply! 
je me sers de [samseirdd] I use, 

make use of 
il se sert de [se:r] he makes use 
nous nous servons de [servS] we 
sonner [sone] ring 
traduisez [tradqize] trans^ 

late (imperative) 
travailler [travaje] work 

comme [kom] as, like 
que [ka] than 

d'abord [daborr] in the first 
place, first 
puis [pqi] then, in the next 

A. (1) 1. Que fait-on (Qu*est-ce qu'on fait) h. r^cole? 
2. On 6tudie sea le9ons k I'^cole; on fait du frangais, de 


I'anglais, du latin. 3. On 6tudie aussi Thistoire, les math6- 
matiques et les sciences naturelles. 4. Je fais de rarithm^tique 
et du frangais; mon frere, qui est plus dg6, 6tudie aussi I'algebre 
et le latin. 5. On travaille mais on joue aussi; on s'amuse 
bien. 6. On joue au tennis et au football [futbal]. 

(2) R4pondez aux questions: 1. Qu'est-ce qu'on fait k I'^cole? 
2. Est-ce qu'on va k I'^cole pour s'amuser? 3. Pourquoi 
va-t-on k r^cole? 4-6. Faites-vous du latin k T^cole? de 
I'histoire? de I'anglais? 7. Aimez-vous les sports? 8-9. Fait- 
on du tennis ^ votre 6cole? du baseball? 10. Jouez-vous au 
football? 11. Avez-vous un fr^re? 12. Est-il plus dg6 que 
vous? 13. Est-il plus grand? 14. Aimez-vous les langues 
ou les sciences naturelles? 15. Faites-vous de I'arithm^tique 
ou de I'algebre? 16. Aimez-vous I'histoire? 

(3) 1. L'apres-midi nous retournons de I'^cole et nous allons 
h. la maison. 2. La porte est ferm^e. Nous sonnons et on 
ouvre. 3. Nous entrons dans la maison, et nous commengons 
^ lire le journal avant le diner, 4. On sonne et nous entrons 
dans la salle h. manger. 5. On commence k diner. D'abord 
nous avons du potage. 6. Nous le mangeons avec une cuiller. 
7. Puis la bonne apporte la viande et les legumes. 8. Pour 
les manger nous nous servons d'un couteau et d'une fourchette. 
9. Mon petit fr^re se sert d'une cuiller pour manger tout son 
diner. 10. Moi, je suis grand; je me sers d'une fourchette 
et d'un couteau comme mon p^re et ma mere. 11. On mange 
dans une assiette. 12. Puis au dessert, on mange du fruit 
et on prend du caf6 dans une tasse. 13. Mon petit fr^re ne 
prend pas de caf6 parce qu'il est petit. 14. Apr^ le diner 
nous lisons les journaux du soir. 15. Puis nous t&chons de 
preparer nos legons. 

B. (1) Rewrite A (3) c^ove, suhstitvting far the first plural, 
when possible (a) the first person singular, (6) the third person 

(2) a. What do you notice in A (3) about the verb entrer when 
followed by a nounf About commencer when followed by an 

$50 LESSON XI 55 

6. What have you already noted about Ucher, d^sirer, vous 
voulez, when followed by an infinitive? Translate: 1. We try to 
understand and to speak French. 2. I learn French because I 
want (desirer) to read the works of Balzac. 3. Will you, 
please, speak slowly? 

(3) Insert the proper subject pronoun: 1. me sers. 

2. (m. and /.) se sert. 3. nous senons. 4. 

vous servez. 5. se servent. Insert the object pronouns: 

6. Je appelle. 7. II appelle. 8. Nous 

appelons. 9. Vous appelez. 10. lis appellent. 

{Note the shifts in pronunciation and spelling in the present tense 
of s'appeler [saple]. These will be discussed in L^son XIX.) 

(4) Supply the missing preposition: 1. Je me sers ma 

plume f)Our 6crire. 2. lis se servent leur cuiller pour 

manger le potage. 3. On prend le caf6 une tasse. 4. II 

a une asaette la main. 5. A I'^cole on joue tennis. 

6. Nous ^tudions le diner. 7. Nous entrons la 

salle k manger. 8. On prend le caf6 le diner. 9. Mon 

petit fr6re se sert une cuiller manger son diner. 

C. Traduisez en frangais: 1. What have you (two ways) 
in your plate? 2. I have meat, vegetables, and bread and 
butter. I have no fork to (pour) eat my dinner [withj 

3. What is the maid doing? She is bringing spoons, knives, 
and forks. 4. We have no fruit for (the) dessert. Look! 
The maid is bringing some into the dining-room now. 5. You 
are fond of (aimer) (the) fruit (plural), aren't you? Yes, I 
am fond of (the) soup to (pour) begin [\»nth] and I like (the) 
fruit for dessert. 6. What do you do before (the) dinner? 
We read the evening paper. In the morning we read the 
morning paper. 7. What do people (on) do after (the) 
dinner? They (On) work or they (on) have a good time. 
8. First I prepare my lessons, then I enjoy myself. 9. Does 
your small sister work (arrange the question in t^oo ways)? 
10. No, she has a good time. She looks at her books, but she 
doesn't work. 

D. Dictation. Lesson IX, Exercise A, 15 sentences. 

56 a french grammar §§51-52 

Exercise in Pronunciation 

(1) Pronounce slowly and distinctly with especial attention 
to syllable division and stress: mathematiques, naturelles, 
arithmetique, cuiller, couteau, nous §tudions, nous nous ap- 
pelons, vous vous servez. Try to stress all syllables alike. 

(2) a. What do you notice about the spelling of nous com- 
menfons in A, (3), 3 ? See § 5, 4. Would this spelling occur 
^in any other form of the present tense of commencer? Com- 
/pare §78, 1. 

b. Is there anything of the same sort in the spelling of nous 
mangeons [nu masS]? See § 17, 18 and compare §78, 2. 

(3) Note the pronunciation of the first plural of faire. What 
sound value does the spelling ai oftenest have? What next? 
Compare faire, je fais, j'aime, anglais, la craie, la maison, j'ai. 

(4) Write in phonetic characters and read aloud in singulai 
and plural, putting in the definite article: cuiller, couteau, 
fourchette, viande, fruit, legiune, tasse, dessert. 


51. Feminine of Adjectives. It is regularly formed by 
adding -e to the masculine singular, but adjectives ending 
in -e remain unchanged. 

Grand, m., grande,/., tall; facile, m. or/., easy. 

52. Irregularities. Change of stem takes place in certain 
adjectives on adding -e. The following list shows the com- 
moner types: 

M. F. 

acti/, actiye, active 

heureux, heureuse, happy 

flatteur, fJatteuse, flatter- 

blanc, blanche, white 

\ongf longue, long 

faux, fausse, false 




crueZZe, cruel 


gentiKe, nice 


ancienne, ancient 


grosse, big 


mue«e, dumb 


chdre, dear 


sdcAe, dry 

(§53-54 LESSON xn S7 

Observe also: m. beau or bel, /. befle, fine; m. dootmu or nomre/ 
f. nouve/te, neu?; m. vieiuc or viei/, /. viei//e, oW, with two forms for 
the masculine, one of which gives the feminine. The masculine fonna 
in -1 are used before a vowel or h mute: 

Le hel arbre, le bel homme. The fine tree, the handsome man. 

But: L'arbre est beau; le beau livre; les beaux arbres; les arbres 
sent beaux. 

63. Position. 1. An attributive adjective more usually 

follows its noun: 

Un homme riche, une pomme mure. A rich man, a ripe appk. 

2. Adjectives from proper nouns, adjectives of physical 
quality, participles as adjectives, almost always follow: 

La langue anglaise. The English language. 

Du cafe chaud, ime lampe cassie. Hot coffee, a broken lamp. 

3. The following of very common occurrence nearly always 


Bon, good, mauvais, had; beaUf fine, handaome, joli, prHty, yflain, 
ugly; jeune, young, vieuz, aid; grand, tall, great, gros, big, petit, tmaU; 
long, long, court, short. 

4. A number of common adjectives have different mean- 
ings according as they precede or follow the noun. Two 
examples are: 

Hon ancien 61ive. My old Lliistoire ancienne. Ancient hi»- 

(formor) pupil. tory. 

Mon Cher amL My dear friend. Un diner cher. An expensive 


64. Interrogative Adjective. Whi^hf what? what (a)/ - 
m. quel?/, quelle? m. pi. quels?/, pi. quelles? 

Quel [kel] livre? Which (what) book? 

Quette [kel] plume? Which (what) pen? 

A quelle heure? At what time? 

Quelle belle vue! Quels hSrosI What a fine viewl What beroeal 
[kelero] («« % 17, 5) 


55. There, in that place = y. It stands for a place al- 
ready referred to, is put before the verb like a pronoun 
object, and is less emphatic than la = there: 
Est-il h I'ecole? II y [i] est. Is he at school? He is (there). 


la dictee [dikte] dictation exercise joli [soli] pretty 

I'eau /. [lo] water long [15] long 

ancien [asje] former, old, an- mauvais [move] bad, poor (in 

cient quality) 

beau, bel [bo] [bel] fine, hand- muet [mqe] dumb, silent 

some mftr [my:r] ripe 

blanc [bla] white nouveau [nuvo] new 

chaud [So] warm, hot riche [riS] rich 

Cher [Ss'.r] dear, expensive vilain [vile] ugly, naughty 

court [ku:r] short , r • -, 

, )r, ,-i , asseyez-vousl [aseievu] sit 

cruel [kryel] cruel j t / • ,■ ^ 

. ., 7-. .,-r down! nmperahve) 

facile [fasxl] easy . , . '^ _ 

faux [to] false, deceitful '' ^^^ ^^^, ^=^^77^^ ^ «« ^^^^ 

^,r -2.-, ■ xi. 11 11 s'en va [ilsava] he goes away 

gentil [sati] nice, pretty, well- "^ 

behaved beaucoup [boku] much, many, 

grand [gra] large, tall a great deal, a great many 

gros [gro] big peu [p0] little (quantity), few 

heureux [oer0] glad, happy y [i] there, to it, to them; at. 

jeune [seen] young in it, them 

A. (1) Write with each of the following nouns two or more 
of the adjectives in §§51, 52, 53, that may be reasonably used 
with them, being careful about the position and form: un homme, 
une sceur, ces journaux, una salle h. manger, des bijoux, quelle 
voix! une jambe, cette bouche, les yeux, une t6te, cet oncle, 
men ami, quel jour! notre professeur, le monsieur, un mur, 
une maison, un gargon, un cheval, des fruits, ces livres. 

(2) Supply the proper form of a suitable adjective in each case: 

1. Le potage est tr^s . 2. Men caf6 n'est pas . 

3. Asseyez-vous, men ami. 4. Le professeur nous donne 

de* lecons. 5. La dame a de* bijoux. 6. EUe a 

de * yeux. 7. J'aime les enfants quand ils sent . 

* This use of de will be treated in § 59, 2. 

$55 LESSON xn 69 

8. Louise parle beaucoup; elle n'est pas . 9. Le fruit est 

bon quand il est . 10. Voil^ des enfants . 

(3) Donnez le contraire de: longuc, vidlle, jolie, bonne, petite, 
&g4e, noire. 

B. Traduisez en fran^ais: 1. This hot soup. That dumb 
woman. A nice woman. Their pretty little boy. Her white 
stockings. 2. Some false stories. Two big (gros) spoons. 
Her long knife. Happy men {note ttoo cases of linking in this 
phrase). 3. What a nice boy! What a short lesson! What 
a big foot! 4. An English newspaper. An old Frenchman 
(see § 21). A tall (grand) Englishman. 5. Their new 
teacher. A poor (bad) teacher. Our old (» former) teacher. 
Ancient history. 6. Do you want any hot water? There is 
no hot water. 7. Are we in the classroom? We are (there). 
8. What do you do in the dining-room? We eat (in it). What 
do you eat (there)? We eat bread, meat, vegetables and fruit 
(there). 9. Do you have a good time at school? Yes, we 
have a very good time (nous nous amusons beaucoup [boku]) 
there. 10. Do you work or (do you) play at school? We work 
a great deal (there) and play a little (there). 11. I am going 
Qaway] this evening. What is your sister doing? She is 
going away this evening. 

C. Dict^, Lesson X, B. 

ExERasE IN Pronunciation 

(1) Prononcez et 6crivez en caract^res phon^tiques: mon 
ancienne (old = former) place, notre ch^re amie, un bel homme, 
tme grosse cuiller, une histoire fausse, ma nouvelle maison, 
une vieille maison, les beaux enfants, un vilain enfant, une 
courte le(on, une gentille petite fille, des enfants heureux. 

(2) As regards pronunciation, is the effect of adding the -c 
for the feminine the same with all adjectives? Compare, for 
example, jolie and grande. On this basis group the adjectives 
in §§ 51, 52, 53. 

(3) Pronounce slowly, with special attention to syllable diviaon 
and stress: salle d manger, je m'en vais, nous commen^ons, 
les sciences naturelles. 




56. Present Indicative of donner, finir, vendre 

I give, am giving, 

donn e [don] 
donn es [don] 
donn e [don] 
donn ons [dono] 
donn ez [done] 
donn ent [don] 

I finish, am finishing, 

fini s [fini] 

fin/ s [fini] 

fiiu t [fini] 

finiss ons [finiso] 

finiss ez [finise] 

Gniss ent [finis] 

/ sell, am selling, 

vend s [va] 
vend s [va] 
vend * [va] 
vend 0715 [vad5] 
vend ez [vade] 
vend ent [va:d] 

* Vendre is irregular in this one form. The regular verb rompre has 
romp^ but vendre is here given as being more useful for practice. 

Note. — The pronouns je, tu, il, etc., have been omitted in this paradigm 
and in some others to economize space in printing. They should be sup- 
plied in learning or reciting the paradigms. 

57. The General Noun. A noun used in a general sense 
takes the definite article in French, though not commonly 
in English: 

LTiomme est mortel. 

Les hommes sont mortels. 

Le miel est tres douz. 

Le cheval est un animal utile. 

Man is mortal. 

Men are mortal. 

Honey is very sweet. 

The horse is a useful animal. 

58. Tout. All, the whole, every = tout, with the follow- 
ing forms, which precede the article, when it is present: 

M. F. 

S. tout [tu] toute [tut] 

Toute ma vie. 

Tout le monde. 

Tous les mois. 

Toute la semaine. 

Tout homme, toute femme. 

Tous les hommes. 

Toute la joumee. 

M. F. 

PI. tous [tu] toutes [tut] 

All my life. 

Everybody ( = the whole world). 

Every month. 

The whole week. 

Every man, every woman. ; 

All the men. 

The whole day. 





la tMUe [bal] baU 

le bois [bwa] wood, woods 

la campagne pcfipap] country 
{in contrast with toum); k la 
campagne to or in the 

le champ [Sa] field 

un 6t6 [ete] summer; en M, 
l'6t6 in summer 

la famille [famij] family 

la f emme [fam3 woman, wife 

la fleur [fl(£:r3 flower 

la gare [ga:r] station 

le grand-pdre forapeir] grand- 

la grand'm^ [grdme:r] grand- 
uneheure [cbit] hour; deux 
heures [d^Bcetr] two o'clock 

un hiver [denivcrr] winter; en 
hiver [anive:r3, ITurer 
Qivcrr] in winter 

le lit Qi] bed 

le parent [parfi] kinsman, parent 

la poup^ Cpupe] doll 

le train [trt] train 

lea vacances /. [vakflrs] vacation 

la ville [vil] city, town; en ville 
in town 

la voiture [vwatytr] carriage, 
vehicle; en voiture in a 
carriage {as distinguished 
from other ways of trateUng) 

content (de) [kSta] glad (to) 
fatigu6 [fatige] tired 
tranquille [trOkil] quiet, alone 

(in the expression: leave 

utile [ytil] useful 

arriver [arive] arrive, oome 
attendre [ata:dr] wait for, 

dierdier [Saie] hunt for; 

aller chercher, go and get 
86 ooucher [sdkuSe] go to bed, 

lie down; nous nous oou- 

chons we go to bed, lie down 
il fait chaud [ilfejo^ it is warm, 

habiter [abite] live in, inhabit 
inviter (4) [fvite] invite 
marcher [marSe] walk, go {of 

train, tnitch, ttc.) 
mmiter [m5te] get (in), climb; 

monter i cheval ride horse* 

passer [pose] spend {of time)^ 

prendre [prfi:dr] take, get 
se preparer [saprepare] get ready 
voir [vwa:r] see 

commel [kdm] howl 
comme Pom] as, like 
k pied [apje] on foot 
si [si] so 

A. (1) 1. Nous habitons la ville de X (iks), mais nous 

aimons la campagne. 2. J'y vais avec ma famille tous les 
^iAs. 3. Nous y passons les vacances. 4. J'ai des parents k 
la campagne, mon grand-p^re, ma grand'm&re, deux oncles et 
une tante. 5. lis nous invitent k passer I'^t^ dans leur maison. 


6. Quand I'hiver est fini, il fait tres chaud en ville et nous nous 
pr^parons h aller a la eampagne. 7. Je prends ma poup6e, 
mon petit frere prend sa balle. 8. A une heure de Tapres-midi 
nous allons k la gare. 9. Le train arrive a deux heures et nous 
montons dans une voiture. 10. Le train marche vite et au 
bout de trois heures nous arrivons a la petite gare. 11. Notre 
grand'm^re et tons nos cousins nous attendent a la gare avec 
leur voiture. 12. Nous montons dans la voiture. 13. Les 
deux chevaux marchent lentement et nous avons le temps de 
voir les jolis champs et les beaux bois. 14. Tout est en fleurs. 
15. II y a des hommes et des chevaux qui travaillent dans les 
champs. 16. Notre grand-p^re nous attend a la maison. 
17. II est content de nous voir et nous sommes tres contents 
de le voir aussi. 18. Nous nous couchons (Je me couche) ^ 
neuf heures du soir parce que nous sommes fatigues, et nous 
dormons bien. 19. Les lits sont si bons et tout est tranquille. 
20. Comme j'aime la eampagne! Les enfants s'amusent beau- 
coup k la eampagne en 6t6. 21. Les gargons montent k cheval, 
les petites fiUes jouent avec leurs poup6es et cherchent des fleurs 
dans les champs et dans les bois. 

(2) Imagine thai the passage above [A (1)] refers to you. 
Answer the questions in complete sentences: 1. Habitez-vous la 
ville ou la eampagne? 2. Aimez-vous la ville en hiver ou 
en 6t6? 3. Ou passez-vous les vacances? 4. Quels parents 
avez-vous k la eampagne? 5. Est-ce que vous prenez [prane] 
(pres. of prendre) le train pour aller k la eampagne? 6. A 
quelle heure montez-vous dans le train? 7. Combien d'heures 
restez-vous dans la voiture? 8. Le train marche-t-il vite ou 
lentement? 9. Qui vous attend k la petite gare de eampagne? 
10. Est-ce que votre grand-pere y est aussi? 11. Allez-vous 
k la maison de vos parents k pied ou en voiture? 12. Est-ce 
que votre grand'mere est contente de vous voir? 13. fites- 
V0U8 fatigu^? 14. A quelle heure vous couchez-vous? 
15. Dormez-vous bien? 16. Mangez-vous bien? 17. Est- 
ce que les enfants aiment la eampagne? 18. Que font les 
gargons? 19. Que font les petites fiUes? 20. Est-ce que 
tes grandes filles montent k cheval aussi? 21. Est-ce que la 

§58 LESSON xm 63 

campagne est tranquille? 22. Plus tranquille que la ville? 
23. Fait-il chaud en ville en 6t^ {or l'6t^)? 24. Fait-il plus 
chaud qu'i la campagne? 25. Fait-il chaud k Saint-Louis 
[sglwi] en 6t6? 26. Fait-il plus chaud en 6t^ k Chicago ou 
ik Paris Cpari]? 

B. (1) Add the proper preserU endings and read aloud: J 'at- 
tend-, nous attend-, ib attend-; nous entend-; ils entend-; 
je travaill-; je comprend-; vous fini-; ils s'amus-; vous 
jou-; nous commeng-; nous nous appel^apl]-; il fini-; ila 
fini-; nous compren[lc5pran]- (observe the absence of the d); 
compren[k3pron3- vous? Je prenQprfi^-. U prenQprfi])-, nous 
prenCpran]-, vous prenQpran]-, ils prenn[prEn3-. {Note the 
absence of the d in the plural. Note also that the letter e stands 
for three different sounds in these five forms.) 

(2) a. Write in parallel columns the present of: finir, ouvrir, 
dormir {sing, je dors, tu dore, il dort; nous dormons, vous 
dormez, ils dorment), sortir, se servir {sing, je me sere, tu te 
aera, il se sert). 

b. Some verbs in -ir are not conjugated in the present like finir. 
Make a list of those you know that are not, and point out the 

C. Dites en franqais: 1. We open; he is opening; I am sleep- 
ing (asleep); are you asleep? Go out! Go to sleep! He is 
asleep. 2. We go out; we finish; we (make) use (of) these 
pens; he is finishing his lesson; they are finishing their les- 
son. 3. They are lea\nng (going out of) the classroom; they 
are sleeping; men (on) use (make use of) horses; we sell fruit 
(plural). 4. The whole house; all night (the whole night); 
all women, all horses. 5. Animals are useful to men; I am very 
fond of (aimer beaucoup) animals. 6. Do you like flowers? 
Very-much-indeed (beaucoup). 7. Little girls like dolls and 
little boys like horses, but my uncle's son, my little cousin 
Pierre, likes horses and dolls too. 

D. Dict^: Lesson XI, A (3). 

64 A FRENCH GRAMMAR §§59-61 

Exercise in Pronunciation 

(1) Note the pronunciation of villa, tranquille. Compare 
fille, travaille, gentille, oreille. Write all six in phonetic 

(2) Write B (1), in phonetic characters, after adding the 
proper endings, and read aloud. 


59. Partitives. In partitive constructions (§36), de 
alone is used: 

1. In a general negation (§ 36, 2): 

n n'a pas de plumes. He has no pens. 

2. When an adjective precedes the noun: 

Marie a dejolies fleurs. Mary has (some) pretty flowers. 

J'ai de votre argent. I have some of your money. 

But: J'ai des pommes mures. I have (some) ripe apples. 

3. Similarly when a noun after an adjective is understood: 
De bons rois et de mauvais. Good kings and bad (kings). 

4. After words of quantity in such expressions as these: 

Beaucoup de the. A great deal of tea (much tea). 

Une livre de viande. A pound of meat. 

Assez de viande. Enough (of) meat. 

Trop de pain. Too much bread. 

n n'a plus cTargent. He has no more money. 

60. The preposition de + a noun forms adjectival phrases: 
Une robe de soie. A silk dress. 

La feuille cTerable The maple leaf. 

61. Observe the following expressions of frequent use, 
formed from avoir + an undetermined noun: 

avoir besoin [bazwg] de, be in avoir soif [swaf], be thirsty. 

need of, need. avoir sommeil [someij], be sleepy, 

avoir chaud [So], be warm. avoir raison [rezo], be (in the) 

avoir froid [frwa], be cold. right. 

avoir /aim [fg], be hungry. avoir tort [toir], be (in the) wrong. 




■4 S 

s GO 

(61 LESSON xiy 66 


le chemin [laSm^] road (in aimer mieuz [ememj0] like 

general); le chemin de fer better, prefer 

[laSm£dfe:r] railroad avoir envie de [avwairflri] 

la joumee [sume] day {when wish, want 

duration is emphasized) boire [bwair^ drink 

la narration [narosjS^ compoei' je bois [bwa] I drink 

tion, theme voua buvez [bjrve] you drink 

la pomme [pom] apple porter [portej wear, have on, 

la robe [rob] dress carry 

la soie [swa3 silk r6pondre [rep3:dr] answer, 

le sommeil [samerj] sleep reply to 

le verre [vctr] glass {tumbler) trouver [truve] find, con- 

le voyage [vwajais] voyage, aider, think 

trip _ ^ , , 

assez [asej enough, rather 

malheureux [malci'r0] unfor- bien Cbjf ] well, very 

tunate, unhappy juste [5>'8t] exactly, just 

stuTant [si{iva] following trop [tro] too much, too many 

quelque chose Pcelka^oiz^ something 
de bonne heure [ddbonceir] early 
tout de suite [tutsqit] at once 

A. 1. II fait chaud dans les champs en 4t^. 2. Quand on 
a chaud, on a soif et on a envie de boire de I'eau froide. 3. Void 
un verre d'eau que je vais boire. 4. Quand on travaille dans 
les champs, on a aussi tr^s faim avant I'heure du diner. 5. On 
a besoin de manger quelque chose. 6. Le soir on a bien som- 
meil. 7. On a envie de se coucher de bonne heure. 8. On est 
content de voir arriver la nuit. 9. On a besoin de six heures de 
sommeil. 10. — Pardon, monsieur, vous a\ez tort. Moi, j'ai 
besoin de huit heures de sommeil toutes les nuits. 11. — Vous 
dormez beaucoup. Avez-vous sommeil, maintenant? 12. — 
Oui, madame, j'ai sommeil. J'ai grand besoin de dormir. J'ai 
froid aussi, et faim. 13. — Vous avez sommeil et froid et 
faim! Vous Hes trds malheureux. Allez vous coucher tout 
de suite. 14. — Vous avez raison. Je vais me coucher. 
mais d'abord j'ai grand besoin de manger quelque chose parce 
que j'ai tr^ faim. 15. Donnez-moi, s'il vous platt, une tasse 


de the, beaucoup de viande, et des legumes. 16. Nous avons 
assez de pain, mais il n'y a pas trop de beurre dans cette 
assiette. 17. J'ai besoin aussi de plus de cafe; je n'en ai 
pas assez. 18. — Buvez-vous du caf6? — Oui, j'en bois 
beaucoup. 19. — Eh bien, mon ami, vous avez tort. Ne 
buvez pas trop de caf6. 20. — Merci. Je n'en bois pas 
trop; j'en bois juste assez. 

B. Supply the proper form of expression for some, any, no, 

as demanded by the sentences: 1. J'attends aujourd'hui 

parents de la campagne. 2. fidouard n'a pas parents h 

la campagne. 3. II n'y a pas fruit cet ^t^. 4. Mon 

grand-p^re me donne bonnes pommes. 5. Nous cherchons 

pommes pour le dessert. 6. Ma sceur a jolies 

poup^es; elle a beaucoup poup^es. 7. Les petits gargons 

n'ont pas poup^es; ils ont bonnes balles. 8. Je 

vols fieurs; il ne voit pas fleurs; nous voyons 

jolies fieurs et vilaines; voyez-vous assez fleurs k 

la campagne? lis voient [vwa] (third plural) fleurs 

blanches dans les champs. 

C. (1) Traduisez: 1. When a man (use on) works in the 
fields in summer, he (on) gets (avoir) hungry and thirsty and 
he (on) wants some cold water. But do not drink too much 
cold water. 2. What do you want for your dinner? Some hot 
soup, some vegetables, meat and fruit. I am very hungry 
and I need a good dinner. 3. There is no water in her glass. 
There is no tea in his cup. They need cold water and hot tea. 
4. Are there any pupils in the classroom? Yes, there are 
some small boys and some pretty little girls. They are play- 
ing and are having a very good time. 5. These little girls 
have-on (porter) pretty silk dresses. Boys do not wear silk 
dresses. 6. These children play all day [long] (the whole 
day: " day " = joumee). They are hungry and sleepy at 
dinner time {k I'heure du diner). They need a great deal of 
sleep. 7. I need more sleep. You sleep too much. I invite 
you to go to bed (vous coucher) at once. 

(2) Fermez le livre et ecrivez comme narration un voyage d la 

{61 LESSON XIV 67 

D. R&pondez en fran^ais aux questions suivantes: 1. Habitez- 
V0U8 la campagne? 2. Restez-vous en ville en hiver? 3. Oil 
passez-vous I'^t^? 4. Y avez-vous des parents? 5. Quels 
parents avez-vous k la campagne? 6. Est-ce qu'ils vous in- 
vitent k aller les voir? 7. Quels parents avez-vous dans la 
ville? 8. Comment allez-vous k la campagne, k pied, k che- 
val ou en chemin de fer? 9. Od va-tron {do you go, does 
one go) pour prendre le train? 10. Est-ce qu'on prend le train 
k la maison? 11. Est-ce que le train marche vite? 12. Est- 
ce qu'on vous attend k la petite gare de campagne? 13. Qui 
est-ce qui vous attend k la gare? 14. Allez-vous k pied de 
la gare k la maison de vos parents? 15. Qui trouvez-vous k 
la maison? 16. Sont-ils contents de vous voir? 17. Et 
vous, 6tes-vou8 content de les voir? 18. A quelle heure 
vous couchez-vous? 19. Les enfants aiment-ils la campagne? 
20. Que font les gargons? 21. Et les petites filles, montent- 
elles k cheval aussi? 22. Que voyez-vous k la campagne? 
23. Aimez-vous mieux la campagne en hiver ou en 6t^? 

Exercise in Pronunciation 

(1) Pronounce: quand on, grand homme, neuf heures, dix 
heures, les eauz. See § IS, 1. 

(2) Pronounce sommeil. With what does it rhyme? 

(3) Pronounce: faim, pain, bien, ancien, besoin, latin, main. 

(4) Pronounce: eau, chaud, trop, quelque chose. Be care- 
ful about lip position. 

(5) a. Pronounce; soeur, leur, heure, beurre, ceil, fleur, 
jeune. Write each in phonetic characters. Pronounce: deux, 
bleu, yeuz, veut, monsieur, vieuz, peu. W^rite each in phonetic 

b. In the first group, is the vowel (spelled eu, ceu, ce) followed 
by a consonant sound? What is true of the vowel of the second 
group? Try to make a rule as to when these spellings give [oe], 
and when they give M. 

c. For which of these sounds is the mouth more open? For 
which are the lips more tense? In trying to make these sounds 
many English-speaking people fail to project the lips enough. 




Too often also they allow the tongue to move, giving a dis- 
agreeable r sound. Avoid this fault by all means. 

In view of the above (b), how do you explain the pronun- 
ciation of the second and third vowels of malheureux [maloer0]? 



Past Participles 


finir vendre 




finished sold 



donne [done] 

fini [fini] vendu [vfidy] 


ite [ete] 

63. Compound Tenses. They are formed from the past 
participle along with an auxiliary (usually avoir, sometimes 
etre, see § 155), as in the following section. 


/ have given, or 
/ gave, etc. 
j'ai donne [sedone] 
tu as donne [tyadone] 

The Past Indefinite 

I have finished, or 

I finished, etc. 
j'ai fini [sefini] 
tu as fini [tyafini] 

/ have sold, or 
I sold, etc. 
j'ai vendu Csevady] 
tu as vendu [tyavddy] 


/ have had, or / had, etc. 
j'ai eu [sey] 
tu as eu [tyazy] 
il a eu Cilay3 

I have been, or / was, etc. 
j'ai ete [seete] 
tu as ete [tyazete] 
il a ete Cilaete] 

65. Word Order. The auxiliary is the verb in a com- 
pound tense, and all rules of word order apply to it: 

Nous ne I'avons pas fini. 
N'a-t-elle pas ete ici? 

We have not finished it. 
Has she not been here? 

66. Use of Past Indefinite. It denotes not only what 
has happened or has been happening, as in English, but also 
what happened (= English past tense): 



J'ai fini mon ouvrage. I have finished my work. 

Elle a chante toute Ut matinee. She has been singing all morning, 

n a ete longtemps id. He was here for a long time. 

Poi quitte Paris I'hiver passe. I left Paris last winter. 

N.B. — The past indefinite is the ordinary past tense of French. 
For the past tense of narrative in the hterary style, see $ 148. 

67. Idiomatic Present Indicative. Besides its use in 
general, as in English, the present indicative is used idioniat- 
ically, in certain phrases, to denote what has been and still 
continues to be: 

Depuis quand etes-vous id? 
Je suis id depuis trois jours. 

How long have you been here? 
I have been here for three days 

{or for three days past, or for 

the last three days). 


une ann£e [ane^ year {when durar 

lion is emphasized) 
un arbre [denarbr] tree 

le bl6 [ble] wheat 

le dejeuner [desoene] lunch 

lafeuille [fcEij] leaf, sheet {qf 

la f orfit [fore] forest 

la matinee [matine] morning 

le mois [mwa] month 
un oiseau [wazo] bird 

le pays [pei] countrj', land 

le pommier [pomje] apple tree 

le raisin [rtzt] grapes 

la vigne [viji] grape vine 

le vin [v?2 wine 

agricole [agrikol] agricultural 
celSbre [sekbr] famous 
excellent [eksclQ] excellent 
Industrie! [Sdj'stricl] manu- 

passe [pose] past, last 
sec [sek]dry (§52) 
vert [v£:r] green 

chanter [Sate] sing 
couper [kupe] cut 
mfirir [myriir] get ripe, ripen 
TU [vy] seen {past participle) 
visiter [vizite] go to see (in 
detail), inspect 

aujourd'hui [osurdqi] to-day 
hier [je:r] yesterday 
huit jours [qisuir] a week 
longtemps P5ta] long (time) 
quinze jours [kS:z5u:r] two 

depuis [dapqi] since 
pendant [pddQ] during 

depuis quand [dapqika] since 

when, how long {conj.) 
si [si] if 


A. 1. Depuis quand etes-vous ici k la campagne? 2. — Nous 
sommes ici depuis deux mois. 3. — Que faites-vous? — Oh, 
nous nous amusons bien. 4. Hier j'ai pass6 toute la matinee 
k cheval et j'ai eu tres faim avant I'heure du dejeuner. 5. J'ai 
6te content de voir arriver le dejeuner. 6. Apres le dejeuner 
j'ai visits les bois et les champs avec mon oncle. 7. Nous 
avons regard^ le bl6, qui est beau cette ann^e. 8. II a m<iri 
pendant I'^t^; on va le couper. 9. Nous avons besoin de bl4 
pour faire le pain. 10. Le pain frangais est excellent. J'ai 
mang6 du pain aujourd'hui a mon dejeuner. 11. Puis nous 
avons visits les pommiers et les vignes. 12. Les pommes ne 
sont pas belles cette annee, mais le raisin est excellent. 13. On 
va en faire de bon vin. On n'a pas fait de tres bon vin I'ann^e 
passee. 14. II a fait trop froid en 6t6 et le raisin n'a pas 
bien mtiri. 15. Les vins frangais sont c^l^bres. On en 
voit tr^s peu en Am^rique maintenant. 16. La France est 
un pays agricole. La Belgique [belsik] est un pays indus- 
triel. 17. Dans les bois nous avons regard^ les beaux arbres. 
18. Leurs feuilles sont vertes et dans les arbres on entend chan- 
ter des oiseaux. 19. II y a de jolis bois en France. 20. Si 
vous allez en France, allez voir les forets de Chantilly CS^tiji] 
et de Fontainebleau [fotenblo]. 21. On ne coupe pas beau- 
coup d' arbres dans cea for^ts-la et il y en a qui sont tres vieux. 

B. (1) With what French words is the Idiomatic Present 
generally found? What verb form in English conveys the same 
meaning as the Idiomatic Present? 

(2) Traduisez: 1. We have been here for a week. 2. The 
piece of bread is too dry; it has been on the table for a fortnight 
(quinze jours). 3. How long have you been studying French? 
4. We have been studying French for three months. 5. How 
long have you been hungry? 6. I have been hungry since 
five o'clock. 7. Aren't you mistaken (wrong) ? No, I am right. 
8. Wheat ripens in summer. I saw a great deal in the fields 
in France. 9. We need wheat to make bread. 10. They 
(On) make a great deal of wine in France. 11. Very little is 
made (use on) in America. 12. You (On) hear many birds 
sing in (the) French forests (de la France). 

%e7 1MBBOS XV 71 

(3) What word do toe find after content before an infinitive t 
After inviter? Does the pure infinitive follow entendre or ie it 
preceded by a preposition f Notice in A, 18 the word order in 
French after entendre. In what two ways may the infinitive 
after entendre he translated into English? TrandaU: Pourquoi 
n'entend-on pas chanter les oiseauz en hiver? 

C. Traduisez: 1. We invited him (see ^ 65 for word order). 
They did not wait for him. She hunted for Pierre and Louise. 
2. The pupils finished their lessons. 3. We did not sell the 
bread. 4. We were {use past indef.) in the country last summer. 
Our cousins were not at the station yesterday. 5. I was 
hungry for a long time (see § 66, example 3). They were cold 
all the morning (la matinee). 6. It was (II a fait) cold last 
winter. Were you not thirsty yesterday? 7. We worked all 
summer. Did you wait for the train? Did you need the car- 
riage yesterday? 

D. R^ondez aux questions: 1. Oil passez-vous les vacances? 
2. Depuis quand 6tes-vous ^ la campagne? 3. Aimez-vous k 
monter iL cheval? 4. Avea-vous visits les champs? 5. Qu'avea- 
vous vu dans les champs? 6. Le bl6 est-il beau cette ann^? 
7. A-t-il mdri pendant I'hiver ou pendant I'^t^? 8. Est-ce 
qu'on va couper le bl6? 9. Que fait-on avec le bl6? 10. Ave«- 
vous vu des arbres? 11. Quel fruit les pommiers donnent-ils 
Q)ear)t 12. Et les vignes quel fruit donnent-elles? 13. Est-ce 
que les pommes sont bonnes cette ann^e? 14. Ont-elles mftri? 
15. Que fait-on avec le raisin? 16. Fait-on beaucoup de vin 
en France? 17. Fait-on beaucoup de \\n en Am6rique? 
18. Est-ce que la France est un paj's industriel? 19. Oii 
est-ce qu'on trouve de grands arbres? 20. Avez-vous \\s\i^ 
une forfit? 21. Est-elle grande ou petite? 22. Donnez les 
noms de deux for^ts c^l^bres en France. 23. Qu'est-ce qu'on 
voit dans une for^t en ^t^? 24. Qu'est-ce qu'on y entend? 
25. Voit-on des feuilles vertes en hiver? 26. Est-ce qu'on 
entend chanter les oiseaux en hiver? 

R Dict^: Lesson XIII, A (1). 

72 a french grammar §§ 6&-70 

Exercise in Pronunciation 

(1) Write phonetically and read aloud: nous avons eu, il 
a eu, vous avez ete, depuis, depuis quand, ils ont vendu. 

(2) Is the word eu pronounced as you would expect? Note 
that this speUing combination is pronounced thus only in 
forms of avoir. What two other sounds does it stand for? Is 
there any way of knowing which sound value it should have in 
a given word? Compare Lesson XI,V, Exercise in Pronuncia- 
tion, (5), 6. 


68. Comparatives. Place plus = more, moins = less, or 
aussi = as, before the adjective, and que = than or as 
after it, to form the comparative: 

n est plus grand que Jean. He is taller than John. 

n est moins grand que Jean. He is less tall than (not so taU 

as) John. 
n est aussi grand que Jean. He is as tall as John. 

69. Superlatives. 1. Place the definite article or a pos- 
sessive adjective before plus or moins to form the superla- 

Marie est la plus jeune de toutes. Mary is the youngest of all. 
Obs.: La plus jeune des deux. The younger of the two. 

Note. — In, after a superlative, is translated by de: le meilleur eleve 
de la classe, the beat student in the class. 

2. Do not omit the definite article when the superlative 
follows the noun: 

La le?on la plus difficile. The most difficult lesson. 

Mes livres les plus utiles. My most useful books. 

70. Irregular Comparison. Observe the irregular forms: 

bon [b5j. good meilleur [mejceir], better le meilleur [la mejoeirj 

the best 

§§ 71-73 LESSON XVI 78 

71. Comparison of Adverbs. 1. They are compared by 
plus and moins like adjectives, but le in the superlative is 

2. Observe the irregular forms: 

bien [bjf], well mieux [mj0], better le mieux Qo mj0], (the) beet 
peu [p0], little moins [mw£3, less le moins [la mwt'], (the) least 

72. Present Indicative of aller, to go (irreg.) 

/ go, am going, etc. We go, are going, etc. 

je vais [save] nous aliens [nuzal9] 

to vas [tyva] vous allez [vuzale] 

fl va [ilva] ils vont [ilv5] 

73. Imperative of atter, to go 

va [va], go alloR5 Cal5l let us go allez [ale], go 


1' air m. {tit^ air la rose [rotz^ rose 

la cerise Pasriiz] cherry la route [rut] highway, main 

le cerisier [lasrizje] cherry tree road, route 

le chou CSu] cabbage la rue [ry] street 

les haricots verts Qe ariko ve:r] la tulipe [tylip] tulip 

string beans {see § 17, 6) 

r herbe /. [crb] grass difficile [difisil] hard, difficult 

le jardin [sardf] yard, lawn, fruitier [frqitje] fruit bearing 

park, garden meilleur [mejcEtr] better 

le lapin [lapf] rabbit quelque [kdka] some; in pi. 

la partie [parti] part, game, party (rmuiUy) few 

la peche [peiS] peach utile [ytil] useful 
lespetits pois Qeptipwa] green 

peas mieux [mj0] better 

la poire [pwair] pear moins [mwe] leas, fewer 

le poirier [pwarje] pear tree toujours [tusutr] always, still 
le pommier [pomje] apple tree 

la pomme de terre [pamdatcir] aussi . . . que [osi ka] as ... as, 

(Irish) potato (ae€ § 68) 


A. (1) 1. Nous sommes toujours k la campagne. 2. II fait 
moins chaud k la campagne et I'air y est meilleur que dans la 
ville. 3. Les grandes routes et les chemins sont plus jolis 
que les rues, et j'aime mieux les fleurs des champs et les feuilles 
vertes des grands arbres que les petits jardins des maisons de 
ville. 4. Dans la vUle les jardins sont tres petits et beaucoup 
de maisons n'en ont pas. 5. Dans ces petits jardins on voit 
un peu d'herbe et quelques arbres. 6. A la campagne les 
jardins sont plus grands. 7. On y trouve des fleurs, des arbres 
fruitiers, des legumes, de I'herbe. 8. Nous aimons mieux les 
jardins de campagne que les jardins de ville. 

(2) 1. Allons voir le jardin de mon grand-p^re. Voila les 
legumes. 2. Dans cette partie du jardin il y a des pommes 
de terre, des choux, des petits pois et des haricots verts. 
3. Aimez-vous les choux? J'aime mieux les pommes de terre, 
les petits pois et les haricots verts que les choux. 4. Le 
chou est le legume le plus utile pour les lapins. lis aiment 
beaucoup les choux. 5. Dans cette autre partie du jardin il 
y a des fleurs et des arbres fruitiers. 6. Voici des roses et 
des tulipes. Voil^ des cerisiers, des pommiers et des poiriers. 
7. La cerise et la poire sont excellentes, mais la pomme et la 
p^che sont meilleures. 8. La peche est le meilleur de tous 
les fruits, mais elle est moins utile que la pomme. 9. Nous 
avons besoin de legumes et de fruits pour la table. 10. II y 
a peu d'arbres fruitiers dans la ville, mais il y en a beaucoup 
dans le jardin de mon grand-p^re a la campagne. 

B. (1) Supply the missing words: 1. quand 6tes-vous 

dans la classe? 2. Nous y depuis neuf heures. 3. De- 

puis 6tudiez-vous le frangais? 4. Je 1' depuis deux 

mois. 5. Le pain est sur la table hier. 6. C'est I'hiver, 

il froid depuis un mois. 7. J' froid depuis huit 


(2) Supply the proper form of the verb given in the infinitive: 

1. (attendre) II son pere depuis une heure. 2. (mtirir) 

Ce hU depuis huit jours. 3. (chanter) Les oiseaux 

depuis cinq heures. 4. (avoir) Pierre faim depuis onze 

heures. 5. (etre) Nous k la campagne depuis quinze 

§73 LESSON XYI 75 

jours. 6. (voir) Nous avons hier une belle for^t. 

7. (finir) Nous nos lemons. 8. (miirir) Les pommes 

vite. 9, (aller) Ces enfants k I'^cole tous les 

jours. 10. (aller) Nos amis k la campagne tous les ^t^s. 

11. (6tre) II a longtempe en France. 12. (6tre) II 

depuis longtempe en France. 

(3) a. WhcU u the difference between meilleur and mietix? 
Is this clear from the English equivalerUf 

b. Note carefully the difference between: II y a un peu de 
beurre sur la table, and il y a peu de {rwt much; negative force) 
beurre sur la table. We cannot say II y a un peu de pommes 
sur mes arbres; we must say il y a quelques ponunes sur mes 
arbres. Un peu can be used only before nouns in what number? 
What is the case in regard to quelques? What is the force of 
II y a eu peu de pommes de terre Tannic pass^? Of Nous allons 
avoir quelques choux cette ann^ pour noe lapins? Of Nous 
allons avoir peu de choux cette ann^ pour noe lapins? Whai 
is the difference between the last two senleruxsT 

(4) a. Scrivez au tableau noir au comparatif et au superlalif: 
bon, bien; petit, peu; difficile, excellente, ancienne, s^he, 
vilain, gentille. 

b. Which of these adjectives usually precede or follow the noun t 

c. On the basis of A (1), 3, make a rule for the gender of an 
adjective qualifying ttoo nouris of different genders. 

C. (1) dcrivez en franqais: 1. The most useful vegetable. 
The hardest lesson. The hardest part of the lesson. 2. My 
largest rabbit. My best j)each. His best pear. His most 
beautiful rose. 3. Our most difficult lesson. Little money. 
A little money. 4. Fewer green peas. A few (some) green 
peas. 5. We work better. We dine better. Our dinner is 
better. 6. Fruit {pi) is better than cabbie ijpl.). She hears 
better. They see better. 7. We write better. A better book. 
Fewer string beans. 8. A little tired. Not very tired. A 
little boy. 9. A few little boys. Fewer little girls. Not many 
(= few) little girls. 

(2) Traduisez: 1. I prefer the country to the city (like 
better . . . than . . .) in summer. 2. It is less warm and 


the air is better. 3. We went (use etre) to the country last 
summer. 4. Our relatives have a large yard (jardin), but 
they have little fruit this year. 5. It (Ce) is not a good year 
for fruit (plural). Last year was better. 6. The leaves and 
grass were greener last summer. 7. I like the flowers too. 
Roses are the most beautiful of all flowers. 

D. Compose questions to which the following sentences may be 
considered replies: 1. Je suis -^ la campagne. 2. Je passe 1' hi ver 
en ville. 3. J'aime mieux la campagne en 6t6. 4, Les chemins 
sont plus joUs que les rues. 5. Oui, madame, les routes sont 
plus grandes que les chemins. 6. II y a plus d'herbe a la 
campagne. 7. J'aime mieux les pommes de terre que les 
choux. 8. Les lapins mangent les choux. 9. Voici la partie 
la plus difficile de cette legon. 10. Voila le plus grand des 
arbres. 11. J'ai un petit jardin devant ma maison de ville. 
12. Le jardin de ma maison de campagne est plus joli. 13. Je 
travaille depuis huit heures. 14. Nous n'avons pas besoin 
de ces livres. 15. Non, la Belgique est un pays industriel. 
16. Nous allons passer huit jours k New- York. 

E. Dict^e: Lesson XV, A. 


74. Agreement of Past Participle. 1. In a compound 
tense with avoir the past participle agrees in gender and 
number with a direct object which precedes it: 

J'ai fini mes lemons. I have finished my lessons. 

Je les ai finies. I have finished them. 

Quels livres a-t-il achates? What books has he bought? 

N.B. — Remember that the participle does not agree with en, e.g., 
Avez-vous des plumes? Oui, j'en ai achete hier. Have you any pens? 
Yes, I bought some yesterday. 

2. When used as an adjective, the past participle agrees 
like an adjective: 

La plume achetee hier. The pen bought yesterday. 




75. Some Relatives. 1. The relative pronouns of most 
common use are qui as subject, and que as direct object of 
a verb: 

Lft dame ^ta chante. 

Les livres qui sont ici. 

Les pommes que j'ai acheties. 

The lady who sings- 
The books which are here. 
The apples that I have bou^t. 

2. The relative pronoun, often omitted in English, is 
never omitted in French: 
Le pain que j'ai achete hier. The bread I bou^t yesterday 


le cigare [sigair] cigar 
la cigarette [sigarct] cigarette 
la cuisine [kqizin] kitchen, cook- 
la cuisiniire [kqizinjezr] cook 
le facteuT [faktoe:r] postman, 

le franc [fro] franc 
le kilo(gramme)Ckilo(gram)] kilo- 
gram {about 2 lbs., 3 oz.) 
la laitue [Icty] lettuce 
le march6 [marSe] market 
les messieurs [me8J0] gentlemen 
le poulet [pule] chicken 
les provisions /. [pro viz j 5] food, 

la salade [salad3 salad 

Cher CSerr] dear, costly 
quelqu'un Pcelkde]] some one 

acheter [aSte] buy 
6crit [ekri] written (paai part.) 
itre k [e:tr a] belong to 
faire visite i go to see, pay a 

fumer [fjTne] smoke 
ouvrir [uvri:r] open 
ouvert [uve:r] open {ptul par* 

ticiple of ouYrir) 
payer [prje] pay for, pay 
prendre [prfitdr] take, get 
pris [pri] got, taken {pcut par- 
ticiple of prendre) 

alors [al3:r] then, therefore 
comme [lum] as 
encore [dk3:r] again, still, yet 
ensuite [oisqit] then, in the 

next place 
peut-4treCp0te:tr]] perhaps 

A. 1. Nous avons 6t^ (wen/) au march^ ce matin. 2. Nous 
avons pris nos provisions pour ce soir, parce que nous allons 
avoir des amis k diner. 3. Nous avons pris des legumes, 
des fruits, des fleurs et deux poulets. 4. Tout est cher main- 
tenant. Nous avons pay6 les deux poulets douze francs. 
5. Comme fruit nous avons pris du raisin blanc que nous 


avons pay6 quatre francs le kilo(-gramme). 6. Les roses et 
les tulipes que nous avons prises pour la table sont cheres 
aussi. Nous les avons payees dix francs. 7. Voici les 
legumes que nous avons achetes: des pommes de terre, de la 
laitue et des petits pois. 8. D'abord nous allons manger le 
potage. 9. Puis on va apporter des pommes de terre avec 
des petits pois. 10. Ensuite on va apporter (servir) le poulet 
et la salade de laitue et puis, apres, nous allons avoir du raisin 
blanc. 11. Ensuite nous allons prendre du caf6 et les mes- 
sieurs vont fumer des cigares ou des cigarettes. 12. La cuisi- 
niere qui est dans la cuisine prepare maintenant un excellent 
diner. 13. J'ai tr§s faim depuis longtemps. 14. Je vais etre 
content de manger quelque chose. 

B. (1) The past participle of ouvrir is ouvert; of ecrire, 

ecrit; of prendre, pris; of comprendre, (?). Pronounce 

the feminine form of these participles. Is the change one of spelling 
simply, or of spelling and sound both f What is tru£ of the change 
in participles like fini, eu, vu, achete, fume? Compare with 
these the following adjectives, giving in each case the feminine 
form: un, grand, petit, mauvais, heureux, facile, faux, gentil, 
ancien, gros, vieux, joli, court, vilain, quel, bleu. See 
Lesson XII, Exercise in Pronunciation, (2). 

(2) Substitute pronouns for the object nouns, making the neces- 
sary changes: 1. II a mang^ les pommes de terre. 2. Nous 
avons icTit deux lettres h nos parents. 3. La bonne a apport^ 
les cuillers. 4. Nous avons pass6 nos vacances chez nos 
parents. 5. II a ouvert la porte. 6. J'ai 6crit cette lettre. 

7. Quelqu'un a pris nos cerises. 8. Qui a mang6 leurs poires? 

(3) Supply the correct form of the participle: 1. (Ecrire) 

Voici les lettres que mon frere a . 2. (prendre) La plume 

que vous avez sur la table est au professeur. 3. (acheter) 

Je n'aime pas la viande que la bonne a . 4. (ouvrir) A 

qui est la lettre qu'il a ? 5. (ouvrir) La lettre qu'il a 

hier est k Jean. 6. (visiter) J'aime la belle foret que nous 

avons aujourd'hui. 7. (Ecrire) Comment trouvez-vous 

{What do you think of) la lettre que j'ai k notre tante? 

8. (ouvrir) Allez fermer la porte que cet enfant a , s'il 

}75 LE880N xvn 79 

V0U8 plait. 9. (ouvrir) Cette porte n'est pas . 10. (6crire) 

Ma lettre n'est pas encore . 11. (prendre) Je n'aime pas 

la voiture que vous avez pour moi. 

(4) Reply to the questions, using in each case a pronoun object: 
1. Qui a 6crit cette lettre? 2. Est-ce que votre oncle I'a 
ouverte? 3. L'avez-vous prise sur ma table de travail? 
4. Avez- vous vu les lettres que nous avons 6crite8? 6. Est-ce 
que quelqu'un a pris nos peches? 6. Pierre a-t-il 6crit ces 
deux lettres? 7. A-t-il donn6 les lettres au facteur? 8. Le 
facteur a-t-il pris les lettres que vous avez ^crites ce matin? 

(5) Use correctly in sentences: mieux, aiissi . . . que, depuis, 
depuis quand, peu de, un peu de, quelques, meilleur, on, de 
bonne heure, tons les soirs. 

(6) How does the French use oj the tense compounded with 
the present of the auxiliary (perfect, or past indefinite) differ from 
its xise in English? Did you ever hear a Frenchman speaking 
English use sentences like these: " I have seen him yesterday? " 
"I have arrived in America two months ago?" How do you 
explain his mistake t 

(7) Thus far what three uses of the present form of verbs have 
we had? Compare: je travaille, il arrive demain, je travaille 
depuis I'heure du dejeuner. What two uses of the perfect form 
{past indefinite) have we hadf 

C. (1) Vary A (orally or in writing) using subject pronouns 
of other persons and numbers. 

(2) a. Note that the French idiom often differs from the Eng- 
lish. The French say: ^coutez le professeur; regardez le poulet; 
ils ont pay6 leur diner; nous attendons le train. What is the 
general difference here between French and English f 

b. Nous entrons dans la salle, la cuisini^re entre dans la 
cuisine. How does this verb contrast with the four given above f 

c. In A, (2) and (3), what special meaning does the verb prendre 

(3) Write French sentences in which you use correctly in the 
preserU and in the past indefinite: ^couter, payer, regarder, 
aimer mieux, avoir besoin de, avoir raison, faire chaud, avoir 
chaud, prendre. 


D. Traduisez: 1. Have you been to market? Yes, I was 
there early this moming, to get our provisions for this even- 
ing. I got some meat and vegetables. 2. The fruit (plural) 
that I see is dear and is not very good, but the flowers that 
we bought are very pretty. There they are. 3. We expect 
some friends this evening who are very fond of (aimer beau- 
coup) flowers. The gentlemen hke to (k) smoke. Here are 
some cigars and cigarettes I bought. 4. We are going to have 
an excellent dinner: soup, potatoes, peas, chicken, a lettuce 
salad, and then, as dessert, grapes, and, afterwards, coffee. 
5. How long have your friends been here? They have been 
here for a week. 6. They are visiting (6tre en visite chez) 
their relatives. They are going to stay a few days longer (still 
a few days), perhaps a fortnight (fifteen days). 

LESSON xvin 

76. Tenses with etre. 1. The verb etre + the past 
participle form the compound tenses of all reflexive verbs 
(§ 82) and of some intransitive verbs, of which the following 
are the most important: 

aller [ale] go, be (of health) naitre [nertr] be bom 

arriver [arive] arrive, get (to) rentrer [ratre] come back again 

descendre [desa:dr] go down, stop partir [parti: r] go away, leave 

(at a hotel) rester [rrste] stay, remain 

devenir [davniir] become sortir (de) [sortiir] go out 

entrer (dans) [atre] enter, go in tomber [tSbe] fall 

monter [mSte] go up, get (in), climb venir [vaniir] come 

Note. — It will be observed that all of these intransitive verbs, except 
rester, denote a change of place or state. 

2. The past participle of a verb (not reflexive) conjugated 
with etre agrees with the subject, thus: 

/ have arrived, etc. 
je suis arrive(e) [arive] nous sommes arrive(e)« [arive] 

tu es arrive(e) [arive] vous etes arrive(e)s [arive] 

U (elle) est arrive(e) [arive] ils (elles) sent arrive(e)s [arive] 







' -^^U^lMUl 


r' ' 

.. i^^nSHBBMSHI 





Copi/rigU, Undencood A Underwood 

Le March£ aux Fleitrs, Paris 





la com^die PcomedO comedy 
le concert [kSaeir] concert 
la f CIS [fwa3 time 
ime f ois one time, once 
le lundi [Idedi] Monday 
le magasin [magaz^] shop, store 
le musee [myze3 museum 
la musique [myzik] music 
le palais [palp] palace 
le pare [park] park 
la piftce [pjes] play, room 
le restaurant [restorfl] restau- 
le salon {jsalS} drawing room, 

le taxi [taksij taxi 
le temps [ta] time (period), 

le thIAtre [teartr] theater, 8ta(?e 
le tramway [tramwe] street car, 

•ller [ale] go, be (cf heaUh) 
s'en aller [sdnale] go away 
arriver [arivel arrive, get (to) 
descendre [de8d:dr] go down, stop 
portir (de) [parti: r] go away, leave 
tomber [t5be] fall 
venir [vani:r] oome; vena [vany] 

come (past part.) 
causer [koze] talk, chat 
mener [mane] take, lead 
quitter [kite] leave, quit 
rire [ri:r] laugh: ri fri] laughed 

(past part.) 

directement [direkt(d)md] di- 
rectly, straight 
midi [midi] noon 
minuit [minqi] midnight 
partout [partu] everj-where 
Chez [Se] at the house (office) of, 

A. (1) 1. No6 parents de la campagne sont ches nous depuis 
huit jours. 2. Nous sommes trte contents de les voir. 3. lis 
sent arrives lundi par le train de midi. 4. Nous ne sommee 
pas all^ les chercher h la gare. 5. lis ont pris un taxi k la 
gare et ils sent venus directement k la maison. 6. lis ne sent 
pas descendus h un h6tel. 7. Nous les menons partout pour 
les amuser. 8. Nous avons pris le tramway et nous avons 
visits les diff^rentes parties de la ville. 9. Nous les avons 
men6s aux grands magasins de la ville, aux mus^, et au con- 
cert pour entendre de la musique. 10. Nous les avons men^ 
deux fois au th^&tre pour voir jouer* des pi^es. 11. Nous 
avons 6t6 hier soir au th^dtre. 12. Nous sommes entrfe dans 
la salle k huit heures et nous avons trouv6 nos places. 13. On 

* Obeerve the word order here. Compare for position and translation 
with the infinitive after voir (see XIV, A, 8) and entendre (XV, B, 3). 


a jou6 le Bourgeois gentilhomme nburswasatijam] de Moli^re 
qui nous a beaucoup amuses. 14. C'est une excellente com^die 
et nous en avons beaucoup ri. 15. Nous sommes sortis du 
th64tre apres minuit. 16. La nuit 6tait (was) tr^s noire et un 
de nos cousins est tomb6. 

(2) 1. Nous sommes rest6s quelque [kelka] temps au salon 
pour causer avant d'aller nous coucher. 2. Aujourd'hui nous 
sommes tous [tusj tres fatigues, mais notre tante et deux de 
nos cousines sont parties de bonne heure. 3. Elles vont 
visiter le palais et le pare de Versailles |~versaij]. 4. Demain 
toute la famille va voir le grand march^ de Paris, les Halles 
[le al] (see § 17, 5), et ce soir nous allons les mener diner dans 
un des grands restaurants. 5. lis vont rester encore quelques 
jours chez nous. 6. lis vont partir dans huit jours. 

B. (1) Supply the auxiliary of the past indefinite tense and 
use the proper form of the participle: 1. (entrer) Nous 

; (partir) elle ; (aller) elles au march^; 

(monter) nous dans la voiture. 2. (descendre) 

Madame Durand [dyra] k I'hdtel Crillon [krij5]. 

3. (arriver) La petite fille hier chez son grand-pere. 

4. (sortir) Monsieur n'est pas k la maison; il tout de 

suite apr^s le dejeuner. 5. (aller) Les enfants se 

coucher de bonne heure. 6. (entrer) Les ^l^ves 

dans la classe. 7. (venir) Elles ne pas h, I'^cole 

aujourd'hui. 8. (partir) Nos amis hier pour la 

France; (quitter) ils Chicago lundi. 9. (quitter) 

Nous notre amie dans la rue et elle* 

tout de suite. 10. (quitter) Nous la apr^s le 


(2) a. Observe the difference in meaning and use between 
aller, s'en aller, partir, sortir, quitter. We say in French: je 
vais chez moi apres la classe, but we do not say: la classe est 
finie, je vais; instead, we say, je pars, je m'en vais. That is, 
with aller alone some expression of place is usually added. Ex- 
amples: nous allons dans le jardin; nous y allons; il va en 
France; il y va. Aller alone does not mean " leave, go away." 

• Use the proper form of s'en aller. 

§ 76 LESSON xvin 83 

For that we use partir or s'en aller. Study the different mean>- 
ings: je vais k New- York demain; k quelle heure partez-vous? 
Je pars de Chicago (je quitte Chicago) demain k 9 heures; 
il est all6 k la campagne hier; il est parti (s'en est all6) hier 
matin; il a quitte le train k la petite gare. Is quitter transitive f 
What auxiliary does it take? Observe too that the English " come " 
is often expressed in French by arriver: je suis arriv6 par le trfun 
de huit heures. 

b. Write a group of sentences about a trip to the country in 
which you use correctly aller, partir, quitter. 

C. (1) Sortir means " to go out ": je sors de la salle k manger 
apr^s le diner; il sort de sa chambre; nous sommes sortis de 
la cuisine. Oft est la cuisinidrc? Elle est sortie. Est-ce que 
Monsieur Hugo est chez lui (at home)? Non, mademoiselle, 
monsieur est sorti. 

(2) Observe that the present tense of servir, partir, sortir, dormir 
is not inflected like that of finir, miirir. Compare Lesson XIII, 
B, (2). Write and read aloud the present tense of these six verbs. 
Note that servir alone means " to serve,** and that used with the 
personal object pronoun (reflexive) and the preposition de (se 
servir de) it means " to use " " make use of." Observe also that 
the past participle of venir is different from that of other verbs in 
-ir. Mon frSre est venu nous voir hier; elles sont venues de 
bonne heure. 

D. (1) Rewrite A, substituting une de mea cousines for noe 
parents and je for nous, where the sense allows it. Pay especial 
attention to the use of auxiliaries and to participle agreement. 

(2) What seems to be the differerux of meaning between temps 
arui fois in A (1) 10 and (2), 1? 

Exercise in Pronuncution 

(1) What ways do you know of spelling the sound [e] ? Pro- 
nounce: vous fetes, mon frfere, muette, la craie. 

(2) Note the pronunciation of tous in nous sommes tous 
[tus] trfes fatigues. In this case tous is a pronoun. Contrast 
the pronunciation of Tous mes amis sont partis, and lis sont 


tous partis; of Tous les restaurants sont ferm6s, and Tous 
sont fermes. How may you tell when tous is an adjective and 
when it is a pronoun? 


(1) What words — opposites or synonyms — are suggested by 
the following (in case of nouns, always supply the proper definite 
or indefinite article): plus, peu, facile, blanc, long, vieux, joli, 
heureux, monter, s'en aller, 6t6, froid, raison, miir, agricole, 
campagne, chemin, entrer, arriver, midi. 

(2) Supply words that make sense: 1. Le petit gargon joue 

k la ; la petite fiUe j avec sa . 2. Pour manger 

de la viande nous avons besoin d'un et d'une . 3. On 

mange les legumes dans une et on boit le caf4 dans une 

. 4, Nous travaillons beaucoup a I'^cole; nous faisons 

du et de 1' et des et de V . 5. Je Us le 

le Temps (journal c^lebre de Paris) tous les . 6. Nous 

allons nous parce que nous sommes fatigues. 7. II 

chaud en ville en . 8. Nous allons les vacances 

k la . 9. Je un taxi pour aller k la . 10. A 

la gare j 'attends le . 11. Le train et je 

dans une . 12. Mes parents sont contents de me . 

13. Nous allons voir les et les . 14. Dans les 

champs nous voyons des et du miir. 15. Dans les 

bois nous voyons des avec leurs vertes et nous 

chanter les . 16. J'^cris une k ma m^re. 17. La 

bonne a achet6 un (adverb of quantity) de beurre. 

(3) In your answer, enumerate all the objects that may properly 
be included: Qu'est-ce qu'on voit k la campagne (les animaux, 
les legumes, les fruits, etc.)? 

(4) Qu'est-ce qu'on achate (Sd sing, present) au march6? 

(5) 1. Quand on achate quelque chose, que faut-il (must 
one) faire? 2. Que fait-on avec une poup6e? 3. Que fait-on 
pendant le diner? 4. Que fait-on au concert? 5-7. Que 
fait-on avec un couteau? avec une plume? avec la laitue? 


8. Pourquoi est-ce qu'on mange? 9. Pourquoi est-ce qu'on 
bolt? 10. Que faitrOD quand on a sommeil? 

(6) Pourquoi va-t-on au th6&tre? au concert? au march^T 
au magasin? au restaurant? k la campagne? dans les champe? 
dans les bois? 

(7) Quels legumes aimez-vous? Quels fruitfi? Que boit-on 
(3d sing. pres. of boire) chez vous? 

(8) Quels parents avez-vous? 

(9) Distinguish {by examples of correct usage or by explanO' 
tion) between the use of fois and temps {see Lesson XVIII, A); 
of aller and partir (s'en aller) ; of partir and quitter; of partir 
and sortir; of dcpuis and depuis quand; of avant and devant; 
of meilleur and mieux; of peu and un peu; of un peu and 
quelque(s); of joli and beau; of \ieux and ancien; of gentil 
and joli; of je prends and je mdne (1st sing, pres.); of ^couter 
and entendre; of com6die and pi^ce; of Bervir and se servir 
de; of cher in ch^re cousine and le poulet est cher; of voir 
arid regarder; of il fait chaud and il a chaud. i » 

(10) Scrivez au plurid: monsieur, animal, ceil, ciel. Au 
fSminin: blanc, vert, tout, sec, court, muet, long, groe, vieux, 
nouveau, gentil. 

(11) Conjuguez au prisent: regarder, chercher, faire, aller, 
voir, miirir, ouvrir, partir, dormir, servir, entendre, comprendre, 
prendre, ^rire. 

(12) tlcrivez d la premihe personne (first person) du pluriel du 
passi indifinx: chercher, quitter, faire, fitre, aller, voir, sortir, 
attendre, prendre, ouvrir, ^rire, descendre, monter, s'en aller, 
se coucher, s'appeler. 

(13) Scrivez en fran^is: 1. Belgium is an mdustrial couotry. 
2. France is an agricultural country. 3. There are many fields 
in France'. 4. There are also many forests and there are some 
that are very old. 5. Their trees are tall and beautiful. 
6. One hears many birds sing in the green leaves. 7. The 
lYench fields are beautiful this year. 8. The wheat has ripened 
during the summer and they are going to cut it. 



77. Pronoun Objects. 1. The personal pronoun has, for 
the indirect object of the third person, the following forms: 

lui [Iqi], (to, for) him, (to, for) her. leiir [Iceir], (to, for) them. 

2. Lui and leur precede the verb (§ 30), but follow le, la, 


Nous lui parlons. We speak to him (to her). 

Je la lui donne. I give her it (it to her). 

Je les leur donne. I give them (to) them. 

78. Observe the following peculiarities of pronunciation 
and spelling: 

1. commencer, to begin, — nous conimen$;ons. The c [s] of the stem 
is written g [s] before o of the ending (cf. § 5, 4). 

2. manger, to eat, — nous mangeons. The g [s] of the stem ie 
written ge [3] before o of the ending (§ 19, 2). 

3. mener [mane], to lead, take (someone somewhere), je mene [men], 
tu menes [men], il mene [msn], nous menons [numno], vous menez 
[vumne], ils menent [men]. 

In this case the change affects both the spelling and the pronuncia- 
tion. The vowel [a], called mute e or feminine e, becomes [e] when 
the syllable stress falls on it, as in four forms of the present of mener. 
This sound [s] is here spelled e. The shift of stress occurs in those 
forms in which the [a] of the stem would be followed by a single con- 
sonant + e mute (cf. § 12, 1, n.). 


Ie bonbon [bobS] (piece of) candy le mouchoir [mu^wair] handker- 

la bottine [botin] shoe, high shoe chief 

le chapeau [Sapo] hat la paire [pe:r] pair 

la chaussure [Sosy.r] footwear le prix [pri] price 

la chemise QaSmiiz] shirt Ie Soulier [sulje] shoe, low shoe 

la cravate [kravat] cravat, neck- ^^^^ ^^^-^ ^j^^ 

1 /* N , i-/i. M 1-1 1, m§me [meim] same 
Ie (faux-) col r(fo)kol] collar r t *^-*., 

, . , 7- \. -r , ! pauvre [poJvr] poor, unfortu- 

le marchand [marSa] shopkeeper, ^^^ 

^^^^ ^^ plusieurs [plyzjcEsr] several 

§78 LESSON XIX 87 

EXERCISE XIX (Contintted) 

accompagner [akSpajieJ go rentrer [ratre] return (home), 
with, accompany come in again 

appeler [aple] call 

oourir [kuri:r] nm, run about; bon march^ [bSmarSe] chei^ 
couru Ckury3 (past participle (invarioMe) 

of courir) enfin [afe] finally, at length 

demander [damdde] ask, ask for souvent [suva] often 

A. 1. Que nous sonunes fatigu^! 2. Nous avons beau- 
coup couru aujourd'hui. 3. Mes cousins sont allds 2t plusieurs 
magasins et je les ai accompagn^. 4. Nous sommes entree 
d'abord chez un marchand de chapeaux. 5. Un de mes cousins 
a demand^ un chapeau. 6. Le marchand lui montre un joli 
chapeau. 7. Mon cousin lui dit: Combien, monsieur? 
8. Trois dollars [dolar], r^pond le marchand, et mon cousin 
I'achdte. 9. J'en ai pris un aussi au m^me prix, 10. Ensuite 
nous sommes all^ chez un marchand de chaussures oil Ton * 
nous a montr6 des bottines et des souliers. 11. Nous avons 
achet4 une paire do bottines pour notre cousine et deux paires 
de souliers. 12. Les chaussures ne sont pas tr^ bon march6 
maintenant. 13. Nous les avons payees bien cher. 14. Puis 
nous sommes entr^ dans un grand magasin. 15. Un de mes 
cousins a demand^ des chemises, des mouchoirs, des faux-cols 
et des cravates. 16. Le marchand lui en a montr^ de tr^ 
jolis. 17. II en a achet^. II a achet^ aussi des mouchoirs 
pour son p^re. 18. J'ai achet4 une tr^ jolie cravate en soie. 
19. Je I'ai pay6e treize francs. 20. Enfin nous avons achet^ 
des bonbons pour ma tante et mes cousines et nous sommes 
rentr^s chez nous. 


B. (1) Run rapidly through A, changing the number or tht 

person (or both) of each subject. 

(2) Beginning xvUh Nous sommes entr^s (A, 4) change all the 
verbs to the present form. Such a passage would be quite normal 
in French. Would it be so in English? 

* The 1' of I'on has no significance. It merely makes the sound more 
agreeable when coning between oH and on. 


(3) Give two translations for courir. Whai is the past participle ? 
What auxiliary does it take? Contrast with aller, partir, sortir, 
s'en aller, etc. Say: he ran, he did not run, you have run about 
a lot to-day, haven't you? 

(4) Substitute a personal pronoun for the indirect object: 
1. Nous parlons au marchand. 2. Nous avons pay6 cette 
cravate au marchand. 3. Je I'ai pay6e au marchand douze 
francs. 4. II a parl6 de la piece k sa tante. 5. Les petites 
fiUes ont donne leurs poup^es h ces pauvres enfants. 6. La 
bonne a apport6 du cafe a nos amis. 7. Elle a 6crit une courte 
lettre k sa soeur. 8. Louise ne r^pond pas a son pere. 9. Je 
vais porter des flleurs k mon amie. 10. Robert demande un 
faux-col et une cravate au marchand. 

(5) Substitute personal pronouns for the direct and indirect 
objects: 1. Le g^n^ral a donn6 le cheval k son fils. 2. Les 
g6n6raux ont donn6 les chevaux k leurs fils. 3. Elle a 6crit 
cette longue lettre k son oncle. 4. Vous ^crivez la lettre au 
professeur en frangais, n'est-ee pas? 5. Voulez-vous donner 
une balle au petit gargon? 6. Le marchand a montr^ les 
chapeaux k mon oncle. 7. II a vendu les bottes k mon cousin. 
8. Le petit gargon a demand^ la balle a son p^re. 

(6) Make these revised sentences negative. 

(7) Supply a suitable personal pronoun of the third person, 

direct or indirect object, according to the verb: 1. Nous (le? 

lui? les? leur?) ^coutons. 2. Nous parlons. 3. Les 

hommes regardent. 4. Je attends. 5. II 

paie trois francs. 6. Pierre demande une chemise et un 


(8) What is to be noted abovi the objects of ecouter, regarder, 
attendre, payer, demander, as compared with the English 
equivalents ? Note that payer may have three objects: the thing paid 
for (direct object), the amount paid (adverbial object), and the person 
paid (indirect object). 

C. (1) ^crivez en frangais: 1. I waited for him; we waited 
for her. 2. John is hstening to them; we are talking to 
them. 3. I paid ten francs for them. 4. We begin dinner 
(to dine) ; first we take soup. 5. He takes his friends to the 

{78 LESSON XIX 89 

theater. Let's take {like first plural present indicative htU no 
subject pronoun) our cousins to the park. 6. I took my place. 
We take our friends to the station where they are going to take 
the train. 7. Our relatives often take us to the concert. 8. I 
ask my father for money. I ask my father for some. 9. Let's 
ask the merchant for a blue cravat and six collars. 10. We 
paid for the dinner. We paid five francs for it. 11. We paid 
the merchant ten francs for the shirt. We paid hun ten francs 
for it. 

(2) Re-read the reading passages (A) in Lessons XII, XIV, 
XV, XVI, and wriU in French an account of a visit to the 

D. Dict<Se: Lesson XVII, A. 

Exercise in Pronunciation 

Note the pronunciation and spelUng of the various forms of 

the present of acheter, to btty and appeler, to call: 

acheter [a^te] appeler [aple] 

1. achate CaSet3 1. appelle [apel] 

2. achates [a^ct] 2. appellee [apel] 

3. achate [ajet] 3. appelle [apel] 

4. achetons [aStS] 4. appelons [apl3] 

5. achetez [aSte] 6. appelcz [aple] 

6. achdtent Cajet] 6. appellent [apel] 

Where does the syllable stress fall in forms 1, 2, 3, 6? Where 
in 4 and 5? What difference does this make in the sound of 
the [9] of the stem of the infinitive? Note that this [a] dis- 
appears entirely in the pronunciation of the infinitive of acheter, 
appeler, devenir, and in the forms nous menons, vous menez, 
appelons, appelez, achetons, achetez, but that it is sounded in 
the infinitive of a word of only two syllables like mener [mane], 
venir [vaniir]. Compare Lesson V, Exercise in Pronunciation, 
(1). Observe that we say similarly [Saval], but [laSval, dfeSval]. 
Are these changes of spelling in mener, appeler, etc., due to 
any phonetic principle? Contrast them with the changes in 
words like manger, commencer. 



79. Personal Pronoun Objects. The remaining forms 
serve both as direct and indirect object of verbs (for eUsion, 
see §19): 

me [ma], me, to (for) me. nous [nu], us, to (for) us. 

te [ta], thee, to (for) thee, you vous [vu], you, to (for) you. 

se [s9], himself, herself, itself, one- se [sa], themselves, to (for) them- 

self, to (for) himself, etc. selves. 

80. Pronominal Adverbs. They are used with verbs, 
and are equivalent to a preposition + a pronoun, standing 
usually for things: 

y = k (dans, sur, etc.) + a pronoun, means to (at, on, in, into, etc.) 
it or them; there. 

en = de + a pronoun, means of (from, etc.) it or them, some of it, 
some of them, some, any, thence; from there. 

Je vais a la campagne. I am going to the country. 

Yy vais detnain. I shall go there to-morrow. 

Venez-vous de Paris? Do you come from Paris? 

Oui, j'en arrive. Yes, I am coming from there. 

81. Position. Personal pronoun objects and pronominal 
adverbs, coming before the verb, are arranged thus: 

me 1 before f le 1 before f lui 1 before y| before en. 




n me donne les plumes. He gives me the pens. 

D me les donne. He gives them to me. 

D les leur donne. He gives them to them. 

n nous en donne. He gives us some of it, 

n y en a. There is (are) some. 

82. Reflexive Verb. The compound tenses of reflexive 
verbs, e.g., se flatter, to flatter oneself, are formed with etre: 




Present Indicative 
/ fiaUer myself, etc. 
je me flatte [ssmflat^ 
tu te flattes [tytflat] 
il (eUe) se flatte [ilsdflat] 
nous nous flattons [nunuflat5j 
vous vous flattez [vuvuflate] 
ils (elles) se flattent [ilsdflat] 

Past iNDEFiNrrE 
/ {have) flattered myself, ele. 
jeme suis 
tut' es 
il (elle) s' est 
nous nous sommes 
vous vous ites 
Us (elles) se sont 


flatte {e)s 

83. Agreement. The past participle agrees with the 
preceding direct object, as in the case of verbs compounded 
with avoir: 

Elles se sont flatte ex. 

But: lis se sont lave les mains. 

They have flattered themselves. 
They have washed their hands. 

84. Observe the possessive force of the article, or of the 
article with an indirect object, when there is no ambiguity 
as to the possessor, especially when referring to parts of 
the body, clothing, etc. 

Je vous donne la main. 

La bonne leur lave les mains. 

I give you my hand. 

The maid is washing their hands. 


la brosse [bros] brush se 

la chambre [Sa:br] bedroom (ueu- 

ally) se 

les cheveuz m. [leSv0] hair 

la figure [figyrr] face, figure se 

{statue, etc.) 
les nouvelles /. [nuvd] news 

le peigne [pep] comb 

le savon [sav5] soap se 

la serviette [servjrt] towel, nap- 
kin se 

la t§te [t£!t] head 

intgressant [Stercsfi] interest- 

brosser [brose] brush 

coucher [sakuSe] go to bed, lie 

laver [salave] wash onesdf, 

lever [salve] get up 
penser (4) [pose] think (of, 

have in mind) 
perdre [perdr] lose, waste 
promener [promne] take a 

walk, ride 
servir de [sa6ervi:rd3] make 

use of, use 

avant de [avada] before {uriik 


dej4 [desa] already 


A. (1) Supply the object pronoun of the person indicated, both 

singular and plural: 1, Le marchand {1st pers.) r^pond. 

2. Je ne iSd) ai pas r^pondu. 3. Vous {3d) 

demandez des cigares? 4. lis {1st) ecoutent. 5. Nous 

{3d) 6coutons. 6. lis {1st) {3d) donnent. 7. Je 

{3d) ai paye un diner. 

(2) Rewrite, using where possible direct and indirect object 
pronouns instead of the object nouns: 1. Mon cousin a demand^ 
des chapeaux {see § 36, 3) au marchand. 2. Le marchand a 
montr6 des souUers k mon oncle. 3. La bonne a apport^ les 
lettres k mon p6re. 4. EUe m'a apport6 les lettres. 5. EUe 
m'a apport6 des lettres. 6. EUe nous a servi du potage. 
7. EUe nous a servi le potage. 8. II vend des pommes k ma 

(3) Substitute en or y for the prepositional phrases with de 
and k according to the sense: 1. Nous parlous du lapin. 2. II 
a parl6 de ses vacances. 3. EUe est sortie de la salle a manger. 
4. Nous sommes sorties du salon. 5. Lui avez-vous parl6 
de ses legons de latin? 6. II se sert d'une fourchette. 7. Nous 
avons besoin de serviettes. 8. Mes cousins se sont servis 
de mes cravates. 9. Je vais avoir besoin d'un mouchoir. 
10. Nous pensons k notre voyage. 11. EUe pense k son nou- 
veau chapeau. 12. Avez-vous pens6 a chercher des bonbons? 
13. Co lapin pense a manger vos choux, n'est-ce pas? 14. Nous 
allons k la campagne. 15. Voyez-vous les Aleves dans le pare? 
16. Avez-vous quelque chose k la main? 17. II a couru k 
r^cole. 18. II sort de sa chambre de bonne heure. 19. Nous 
sommes descendus du train k midi. 20. Nous sommes des- 
cendus k cet h6tel et nous y sommes rest^s pendant I'hiver. 
21. lis sont rest^s quinze jours k Paris. 22. Nos amis les 
ont accompagn^s a la gare. 23. Ces messieurs sont arrives 
k Chicago hier. 24. lis sont de vos amis, n'est-ce pas? 

B. (1) Answer, using, instead of the nouns, personal pronouns 
and en or y when suitable: 1. Sortez-vous du th^dtre? 2. Avez- 
vous 6t6 au th6dtre? 3. AUez-vous encore au th^dtre? 
4. Avez-vous ri de la com^die? 5. Dinez-vous avant d'aUer 
au th64tre? 6. Vos cousins sont-ils aU6s au concert hier? 


7. Avez-vous pens^ k votre voyage? 8. Avez-vous pens^ 
k m'accompagner chez Wanamaker? 9. Vous a-t-on servi 
du vin, monsieur? 10. La bonne a-t-elle apport^ du caf6 
au salon? 11. En a-t-elle donn^ k Madame Perrin 
Cpere]? 12. Qui a accompagn6 vos cousins au th6Atre? 

13. Avez-vous demand^ le journal k cette vieille femme? 

14. Avez-vous donn6 k la vieille femme le prix du journal? 

15. Lisez-vous les journaux tous les jours avant de quitter 
la maison? 16, Avez-vous trouv6 des nouvelles int^ressantes 
dans le journal? 17. L'^ldve a-t-il r^pondu aux questions? 
18. Avez-vous r^pondu k sa lettre? 19. A-t-il r^pondu k 
ces dames?* 

(2) Write out the present and past indefinite indicative of: se 
promener {see § 78, 3); se coucher; 8e servir d'une fourchette; 
s'en aller. 

C. Traduisez en fran^ais: 1. He gets up early; he takes a 
drive (use se promener en voiture, en automobile Qotomobil]); 
he goes to bed. 2. The cook uses lettuce to make salad. 
3. She washes her (§ 84) hands before preparing dinner. 4. I 
wash my hands and face every evening (§ 58) before going to 
bed. 5. I have already washed my hands once. 6. These 
children washed their hands with (avec) (some) soap. Now 
they need a towel. 7. They ride horseback (use se promener 
ft cheval) every day. 8. When they are tired, they go to bed 
early. 9. It is time to (II est temps de) get up now; we get up; 
we got up early this morning; the girls (bonnes) got up; they 
are getting up now. 10. I have eyes in my (§ 84) head. He 
has pencils in (ft) his hands, a hat on (sur) his head, shoes on 
(ft) his feet. 11. We used soap and a towel to (pour) wash 
our hands. 12. They need a brush and a comb to brush their 
hair. 13. He lost his hair. If you do not wash your hair, 
you are going to lose it (numberf). 14. We are washing our 
hair. She washed her hair yesterday. 15. Do you wash your 
hair often? 16. How many times (Combien de fois) a day 
(par jour) do you wash your hands? Your face? 17. How 

* Note that y may not be subetituted in the reply to the last question. 
Can you suggest a reason? 

94 A FRENCH GRAMMAR §§ 85-86 

many times a day do you get up? 18. How often (= How 
many times) do you eat daily? 19. The whole family has 
gone away {two ways) and it is time to study my history lesson 

D. a. Count from 1-30, putting in each case a different noun 
after each numeral, as: un franc, deux serviettes, trois brosses, etc. 

6. Pronounce and learn the following numerals: trente et un 
616ve8 [traitedenelesv], trente-deux enfants ntraitd0zafa], trente- 
trois marchands. Continue through 39, puding a noun after each 

c. 40 = quarante [karait], 41 = quarante et un Ckaraitede]], 
42 = quarante-deux [^karditd0]]. Count through Ii9, putting a 
different noun after each numeral. 

d. 50 = cinquante [sekast], 51 = cinquante et un Csekaitede], 
52 = cinquante-deux [seka!td0]. Count through 59, using in 
each case a noun beginning with a vowel. 


86. Imperfect Indicative of donner, finir, vendre 

I was giving, etc. I loas finishing, etc. I was selling, etc. 

donn ais [done] 

Gniss ais [finise] 

vend ais [vade] 

donn ais [done] 

finz5S ais [finise] 

vend ais [vade] 

donn ait [done] 

Gniss ait [finise] 

vend ait [vade] 

donn ions [donjo] 

Gniss ions [finisjo] 

vend ions [vadjo] 

donn iez [donje] 

Sniss iez [finisje] 

vend iez [vddje] 

donn aient [done] 

finish aient [finise] 

vend aient [vade] 

86. Imperfect Indicative of avoir, etre 

I had, used to have, etc. I was, used to he, etc. 

aval's [ave] avians [avj5] etafs[ete] et ions [etjo] 

av ais [ave] av iez [avje] et ais [ete] et iez [etje] 

av ait [ave] av aient [ave] et ait [ete] et aient [ete] 

To form the Pluperfect tense, add a past participle; see 

$87 LESSON XXI 95 

87. Use of the Imperfect. The name 'Past Descriptive* 
is often given to this tense-form. In general, it serves to 
indicate the situation, the setting, the state of affairs at a 
time in the past, without regard to the b^inning or the end 
of the action, or to the length of its duration. In past narra- 
tive, the past indefinite is used to record the successive 
events one after the other; the imperfect form is used to 
give the background and the descriptive elements of the 

Since the English language has no such special tense form, 
except the progressive past (idos ivalking, etc.), it is highly 
important to understand clearly the meaning of the sen- 
tence before deciding whether to translate a given English 
past into the French imperfect or into the past indefinite. 
Often both translations are possible, but with different 

Study the following passage: 

Vous itiez (avez eti) absent hier, You were absent yeeteiday, Pierre. 


Oui, monsieur, yittris (fli iti) Yes, sir, I uxu ill. 


Je suis resie au lit toute la joum6e. I $tayed in bed all day. 

pawn's (fli eu) la fidvre. I had fever. 

Ma gorge m^afait {mefaisaif) tris My throat hurt me very badly. 


Le mSdecin est venu deux fois it. The doctor came to the house 

la maison, et m'o si bien soigni twice and took such good care 

que mon rbume a disparu. of me that my cold disappeared. 

J'fli ete (etais) malade comme I uxu ill like that last winter too. 

cela lliiver pass6 aussi. 

Notre medecin etait en France Our physician was in France with 

avec nos soldats, et j'oi eti our soldiers, and I was in bed 

toute une semaine au lit. for a whole week. 

In only one case above (Notre medecin etait en France . . .) 
would the past indefinite be quite out of place, but wherever 
it is used it stresses the narrative element of the story, the 

96 A FRENCH GRAMMAR §§ 8»-89 

fact that the incident was completed at a time in the past, 
whereas the imperfect form directs attention to the incident 
as it occm-red, or to the state of affairs as it existed. 

In certain cases, where the descriptive element is all im- 
portant, the imperfect form is regularly used and corre- 
sponds to an Enghsh progressive past, or to a past modified 
by 'used to.' 

1. It denotes what used to or continiled to take place in 
the past. 

Nous parlions souvent de vous. We often spoke (used to speak) of 

Tous les ans j'alZats a la campagne I used to go to the country in 
en ete. summer every year. 

2. It is used for an action that was happening when 
something else happened or was happening. 

Quand le medecin est arrive. When the doctor came I was in 

yetais au lit. bed. 

Pendant que je parlais, men ami While I was talking, my friend was 

furruxit un gros cigare. smoking (smoked) a large cigar. 

Note. — In the first example under 1 above we could juat aa correctly 
say: Nous avons souvent parle de vous. The meaning, however, would 
be somewhat different. The notion of an habitual action would have dis- 

88. Imperfect of faire (irreg.) 

/ was doing, etc. 

je fais ais [safaze]) nous fais ions [nufazjo] 

tu fais ais [tyfaze] vous fais iez [vufazje] 

il fais ait [ilfaze] ils fais aient [ilfaze] 

89. For imperfect of commencer, manger, cf. §§ 78, 156: 

je commen^rais [sakamaise] je man^eais [matse] 

tu commenfais [tykDmaise] tu mang'eais [maissll 

il commenfait [ilkomaiss], etc. il xaangesiit [ma: sell, etc. 





crier [kriej shout, cry out 
dit [di] said (pasl part.) 
faire jour [feirsuir] get li^t, 
be light; faire noir [fext 
nwa:r3 be dark 
se faire mal [m&l] hurt oneself 
frapper [frape] strike, im- 
slubiller [sabije] dress 
reveiller [revrje] wake; se 

r^veiller wake up 
rfiver Crcve] dream 

fort Cfa:r] loudly 
heureusement [ocr0:zma3 

tard [ta:r] late 
par terre [parte :r3 on the ground 
si [si] so 
k travers [atraveir] across, 

A. (1) 1. Je me suis couch6 hier soir de bonne heure, mais 
je n'ai pas bien dormi parce que j'^tais un peu soufTrant. 2. Men 
bras me faisait mal. J'ai eu aussi de mauvais r^ves. 3. J'ai 
rSv6 que men cheval courait k travers les champs et dans Ics 
bois. 4. Les branches dea arbres me frappaient partout et j'a- 
vais peur de tomber et do me faire trte mal. 5. J'ai eu si peur 
dans men sommeil que j'ai cri6 tr^ fort et je me suis r^veilld. 
6. Mais il faisait toujours trha noir quand je me suis r^veill^ 
et je ne me suis pas lev6 tout de suite. 7, J'ai dormi encore 
un peu avant de me lever. 8. A six heures il a fait jour et je 
me suis lev6. 9. J'ai fait ma toilette. 10. J'ai pris mon bain 
dans de I'eau froide et je me suis habill^. 11. La bonne com- 
mengait b. preparer le petit dejeuner. 12. J'avais si faim que 
j'^tais content quand elle a dit « C'est servi! » 13. Je suis 
descendu. Ma sceur 6tait d6ji i table. 14. Elle m'a dit 
« Bonjour! bon app^tit! » 15. Ma m^re n'6tait pas encore 
descendue. 16. J'ai mang6 de (tcith) bon app6tit, et puis 
nous sommes partis pour I'^cole. 

un appetit [apeti] appetite 
le bain [be] bath 
la branche [bni:S] branch {of 

une 6poque [epak] time, period 
le mal [mal] evil, harm 
la minute [minj't] minute 
le petit dejeuner [l3ptide50ne] 

la peur [pce:r] fear 
le rftve [r£:v] dream 
la terre [te:r] earth, ground 
la toilette [twalet] toilet (dresa- 


malade [malad] ill 
souffrant [sufrd] not well 

avoir peur [avwa:r poe:r] be 

afraid, get frightened 
cesser (de) [sese] stop 


(2) Try to explain in each case the use of the tenses: (a) 1. Nous 
avons fait visite hier a un de nos amis. 2. II commengait a 
diner quand nous sommes arrives. 3. II mangeait le potage. 
Nous sommes restes deux heures. 4. II nous a invites a 
dtner et apres nous avons fum6 plusieurs bons cigares. 5. Mon 
ami n'a pas fum6. 6. II fumait quand il 6tait jeune, mais il 
a cess6 de fumer I'annee passee parce qu'il 6tait malade. 7. J'ai 
6te souvent malade mais je n'ai pas cesse de fumer. 8. Je ne 
fumais pas quand j'^tais petit. 9. J'ai commence quand 
j'avais vingt ans. 

(b) 1. Nous avons 6t6 souvent k la campagne. 2. Nous y 
allions tous les et6s. 3. II faisait moins chaud qu'en ville. 
4. Nos parents nous accompagnaient, 5. A cette 6poque-l^ 
mon grand-pere habitait la vieille maison de famille. 6. II 
6tait tr^s age mais il 6tait encore assez fort. 7. II se promenait 
k cheval tous les jours. 8. Souvent je I'accompagnais sur un 
petit cheval qu'il m'avait donn6. 9. Apr^s ces promenades 
j'^tais fatigu6 et j'avais un excellent app6tit. 10. Une fois le 
cheval a eu peur. 11. II a couru k travers les champs et je 
suis tombe par terre. 12. J'avais tr^s peur, et je me suis fait 
mal au bras. 13. Heureusement il y avait de I'herbe et je suis 
tomb6 sur I'herbe, mais le bras m'a fait mal pendant deux ou 
trois jours. 

B. (1) In nous sommes restes deux heures and nous avons 
6te souvent k la campagne (A, 2), is the emphasis on the con- 
tinuousness, the repetition of the action, the situation, or on the 
event itself? Contrast the verb forms used in le cheval a eu peur 
{got frightened) and in j'avais tres peur {was very much fright- 
ened). What seems to be the difference in the effect of the two? 

Note that verbs like rester, adverbs like souvent, longtemps, 
and expressions of time like deux heures, deux ans, do not neces- 
sarily call for an imperfect tense, which, although it denotes ' what 
continued to happen,' is used only when the ivriter wishes to 
stress that element. Compare § 66, examples 2 and 3. 

(2) Use the proper form of the verbs in parenthesis. Choose 
the past indefinite or the imperfect according to the sense of the 

§89 LESSON XXI 90 

sentence: 1. (Hre) Quand je petit je * de bonne heure. 

2. (dormir) Je bien. 3. (se lever) Je de bonne 

heure aussi et je * avec mes parents. 4. (avoir) Je 

toujours bon app^tit. 5. (rever) Une nuit je que mon 

cheval • avec moi k travers la for^t. 6. (frapper) Une 

branche me dans la figure et je * tr^ peur. 7. (crier) 

Je si fort que je .* 8. (dormir) Mais je encore 

deux heures avant de .* 9. (r6ver) Je beaucoup. 

10. (r^ver) Je plusieurs fois que je ' de mon cheval. 

(3) Vary the person arui number of the sulked in A. 

(4) The imperfect of dormir is je dormais, etc. Conjugate it 
throughout. Contrast it with je finissais. Conjugate in the 
imperfect on this model: sortir, partir, servir. 

C. Traduisez: 1. I used to go to bed early and I slept well. 
2. But once when I was ill I slept very badly and I dreamed a 
great deal. 3. I got very much frightened and shouted so 
loudly that my father came into my room and wakened me. 
4. He said that I was shouting so loudly that I was waking the 
whole family. 5. When he saw that I was very much 
frightened, he stayed in my room [for] some minutes. 6. I 
slept some hours still before waking. 7. When I got up, the 
maid was preparing breakfast. 8. I was hungry and was glad 
to eat something. 9. When the maid said . " Breakfast is 
ready," I went down stairs. 10, The family was at table 
already. We ate ynih a good appetite. 11. My sister left for 
school, but I looked at (j'ai parcouru) the morning paper before 
leaving. 12. It was Monday and I got (arriver) to school 
late that morning. 

Note. — In 6 put encore (stOI) before 'some hours.' Be careful about 
the position of diji in 10 (see A, (1), 13). Note the abeence of any article in 
i table and de bon appitit. Note the different French forma in 1 and 2 
for 'I slept '; why? In 12 put tard before k I'^cole. 

D. Dict^: Lesson XIX, A. 

* (se coucher). * (d£jeaner). * (coorir). 

* (aToir). • (se r6veiUer). • (se lever). ' (tomber). 




90. Future Indicative of donner, finir, vendre 

I shall give, etc. 
donner ai [doii(8)re] 
donner as [don (a) ra] 
donner a [don(8)ra] 
donner ons [don(a)r5] 
donner ez [don (a) re] 
donner out [don (a) r 5] 

I shall finish, etc. 

finir ai [finire] 

finir as [finira] 

finir a [finira] 

finir ons [finiro] 

finir ez [finire] 

finir ont [finiro] 

/ shall sell, etc. 
vendr ai [vadre] 
vendr as [vadra] 
vendr a [vadra] 
vendr ons [vadro] 
vendr ez [vadre] 
vendr on< [vadro] 

Note. — In the future of verbs of the donner type, we print the sjTnbol 9 
in parenthesis to indicate that it is pronounced very lightly. In fact it 
usually disappears in rapid speech. 

This symbol is printed in the same way in the future of fetre and f aire in 
§§ 91, 92 to indicate that it is pronoimced very lightly, and that it disap- 
pears if the preceding syllable ends in a vowel sound. Compare with this 
la fenetre Qafnsitr], ses lemons [selso], deux chevaux [d0Svo], je me leve 
[samleiv], je serai [sasre], nous ferons [nufro]. See Lesson V, Exercise 
in Pronunciation, (1); XIX, Exercise in Pronunciation. 

91. Future Indicative of avoir, etre 

I shall have, etc. I shall be, etc. 

aur of [ore] aur ons [oro] seroi [s(a)re] ser ons [8(a)r5] 

aur OS [ora] aurez [ore] seras [s(a)ra] set ez [s(a)re] 

aura [ora] aur onf [or5] sere [s(a)ra] ser on< [s (a )r5] 

92. Future Indicative of atter (irreg.), and faire (irreg.) 
I shall go, etc. I shall do, etc. 

iraipre] ir ons [iro] fer af [f(a)re] fer ons [f (a) r 5] 

ir as [ira] ir ez [ire] fer as [f (a)ra] fer ez [f (a)re] 

ir a [ira] ir ont [iro] fer a [f (a)ra] fer ont [f (a)r5] 

93. For the future of lever and acheter, cf. § 78, 3: 
je Idverai [levre], etc. j'acheterai [aSetre], etc. 

94. Use of Future. It is used in general as in English, 
but observe its use in a subordinate sentence, when futurity 
is implied (but for 'if clause see § 116, 3): 

Je lui parlerai quand 11 arrivera. I shall speak to him when he cornea. 





un autobus Cotobya] motor bus 
la couturidre PtutxTJeir] dreas- 

le devoir [ladvwair] exercise 
le gant [gd] glove 
la modiste [madist] milliner 
le projet [prose] plan 
la promenade [pronmad] walk, 

ride, excursion 
la semaine [lasmen] week 
le travail [trava:j] woik 

dernier [dernje] last 
fatigant [fatigd] tiring 
prit [pre] ready 
prochain [proS^] ^^^ 

sale [sal] dirty 

blanchir [bldSi:r] launder 

essayer [esrje] trj* on 

faire beau [bo] be good 

weather; faire mauvais 

[move] be bad weather; 

faire nuit [nqi] get dark, 

be dark 
mettre [metr] put, put on 

demain fdame] to-morrow 
en retard [arta:r] behind time, 

n ^M e m e nt [n^idmd] rapidly, 

A. 1. n est d^j^ tard. Nous aliens nous coucher tout de 
suite. 2. Demain nous nous l^verons de bonne heure parce 
que nous avons des projets de promenade. 3. Le petit 
dejeuner sera prSt quand nous descendrons. 4. Nous sor- 
tirons tout de suite parce que nous ne voulons pas ^tre en 
retard. 5. S'il fait beau (temps) nous irons k pied; s'il fait 
mauvais (si le temps est mauvais), nous prendrons un autobus 
ou le tramway. 6. Nous passerons chez la modiste. Si nos 
chapeaux ne sont pas prSts, nous attendrons un peu. 7. Avant 
onze heures nous serons chez la couturi^re pour essayer nos 
robes. 8. Nous les payerons [pejrS] quand elles seront prfites. 
9. Quand nous serons fatigu^, nous irons dejeuner au restau- 
rant du Caf6 Voltaire. 10. Notre p^re nous y attendra k midi. 
11. Apr^ le dejeuner nous entrerons dans un magasin pour 
acheter des mouchoirs et des gants et puis nous rentrerons chez 
nous. 12. Nous attendons h diner des amis qui nous m^neront 
au th^dtre ce soir. 13. Si nos nouvelles robes sont prates, 
nous les mettrons. 14. On sort tr&s tard du th^Atre k Paris. 
15. II est fatigant de courir nuit et jour et nous serons bien 
contentes quand nous serons au lit. 


B. (1) Make a list from A of the instances of the special tise 
of the future (§94). 

(2) Complete the future forms, and reply to the questions: 1. Je 
me fei- mal. 2. lis se fer- mal. 3. Nous ir- chez nous. 
4. lis ir- au mus6e. 5. II repondr- k vos questions. 6. On 
vous entendr-. 7. Vous vous r6veil-. 8. II fer- jour k six 
heures. 9. Si j'ai peur, je cri-. 10. Aui^--vous peur si je 
crie? 11. Crie— vous si vous avez peur? 12. A quelle heure 
descendr— vous? 13. Vous servir— vous de cette brosse? 
14. Vous amus— vous au th^dtre ce soir? 15. Cette pi^ce 
de Moli^re vous amus- beaucoup. 

(3) Use in the future the verbs in parenthesis: 1. (se lever) 

A quelle heure vous ? 2. (se lever) Je k sept heures. 

3. (se lever) Vous tard, mon ami. 4. (r^pondre) Mon 

fr^re aux questions du professeur. 5. (entrer) Nous 

dans le th64tre avant huit heures. 6. (sortir) Nous du 

th^dtre apr^s minuit. 7. (^tre) vous k I'^cole la semaine 

prochaine? 8. (mener) Je vous au march6 demain 

matin. 9. (acheter) Nous des haricots verts, des petits 

pois, et un chou pour mon lapin. 10. (Mre) Nous chez 

nous avant midi, 11. (avoir) La cuisini^re besoin des 

legumes avant onze heures. 12. (perdre) Si vous arrivez si 
tard vous votre temps. 

(4) Supply the correct form of the verb in parenthesis and trans- 
late: 1. (avoir) Je vous apporterai la chemise quand vous en 

besoin. 2. (avoir) Vous la mettrez quand vous la . 

3. (etre) Vous la ferez blanchir quand elle sale. 4. (etre) 

Vous vous laverez les mains quand elles sales. 5. (Hre) 

Nous dtnerons quand le diner prM. 6. (^tre) Nous 

descendrons quand vous habill6. 7. (avoir) Nous 

d^jeunerons quand nous faim. 8. (faire) Nous sor- 

tirons tous les jours cet hiver quand il beau temps. 

9. (faire) Nous nous ISverons quand il jour. 10. (faire) 

Nous resterons dans la maison quand il mauvais temps. 

11. (entendre) J'ouvrirai la porte quand je vous venir. 

12. (entendre) Je fermerai la fen^tre quand je chanter 

$94 LESSON xxn 103 
votre amie. 13. (aller) Je prendrai iin taxi quand je 

k la gare. 14. (finir) J'irai me coucher quand je mon 

devoir. 15. (se r^veiller) Serez-vous pr^t quand je ? 

(5) What do you observe to be the written stem of the future 
of donner, finir, vendre? What familiar part of the verb does it 
seem to bet What do the future endings remind you oft Observe 
that for £tre, avoir, faire, aller these same endings are added to 
a new stem: ser-, aur-, fer-, ir-. Note the pronunciation of the 
future of donner. 

C. (1) Beginning wiih A, 2, substitute hier for demain and 
shift the rest of the passage to the past. Look out for the imperfect 
and past indefinite forms. The si clauses must be converted into 
affirmative statements, as (A, 5): II a fait (or il faisait) beau 
tempe et nous sommes all^ k pied; il a Yait mauvais et nous 
avons pris . . . The slight confusion of sense here may be ig- 
nored. The two present forms in A, 14 and 15, contain general 
statements, and therefore remain unchanged. 

(2) Traduisez en fran^ais: 1. We used to finish our work 
early. 2. Did you finish it? 3. The grapes (use singular) 
were ripening when I was in the country last (translate two 
ways) week. 4. Did they get ripe rapidly? 5. Were you 
(past indef.) at the concert yesterday? 6. Were they (on) 
singing when you got (arriver) there? 7. Had they (on) 
begun? 8. Did you Uke the music? 9. How long did you 
stay? 10. Did the merchant sell (two ways, with different 
senses) shoes? 11. Did you dream when you were little? 
12. Did you dream last (cette) night? 13. Did you get scared? 
14. Did you hurt yourself when your horse fell? 15. Did 
you get frightened when your horse ran through the woods? 
16. You didn't come yesterday; were you ill? 17. Did j'ou 
see her often in France? 18. Did you stay long in France? 
19. I worked two hours yesterday evening. 20. I worked a 
great deal (beaucoup) when I was younger. 21. It got light 
very lat« yesterday morning. 22. I was late for (the) 
school. 23. It was dark when I left. 

D. Dict^: Lesson XXI, A. 

104 A FRENCH GRAMMAB §§ 95-97 


95. Disjunctive Personal Pronouns. The personal pro- 
nouns already given are used as subject or object with the 
verb, and are hence called 'conjunctive.' The following 
forms, not being immediately connected with a verb, are 
called 'disjunctive': 

moi [mwa], I, me nous [nu], we, us 

toi [twa], thou, thee, you vous [vu], you 

lui [Iqi], he, him eux [0], they (m.), them (m.) 

elle [el], she, her elles [el], they (/.), them (/.) 

96. The following are some of their uses: 

1. Absolutely, a verb being implied, but not expressed: 
Qui est Ik? — Moi (eux, elles). Who is there? — I (they). 

2. After a preposition: 

Poiu: elles; avec moi; sans eux. For them; with me; without them. 

3. As logical subject after ce + etre: 

Cast moi, c'est toi. It is I, it is thou (you). 

Cast lui, c'ast elle. It is he, it is she. 

Cast nous, c'ast vous. It is we, it is you. 

Ca sent eux, ca sent elles. It is they (w.), it is they (/.). 

97. When the real subject foUows the verb etre, ce is 
used to represent or point to this logical subject, whereas 
the English would seem to demand a personal pronoun 
(see §44, 2, a): 

C'ast Marie at sa mere. It is Mary and her mother. 

C'est nous, ce sont aux. It is we, it is they. 

C'ast un homma celebra. He is a celebrated man. 

Ce sont mas maillaaxres amias. They are my best friends. 

C'ast aujourd'hui lundi. It is Monday to-day (To-day is). 

Cast a nous qu'il parla. It is to us that he is speaking. 

Note. — When the logical subject is a noun, ce is used in case the noun 
is modified by an article or a possessive adjective; il (elle) is used when the 
noim has no modifier, as when it denotes nationality or profession: 
Cest un soldat But II est soldat 

Cast un Americain tl est Americain 

§97 LESSON xxm 106 


un autobus [otobys] motor bus s'arreter [sarete] halt, come to 

le coin [kwS] comer a stop 

le conducteur [kSdyktceirj con- demeurer [damoere] live, 

ductor dwell, reside 

le c6t6 [kote] side, direction saluer [salqe] dpeak to, greet 
la dame [dam] lady 

la destination [destinosjS] des- bientdt [bj€to] soon, in a UtUe 

tination "^'^^^ 

le miUtaire [militc:r] soldier {of ^'^^ 1>^-1 o^"" ^«'«' ^^^^ 

any rank) ^h*'^ 

le numfiro [nymero] number ^ <^t« <*« '>«»^*^' "^^'^^ ^ 

un ordre [ardr] order «^ ^^^ without, but for 

le voisin [vwazO neighbor ne . . . rien [na . . . rj«]nothing 

levoyageur[vwaja3ce:r] traveler, ^^^ ^^ j^ ^^ [salanfcriO 

P'^^^^ that doesn't matter 

autre [otr] other de ce cdt6 [daskote] on this side, 

sage [sass] good, well-behaved in this direction 

A. 1. Nous sortirons ce matin, n'est-ce pas? 2. — Oui, 
voulez-vous aller k pied ou prendrons-nous Tautobus au coin 
de la rue? 3. — Allons k pied. II fait trte beau. 4. J'aime 
k marcher quand il fait froid. 5. Qui est ce monsieur I^ 
bas de I'autre c6t^ de la rue? 6. — C'est un de nos 
anciens voisins, qui demeure maintenant dans une autre rue. 
7. — Est-ce votre professeur de fran^ais? 8. — Non, ce n'est 
pas lui. Le voili de ce cdt^ de la rue qui monte dans (getting 
into) le tramway. 9. Avez-vous vu ces trois messieurs qui nous 
ont salu^s? 10. — Oui, je les ai vus. — Ce sont des amis de 
mon p^re. 11. Voyez-vous cette dame qui monte en voiture? 
C'est une amie de votre m6re, n'est-ce pas? 12. — Non, 
elle est trop petite. Ma mSre n'a pas d'amie aussi petite qu'elle. 
13. — Mais elle nous a salu^. 14. — Cela ne fait rien. 
Ce n'est pas une amie de ma m^re. 15. Elle a salu^ peut- 
6tre ces messieurs qui sont derri^re nous. Les voyez-vous? 

16. — Oui, vous avez raison. Ce sont eux qu'elle a salu^s. 

17. Ce sont deux jeunes militaires, n'est-ce pas? 18. — C'est 
k ce coin-1^ que nous attendrons I'autobus. 19. II s'arrdte 


de I'autre c6t6 de la rue. . Prenons des num^ros. 20. Quand 
I'autobus arrivera, le conducteur criera les num^ros et les 
voyageurs monteront dans I'ordre de leurs num^ros. 21. — Oh, 
je comprends! On ne fait pas comme cela chez nous. 
22. — Non, mais cela ne fait rien; on fait comme cela en 
France. 23. — Eh bien, nous voila months! Nous avons de 
bonnes places, n'est-ce pas? 24. L'autobus marche vite et 
nous serons bientdt k notre destination. 

B. (1) a. Identify each case of ce and il (elle, etc.) in A. 
b. Fill in the blank with ce or il (elle, ils, elles): 1. 

faitchaud. 2. est quatre heures. 3. estaujourd'hui 

qu'il part. 4. est le conducteur qui a cri6 les num^ros. 

5. fera jour bientdt. 6. est facteur; — est cuisinidre. 

7. sera bient6t midi. 8. est ici que I'autobus 

s'arrete. 9. s'arrete ici. 10. sont mes freres 

que vous avez vus. 11. sont arrives hier. 12. sont 

ici depuis huit jours. 13. demeurent h. Saint-Louis. 

14. est h. Saint-Louis qu'ils demeurent. 15. A qui est- 

? 16. est ^ eux. 

(2) Translate: with me, at my house, at his house, with 
her, before them {masc), behind them {fern.), for him, of them 
(masc), without her, without them (masc), by (beside) him, 
by me, after you, after her. 

(3) Give eight possible answers to each question, using dis- 
junctive pronouns: 1. Qui est 1^? 2. Qui a cri6 pendant la 
nuit? 3. Qui a perdu ce mouchoir? 

C. (1) Re-^ead exercise A of Lesson XXII. Close the book 
and reproduce it in the future with the following as key words: 

se coucher ce soir des pro jets pour demain se lever 

dejeuner sortir prendre tramway, autobus 

passer chez modiste aller chez couturi^re essayer 

robes dejeuner avec papa au restaurant au magasin 

des gants rentrer th^dtre ce soir content 

d'etre au ht. 

(2) Translate and explain the cases of ce or il (elle, etc.): 
1. She is here; she is my teacher. 2. They went (partir, see 
Lesson XVIII, B, 2) this morning; they are the ones (= it is 

§98 LESSON XXIV 107 

they) who went this morning. 3. I am the one (= It is I) 
who spoke (Ist person) to you. 4. He is famous; he is a famous 
man. 5. She is very pretty; she is a very pretty lady. 6. He 
is good (sage); he is a good boy. 7. It (street car) stops here; 
it is here that it stops. 8. They are gone (partir); they are 
my friends. 9. She stops; she is a good child. 10. Heis^ai] 
postman; he is the postman who brought the letters. 

(3) Fill m each blank leith the present, imperfect, past indefinite 
and future {Jour forms) of the verb in parenthesis: 1. (sortir) 
Notre voisin de sa maison. 2. (monter) Les voyageurs 

dans la voiture. 3. (faire) Cela ne rien (rien as 

object has the same position as pas). 4. (crier) Le conducteur 

les num6ros. 5. (s'arrfiter) Les tramways de I'autre 

cdt6 de la rue. 6. (se promener) Mon oncle k cheval. 

7. (courir: 1st future, courrai) Ces jeunes filles nuit et 

jour. 8. (avoir besoin) Ces enfants d'un bon diner. 

9. (avoir) II y une fois une belle dame. 10. (6tre) II 

temps de partir. 11. (cesser) Mon pdre de fumer. 

12. (s'appeler) Le petit gargon Charles [Sarl]. 13. (com- 

mencer) Le prof esseur la le<;on. 


98. Impersonal Verbs. They are conjugated in the third 
person singular only, with the subject fl = it, used indef- 
initely and absolutely. Among such are 

(a) verbs describing natural phenomena, as in English: 

Quel temps fait-U? What kind of weather is it? 

II fait beau temps. It is fine (weather). 

U pleut, il pleuvait. It is raining, it was raining. 

II a plu, il pleuvra. It has rained, it will rain, 

n neige, il a neige It is snowing, it has snowed, 

n fait chaud, il fait du vent It is hot, it is windy. 


n faut saluer ses amis. It is necessary to (we must, you 

must, one must) speak to our 
(your, one's) friends. 


(c) The idiomatic expression il y a 4- an object noun. 

D y a des plixmes sur la table. There are pens on the table. 
II y a diz milles d'ici k la ville. It is ten miles from here to the 


(d) II est with expressions of time: 

H est trois heures, midi. It is three o'clock, twelve o'clock 

n est une heure (du matin). It is one o'clock (1 A.M.). 


mie auto(mobile) [oto(mobil)3 au- 
tomobile (often masc.) 

le bateau [bato] boat 

le bout [bu] end 

le camarade [kamarad] school- 
mate, chum 

le ciel [sjd] sky 

le conge [kose] leave; jour de 
conge holiday 

le coucher du soleil [kuSedyso- 

le!J] sunset 
im endroit [denadrwa] spot, place 
une excursion [ekskyrsjo] trip 

le lac [lak] lake 

le lever du soleil Palvedysols: j] 

le monde [moid] world 

le nuage [nqais] cloud 

les provisions /. [provizjo] food, 
things to eat 

le repas Qarpa] meal 

le vent [vQ] wind 

couvert Qcuveir] overcast, 

propre [propr] clean 

le lundi [Idedi] Monday 
le mardi [mardi] Tuesday 
le mercredi [merkradij Wednes- 
le jeudi [30di] Thursday 
le vendredi [vdidradi] Friday 
le samedi [samdi] Saturday 
le dimanche [dimaiS] Simday 

appeler [aple] call 
s'appreter [saprete] get ready 

chasser [Sase] drive away 

neiger [nsse] snow 
il neige [neisH it is snowing 

pleuvoir [ploevwair] rain 
il pleut [pl0] it is raining 
se reposer [sarpoze] rest 

apres-demain [apredmg] day 

after to-morrow 
avant-hier [ava(t)je:r] day 

before yesterday 

dehors [d9o:r] outdoors 
pres de [preda] near . 
sous [su] under, beneath 
pendant que [padoka] while 

§98 LESSON XXIV 109 

A. (1) 1. C'est aujourd'hui vendredi. 2. Mardi dernier nous 
avons fait une jolie excursion. 3. Nous nous sommes lev^ 
avant le lever du soleil et nous avons regard^ dehors pour voir 
quel temps il faisait. 4. Le ciel 6tait convert de nuages et il 
commen^ait k pleuvoir. 5. II a plu pendant une heure, mais 
apr^s le petit dejeuner il a cess^ de pleuvoir. 6. Le vent a 
chassS les nuages et bient6t il a fait trha beau. 7. A dix heures 
nous sommes partis en automobile pour passer la journ^ 
dans le pare de Versailles, un des plus beaux pares du monde. 
8. Nous avons pris des choees k manger parce que nous 
voulions (wished) diner sous les arbres. 9. Nous 6tions huit 
dans notre automobile mais nous 6tions bien malgr6< cela. 
10. II y avait plusieurs autres automobiles pour nos camarades. 
IL En route nous avons chants et cri6, et nous avons beau- 
coup ri. 12. J'aime les excursions en auto, si on ne marche 
pas trop vite. 13. La grande route 6tait tr^s belle, avec de 
beaux arbres des deux cdt^. 14. Les petits chemins dans la 
forSt 6taient moins bens mais cela ne faisait rien. 15. Nous 
ne voulions pas aller trop vite. 

(2) 16. Au bout d'une heure nous nous sommes arr^t^s dans 
un joli endroit prds d'un petit lac. 17. II y avait de I'herbe et 
de beaux arbres. 18. Nos parents sont rest^s sous les arbres 
pour preparer le repas, pendant que les enfants s'amusaient. 
19. Quelques-uns des ganjons ont jou6 k la balle. 20. D'autres 
ont fait une promenade en bateau sur le petit lac. 21. II 
y avait plusieurs bateaux et quelques-unes des jeunes filles 
les ont accompagnfe. 22. Avant le repas ma m^re m'a dit: 
• Tes mains ne sont pas propres; va les laver tout de suite. » 
23. Apr^s le dtner on s'est repos^ sur I'herbe parce qu'on 6tait 
fatigu6. 24. A cinq heures nous sommes partis et nous sommes 
arrives chez nous avant le coucher du soleil. 25. Quelle belle 
journ6e! En hiver on ne fait pas de si jolies excursions. 26. II 
fait froid, il neige et tr^ souvent il pleut toute la journ6e et 
on s'amuse mieux k la maison. 27. Les jours sont aussi tr^s 
courts. Le soleil se 16ve tard et se couche de bonne heure. 
J'aime mieux I'^t^ 


B. Memorize*: Eh, bonjour Lundi! 

Comment va Mardi? 

Tres bien, Mercredi; 

Je viens de la part de Jeudi, 

Dire h Vendredi, 

Qu'il s'apprdte Samedi, 

Pour aller a I'eglise Dimanche. 

C. (1) Transfer the story in A to the future, substituting 
demain for aujourd'htii, prochain for dernier, futures for past 
indefinites, etc., and tell it first in the first person as above, and 
then of mes cousins, making the proper changes of verbs, pronouns, 
etc. The first person, future, of voulions is voudrons (or use 
allons vouloir). 

(2) Traduisez: 1. It was raining when we got up this morning, 
but it did not rain long. 2. When it stopped raining we went 
out. Our friends were waiting for us. 3. They invited us 
to go with them to Versailles, where they were going to spend 
the day in the beautiful park. 4. There were eight of us in 
their motor car, but in spite of that we were very comfortable. 
5. On the way we laughed and sang. When we got to our 
destination we all got out (descendre). 6. While our parents 
prepared dinner on the grass, the boys played ball. 7. Some 
of the girls went for a boat ride on the small lake. 8. We 
asked them (indirect object) to (de) wait for us, but they would 
(imperf. of vouloir; 1st person, voulais) not. 9. Two of the 
girls fell into the water, but they did not hurt themselves. 
10. At six o'clock my mother called us and we set out (= de- 
parted). 11. The car went rapidly and we got home before 

D. RSpondez aux questions: 1. Quel jour de la semaine est-ce 
aujourd'hui? 2. Quel jour est-ce que ce sera demain? 3. Et 

* Translation: (Good morning, good day), How do you do Monday! 
How is Tuesday? — Very well, Wednesday; — I come from (= in behalf of) 
Thursday — To tell Friday — That he is to get ready Saturday, — To go 
to church Sunday. 

Observe the use of capital letters here, contrary, apparently, to § 21. 
In this jingle the days are personified. 

%98 LESSON XXIV 111 

quel jour 6tait-ce hier? 4. Et aprds-demain? 5. Et avant- 
hier? 6. Quels jours de la scmaine avez-vous vos classes? 
7. AUez-vous k I'^cole tous les jours? 8. Jeudi est jour 
de cong6 pour les petits Frangais; avez-vous cong6 le jeudi? 
9. Est-ce que vous vous amusez le samedi? 10. Aimez-voua 
mieux les samedis ou les lundis? 11. Quand est-ce que tVen- 
dredi » s'apprSte? 12. Pourquoi s'appr6te-t-il? 13. Vous 
appr^tez-vous le samedi pour aller h I'^glise le dimanche? 
14. Comment allez-vous aujourd'hui? 15. Comment va 
votre p6re? 16, Quels sont Ifes jours de la semaine? 

E. Dict6e: Lesson XXII, A. 


(1) Give opposite or synonym: bon march6, une bottine, une 
semaine, deux semaines, tard, faire beau, faire chaud, avoir 
raison, essayer, se lever, de bonne heure, le lever du soleil, jour, 
matin, pauvre, ensuite, quelque chose, sale, premier. 

(2) Supply the proper words: 1. La terre est de neige. 

2. Le vent les nuages. 3. II k vos questions. 4. La 

couturiSre fait des ; la modiste fait des- . 5. J'^tais 

fatigu6 et j'ai dormi ee matin. 6. Jc suis arriv6 en 

k r^cole. 7. Je me coucherai de bonne heure parce que j'ai 

. 8. Je vais au concert parce que j'aime la . 9. Je 

vais voir une de Molidre au ce soir. 10. AUez vite 

laver vos mains, elles sont ; elles ne sont pas . 11. Je 

me suis les cheveux; je me suis la figure. 12. J'ai 

mes aux pieds. 13. Pour me laver les mains j'ai besoin 

de et d'une — ^. 14. Je n'aime pas cet enfant, il n'est 

pas . 15. Prenons I'autdbus qui k ce coin de la 

rue. 16. Les montent dans le tramway; le conducteur 

crie les et nous montons dans de nos num^ros. 

17. Je n'aime pa.s les autos, j'aime mieux me promener k . 

18. Quand il froid, je mettrai mes gants. 19. Nous 

avons achet^ doux de souliers. 20. Je marche avec lea 

:;^^ — et les , je pense avec la . 


(3) Supply past indefinite and future of cesser or s*arreter 

according to the sense: 1. II de pleuvoir. 2. Le train 

. 3. II ne neige pas maintenant, la neige a de 

tomber. 4. Get enfant a d'ecouter. 5. II k la 

porte. 6. Ne vous pas dans la rue; vous serez en retard 

pour la classe. Supply the infinitive of one of these verbs: 

7. Voulez-vous ? 8. Voulez-vous de causer avec 


(4) Supply fois or temps or heure: 1. II fait beau ; 

deux k la ; il est de partir; quelle est-il? c'est 

du dtner. 2. Combien de resterez-vous chez la 

couturiere? 3. Combien de les avez-vous vus? 4. Le 

c'est de I'argent. 5. Je n'ai pas le d'y aller. 6. II 

a neig6 plusieurs vendredi dernier. 7. Depuis combien 

de demeurez-vous h New- York? 8. Notre auto [oto] 

s'est arret6e trois . 9. II y avait une une petite fille 

trds sage. 

(5) a. Supply de bonne heure or bientdt: 1. lis se leveront 

demain. 2. II est un peu en retard mais il arrivera . 

3. J'ai fait une promenade ce matin. 4. Je rentrerai 

pour le dejeuner. 5. Attendez un peu, I'autobus arrivera 

. 6. Si le tramway n'arrive pas , j'irai a ma destina- 
tion h pied. 7. Aujourd'hui ils se sont r^veill^s . 

6. Supply tard or en retard: 1. J'aime a me lever en 

hiver. 2. Le soleil se couche en 6t^. 3. Je suis parti 

tr^s de chez moi. 4. Get 61eve est tou jours . 

5. Vous etes pour prendre le train. 6. Le train est ar- 
rive k la gare. 

(6) Use in two sentences each the verbs conjugated with dtre 
{see Lesson XVIII). 

(7) Supply suitable words: 1. Nous avons 6t6 au « Bon 
March6 » (magasin c^l^bre de Paris). 2. Nous avons achet6 

une paire de , trois paires de , et deux pour ma 

grande sceur. 3. Et nous avons achet6 une jolie verte 

pour mon oncle, des , des , et des pour mon p^re 

et des pour ma petite sceur. 4. Tous les enfants aiment 

les . 

§99 LESSON XXV 113 

(8) ^numirez (enumerate) les objets dont vous vous senez 
pour voire toilette {voyez aux Legons XX, XXI). 

(9) Completez: 1. Vous trop de cigares. 2. Quand 

les enfants peur, ils . 3. Les enfants ne crient 

pas beaucoup. 4. Quand le ciel est convert de en 

hiver, on dit qu'il va . 5. Si c'est en 6t^, on dit qu'il va 

. 6. On se promdne sur I'eau dans un . 7. On se 

promSne k travers la for^t k . 8. On se prom^ne sur les 

grandes routes en ou k ou k . 

(10) Quels 80tU les jours de la semainef 

(11) Dites en fran^is: already, again, late, early, at length, 
through, beside, near, yell loudly, the same day, out-doors. 


99. The Infinitive. Some of the commoner uses of the 
infinitive are: 

1. Without any preposition, (o) after such verbs as devoir, 
must, ought to, falloir, must, be necessary to, pouvoir, can, be 
able to, savoir, can, know how to, vouloir, will, vrish; (b) after 
verbs of motion such as aller, go, venir, come; (c) after verbs 
of perceiving such as ecouter, listen (to), entendre, hear, 
voir, see, regarder, look at; and after faire, make, cause to, 
laisser, let. 

Desire-t-il aller en ville? Does he wish to go downtown? 

D faut travailler. He (we, you, they, etc.) must work. 

Je vais chercher des plumes. I am going to pet some p>ens. 

Je vois venir des soldats. I see some soldiers coming. 

Je fais sonnet la cloche. I make the bell ring. 

2. Preceded by de, (a) after impersonal etre followed 
by an adjective; (6) after many verbs, such as cesser, stop, 
demander, ask, dire, tell, essayer, try, prier, beg, regretter, 
regret, be sorry, ticher, try; (c) after nouns to form ad- 
jective phrases; and after most adjectives. 


II est facile de parler. It is easy to talk. 

II a cesse de chanter. He has ceased singing. 

Le crime de voler. The crime of stealing. 

Vous etes libre de partir. You are free to go. 

Je vous prie de tester quelques I beg of you to stay a few min- 
minutes. utes. 

3. Preceded by a, (a) after such verbs as aimer, like, 
s'amuser, have a good time, apprendre, learn, avoir, have 
to, chercher, seek, commencer, begin, continuer, continue, 
enseigner, teach, inviter, invite, se mettre, begin, reussir, 
succeed; and (6) after some adjectives denoting fitness, 
tendency, purpose, etc. 

J'aime a patiner. I like to skate (like skating). 

Je m'amuse a patiner. I amuse myself (by) skating. 

Commencez a lire. Begin to read. 

Nous avons a copier nos phrases. We have to copy our sentences. 

H se met a travailler. He begins to work. 

Ceci est bon a manger. This is good to eat. 

Cela est facile d faire. That is easy to do. 

N.B. — Aimer may also (colloquially) be followed by the pure infinitive; 
e.g., j'aime (i) marcher lentement, / like to walk slowly. 

4. Observe that the same adjective may take a or de, 
according to the construction in which it is used. When the 
infinitive depends upon the adjective and is not the logical 
subject of the sentence, the adjective and the infinitive are 
connected by means of a; when the infinitive is the real 
subject of the sentence, it is preceded by de. 

n est facile a contenter. He is easy to satisfy. 

n est facile de le contenter. It is easy to satisfy him. 

La chose est facile d faire. The thing is easy to do. 

H est diflScile de patiner. Skating is difficult. 

5. A verb governed by a preposition must be in the infini- 
tive, except after en (cf. §101); the infinitive is usually 
translated into English by means of a present participle: 

Je I'ai fait sans penser. I did it without thinking. 

JD est parti sans rien dire. He left without saying anything. 

§§ 100-103 LESSON XXV 115 

100. Present Participle of dormer, firur, vendre, etc. 
Giving Fimsking Selling 

donn ant [dana] finiss ant [finisd] vend ant [vfidd] 

Hating Being 

ay ant [eja] 6t ant [eta] 

101. Agreement. Used as an adjective, the present parti- 
ciple agrees like an adjective; otherwise it is invariable: 
Une sc^ne charmante. A channing scene. 

Les enfants sont obeissant5. The children are obedient. 

Elle tombait souvent en marchant. She often fell while walking. 

Ce professeur aime k s'amuser en This teacher likes to entertain 
lisant les pieces de Molilre. himself by reading Molidre's 


En lisant on apprend k lire. By reading one learns to read. 

Tout en pleurant, elle continua. Still weeping, she went on. 

N.B. — The present participle, when preceded by en, strengthened acme- 
times by tout, ia ofteD called the gerund. The preposition en is ezpreased 
in EInglish by on, in, whiU, by or is left untranslated. 

102. Present Indicative of pouvoir, be able, can, may (irr^.) 

/ can, am able, etc. 

je petji or puis [3ap0,pqi] nous pouvons fnupuvS] 

tupeuz Ctyp0] vouspouvez [vupuve] 

ilpeut [ilp0] ilspeuvent [ilpoerv] 

103. The impersonal il faut (imperfect il fallait, past 
indef. il a fallu, future il faudra) is often used with the pure 
infinitive to indicate a general obligation on the part of the 
speaker or the person spoken to or about: 

n faut faire son devoir. One must do one's duty. 

D faut partir. I (we, you, he, they) must leave. 

n ne fallait pas s'srrlter. You (we, he, they, she) ought not 

to have stopped. 
n a fallu beaucoup travailler We (they, you, etc.) had to work 

n ne faudra pas voler. We (one, people, etc.) must not 

Observe the position of the negative words in the French examines. 



la carte [kart] card, map venir [vaniir] come; il vient 
la cloche [kloS] bell [vje] he comes, is coming 

la comiaissance [konesais] ac- vouloir [vulwair] wish 

quamtance apprendre (&) [apraidr] learn, 
un effort [efoir] effort teach 

la glace [glaa] ice, mirror enseigner (k) [asepe] teach 

le roman [roma] novel reussir (i) [reysi:r] succeed 
la soiree [sware] evening {when 

duration is stressed) essayer (de) [essje] try, at- 

charmant [Sarma] delightful prier (de) [prije] ask, beg, re- 
enchante [oCate] delighted quest 

libre Qibr] free regretter (de) [ragrete] regret, 

be sorry 
patiner Cpatine] skate 

falloir [falwair] be necessary; 

il faut [fo] it is necessary, _^ i_ / n. i.i.\ 

\ M e^ ,j,« rf^j^„n se porter be {of health) 
one must il faudra Qfodra] ^ . y • t xt. i 

., .„ , .,, remeraer [ramErsjeJ thank 

it will be necessary, one will '- . -' 

, ^ . soimer [sonel ring 

have to or must i. j o 

pouvoir [puvwa!r3 be able, can facilement [fasilma] easily 

A. 1. Bonjour, monsieur; je suis enchants de fairs votre con- 
naissance. 2. Comment allez-vous aujourd'hui? 3. — Tr^s 
bien, merci. Et vous? 4. — Qui? Moi? Toujours bien, je 
vous remercie. 5. Aimez-vous ce temps? — Oh, beaucoup. 
6. II a fait froid cette nuit {last night) mais maintenant on 
voit le soleil et il fait presque chaud. 7. J'ai fait una promenade 
charmante dans le pare ce matin. 8. II n'y a pas de fleurs, 
mais il y a des* petits oiseaux qui ne sont pas partis, et qui 
n'ont pas encore cess6 de chanter. 9. En passant j'ai regard^ 
le petit lac et j'ai vuqu'ily avaitde la glace. 10. Nouspouvons 
bient6t patiner. 11. On pent s'amuser facilement en hiver, 
n'est-ce pas? 12. — Oui, il est tres facile de s'amuser dehors 
quand on se porte bien. 13. Et si on ne d6sire pas sortir, on 
peut rester k la maison h lire et a faire de la musique. 14. J'ai 

* Observe des petits oiseaux, like des petits pois. The adjective and 
noun are felt as a compound noun. Similarly we say regularly des 
jeunes fille«, des petits pains {rolls) and, often, des petits gar^ons. 

S 103 LESSON XXY 117 

commence hier un roman de Dumas [d3mia]. 15. Et souvent 
nous invitons nos amis k passer la soiree chez nous. 16. On 
chante, on danse, on joue aux cartas. 17. Oui. U est facile 
de bien s'amuser quand on a des amis. 

B. ff) Use the indicated infinitive, directly or preceded by a 
preposition, according to § 99: 1. Vous ne pouvez pas (parler). 

2. II faut (se coucher) tout de suite. 3. Nous allons (nous 
lever) maintenant. 4. D a d6j^ cess^ (pleuvoir). 5. Je 
regrette (quitter) mes amis. 6. Je vous prie (r^pondre) k ma 
question. 7. J'ai beaucoup k faire; nous avons trop (fiure). 
8. Ma sceur a entendu (chanter) Caruso. 9. Vous entendrez 
(chanter) les oiseaux dans le pare. 10. Nous voulons (voir) 
le petit lac. 11. Je vois (tomber) la neige. 12. A quelle 
heure voulez-vous (diner)? 13. Le vent a r^ussi (chasser) les 
nuages. 14. Vous pouvez (r^ussir) (parler) fran^ais, si vous 
tAchez (bien prononcer). 15. Nous essayons (parler) fran- 
gais. 16. Je vais (me promener) pr6s de la for6t. 17. II m'a 
enseign6 (monter) k cheval. 18. Vous 6tes libre (jouer) dans 
mon jardin. 19. Regrettez-vous (cesser) (fumer)? 20. Je 
vous prie (vous serv'ir) de mon savon. 21. II fait jour; il 
faut (se lever) tout de suite; il faudra (rentrer) avant minuit. 
22. J'aimms (passer) les vacances k la campagne. 23. Elle 
avait r^ussi (trouver) son livre. 24. II n'est pas facile (bien 
prononcer) le frangais. 25. D6sirez-vous (vous arrfiter) ici? 
26. lis voient (venir) leurs amis. 27. II ^coutait (sonner) les 
cloches. 28. II m'a pri6 (le mener) au concert. 29. II 
s'amuse (lire). 30. II m'apprendra (patiner). 31. Les 616 ves 
demanderont au professeur (leur enseigner) (lire) le frangais. 

*f2) What do you observe about the position of the infinitive 
after entendre, voir, §couter? Contrast it with the order in 

1(8) a. Observe carefully: 1. La classe a appris k bien pro- 
noncer. 2. Aprds avoir fait ma toilette, je suis descendu. 

3. Je regrette de vous voir partir. 4. Mon p6re a fini par me 
chasser de la maison, 5. On se couche po'or dormir. 6. On 
ne peut rien apprendre sans faire un effort. 


6. These six prepositions take the infinitive. What form of 
the infinitive is found after aprds ? Par with the infinitive is usually 
found only after commencer and finir. Observe that en does not 
take the infinitive. For by + verb form in other cases, compare 
§101, example 5. May we use avant alone before an infinitive? 

Ifgf Translate: 1. After finishing my work; after eating too 
much. 2. We shall begin by reading aloud (a haute voix). 
3. One learns to skate by skating. 4. Before leaving, I wish 
to thank you again (encore une fois). 

d. Note the usual position of bien with infinitives (before), and 
in compound tenses (before the past participle). Write: 1. We 
had a very good time. 2. She sang well yesterday. 

C. »(f) Translate the participial phrases (be careful about the 
auxiliaries): 1. Having finished his lesson. 2. Having ar- 
rived before noon. 3. Having stopped eating. 4. Having 
gone to see her. 5. Having succeeded in teaching you tc 
skate. 6. Having been to the theater yesterday evening (not 
soiree). 7. Having gone out early. 8. Having come in 
(rentrer) late. 9. Having waked {1st person: m'etant reveille. 
Third person?) before daylight (le jour). 10. Having got up 
(1st plural fern.: nous etant levees. Third plural fern.?) at six 
o'clock. 11. Having begged (prier) my father to give me more 
money. 12. Having asked (demander) my chum to come to 
see me. 

^2) Traduisez: 1. He enters without knocking. 2. She 
left without looking at me; you cannot pronounce French 
without making an effort. 3. In winter we amuse ourselves 
by (k) skating. 4. He will not succeed in finding the right 
(bon) road. 5. Do you want to spend your time in (k) running- 
about (courir) the streets? 6. He speaks of going to France 
(the) next summer. 7. He cannot speak of going away without 
regretting to leave his friends. 8. While skating (see § 101, 
example 3) yesterday, I fell and hurt myself. 9. When 1 was 
small I used to fall and hurt myself while skating. 10. Appe- 
tite comes (vient) while one eats (= eating). 11. We (On) 
learn to speak French by speaking (see § 101, example 5). 
12. We (On) succeed in stopping smoking by stopping smoking. 

$S 104-106 LESSON XXVI 119 

104. Present Subjunctive of donner, finir, vendre 

I (may) give, etc. I (may) finish, etc I {niay) sell, etc 

donn e [dan] Oniss e ZGniB} vend c [vflid] 

donn es [don] finish es [finis] vend e* [vflid] 

donn e [don] 5niss e [finis] vend e [vflrd] 

donn ions [danjS] Sniss ions [finisjS] vend ions [vfldjS] 

donn iez [donje] finiss iez [finisje] vend iez [vfldje] 

donn ent [don] finish ent [finis] vend ent [void] 

N.B. — The paradigm meanings / may give, etc., are only approxi- 
mate, as will be seen from the examples below. 

106. Present Subjunctive of avoir, ktre 

I (may) have, etc. I {may) be, dc. 

ale [e] ayons [ej3] sois [swa] soyons [swajS] 

ales [e] ayez [cje] sois [swa] soyez [swaje] 

ait [e] aient [e] soit [swa] soient [swa] 

106. Use of the Subjunctive. Some of the commoner 
uses of the subjunctive are: 

1. In a subordinate noun clause introduced by que, (half 
after expressions of wiUing or desiring: 

Je desire que vous restiez. I desire you to remain ( = that you 

may or should remain). 

2. Similarly, after expressions of joy or sorrow: 
Je suis content qu'il soit icL I am glad he is here. 

3. So also after expressions of necessity, like 11 faut: 
n faut que vous restiez. You must remain. 

II est nScessaire que vous restiez. It is necessary for you to remain. 

N.B. — We learned in %% 99, 103 that fallotr is often followed by the pure 
infinitive. In B and C of the Exercise below the pupil will find examples 
that should help him to decide between the cases when the infinitive or 
subjvmctive may be tised indifferently, or when the subjunctive is required. 
It should be observed that the subjunctive construction is preferaWe in 
such cases as example 1, when we have a definite person in mind. 




4. It is used in adverbial clauses after certain conjunc- 
tions, e.g., afin que, in order that, pour que, in order that, 
avant que, before, bien que, although, quoique, although, etc. 
Bien qu'il soit pauvre il est heureux. Although he is poor, he is happy. 

5. Que is never omitted, as that often is in English: 
Je sms content gu'il soit ici. I am glad (that) he is here. 

107. Tense Sequence. Present or Future in the principal 
clause is regularly followed by Present Subjunctive: 
Pees. II faut 1 .. ( You must speak. 

Ftjt. II f audra / P • \ You will have to speak. 

108. Present Indicative of vouloir, mil, wish, etc. (irreg.) 

/ will, wish, etc. 
je veux [3av0] nous voulons [nuvulo] 

tu veux [tyv0]] vous voulez [vuvule] 

il veut [ilv0] lis veulent [ilvoel] 

109. Present Subjunctive of faire (irreg.) 

/ {may) do, etc. 

fasse [fas] fassions [fasjS] 

fasses [fas] fassiez [fasje] 

fasse [fas] fassent [fas] 


le billet [bije] ticket 
le doute [dut] doubt 
un esprit [espri] wit, intelligence, 

la fin [fe] end 
la guerre [geir] war 
une intention [etasjS] intention 
le moyen [mwaje] means, way 
la vie [vi] life 

aimable [emabl] kind 
charme [^arme] delighted 
mille [mil] a thousand 
possible [posibl] possible 

avoir 1 'intention de intend 
dire [diir] say, tell 
envoyer [avwaje] send 
f eliciter [felisite] congratulate 
laisser [Isse] leave, allow 
permettre (de) [permetr] 

allow, permit 
voyager [vwajase] travel 

ne . . . que only 

sans doute [sfidut] doubtless, 

seulement [soelma] only 

S 109 LESSON XXVI 121 

EXERCISE XXVI (Continued) 

afin que [afeka] in order that, au revoirl [orvwair] good-bye, 

so that see you again! 

avant que [avdka] before c'est cela [sesla] that's ri^t, 

bien que [bjeka] although that's it 

quoique [kwakaj although peut-Stre [p0te:tr] perhaps 

A. Use the infinitive in parerUhesis with or without a prepo- 
sition according to usage: 1. On ne peut pas (bien marcher) 
8ur la glace; 11 faut (apprendre) (patiner). 2. Je regrette (ne 
pas pouvoir) (patiner). 3. II a ce8s6 (neiger) maintenant; 
nous pouvons (sortir). 4. Ddsirez-vous (faire) la connais- 
sance de Monsieur Daudet Cdode]? 6. — Beaucoup. Je voua 
prie (me presenter) k Monsieur Daudet. 6. — Alors, per- 
mettez-moi (vous presenter) mon ami, Monsieur Dupin. 

7. — Je suis charm6 (faire) votre connaissance, monsieur. 

8. Etes-vous depuis longtemps en Am^rique? 9. — Non, 
monsieur. Je ne suis en Am^rique que depuis troiB mois. Je 
I'aime beaucoup, et je regretterai (partir) la semaine pro- 
chaine. 10, — Vous avez r6ussi (tr6s bien apprendre) I'anglais. 
Permettez-moi (vous f^liciter). 11. — Je vous remercie, mon- 
sieur. Vous 6tes mille fois aimable, mais je commence seule- 
ment (I'apprendre). 12. Mab od avez-vous appris (parler) 
frangais? 13. Comment avez-vous r6ussi (parler) et (com- 
prendre) si bien? Vous avez 6t€ sans doute en France! 14. 
— Non, monsieur, je regrette (n'avoir) pas encore vu la France. 
15. J'avais I'intention (y aller) I'ann^e derni^re, mais la guerre 
ne permettait pas (voyager). 16. — Eh bien, il faut (venir) 
bientdt; et venez (me voir) i Paris, n'est-ce pas? 17. — Merci, 
monsieur. Je veux (\e faire) et je le ferai I'^t^ prochain, si je 
peux. — Au revoir, monsieur! — Au revoir! A (till) I'annde pro- 
chaine! — C'est cela. A I'ann^ prochaine, k Paris! 

B. Contrast the following senteruxs: 

1. II d6sire r^ussir. II desire que nous r^ussis- 


2. Je veux le faire. II veut que je le fasse. 

3. Nous sommes contents de Nous sommes contents que 

vous voir si bien rdussir. vous ayez si bien r^ussi. 


4. Vous regrettez de I'avoir Je ne regrette pas que vous 

fait, n'est-ce pas? I'ayez fait. 

5. II f aut vous f^liciter de votre II f aut que le professeur vous 

prononciation. f^licite de votre prononcia- 


6. II est ndcessaire de permettre II est n^cessaire que vous me 

cela aux enfants. permettiez de vous le dire. 

What is the essential difference in regard to the subject of the 
dependent verb that makes the subjunctive necessary in the sentences 
of the second column ? 

Hence, what general statement can you formulate in the case 
of verbs that com£ under both § 99 and § 106; that is, when is the 
infinitive used and when the subjunctive? 

C. (1) Make two groups of sentences with desirer, vouloir, 
regretter, §tre content, 11 faudra, in which you illustrate both 
constructions possible after these verbs. Observe that in cases 
like § 99, 1, example 2, § 103, and § 106, 3, example 1, the in- 
finitive and subjunctive constru^ctions after il faut (faudra) are 
exactly equivalent. This is often the case when the subject in 
English is a personal pronoun; but il faut que cet eleve fasse 
son travail. 

(2) Supply the proper form of the verb in parenthesis, inserting 
any missing preposition: 1. (6tre) Bien qu'il — i — riche, il est 

heureux. 2. (avoir) Quoiqu'elle beaucoup d'argent, elle 

a de I'esprit. 3. (faire) Bien qu'il beau aujourd'hui, ces 

enfants ne peuvent pas sortir. 4. (partir) Quoique nous 

de tr^s bonne heure, nous n'arriverons qu'^ minuit. 5. (faire) 

Mon p6re desire que je un voyage en France pour mieux 

(apprendre) (parler) frangais. 6. (entendre) Nous mfenerons 
mon cousin au concert ce soir afin qu'il de la ^ bonne musique. 

7. (finir) Je le laisserai tranquille tout(e) Tapr^s-midi pour qu'il 

son travail avant le dtner. 8. (finir) Nous ne partirons 

pas avant qu'il ses legons pour demain. 9. (faire) II 

fermera la porte afin qu'il assez chaud dans sa chambre. 

10. (arriver) Nous n'avons pas nos places et il ne faut pas que 
nous trop tard. 11. (etre) Quoique nos places ne 

* Compare XXV, A, footnote. 

§ 109 LESSON XXVI 123 

pas trop bonnes, j'entendrai bien. 12. (avoir) Mon cousin 

entendra bien aussi quoiqu'il ne pas de trop bonnes oreilles. 

13. (quitter) 11 faudra que nous la salle avant la fin du 

concert. 14. (avoir) II est n^cessaire que nous nos 

billets avant d'entrer dans la salle. 15. (^tre) II faut que 

nous k nos places avant qu'on * (chanter). 

(3) Traduisez: 1. We are delighted that you are having a 
good time in America. 2. Although you have been here only 
a few months, you speak English very well. 3. I must con- 
gratulate you on your pronunciation. 4. I wish to send my 
son to France, in order that he may learn (§ 202) to speak 
French. 5. He likes it very much, but he is just beginning 
(is beginning only) to learn to speak it. 6. When your son is 
in Paris, he must make the acquaintance of my old friend Mr. 
Dumas, who has several sons and three daughters. 7. One 
learns a language very quickly by talking with other young 
people (gens). 8. They are the best teachers. Your son must 
often spend the evening at his house. 9. He will have to 
(must) learn the language, in order to play cards and chat with 
the young ladies. 10. I shall be glad to have him do that 
(that he do ... ). 11. We wish him to become acquainted 
with (faire connaissance avec) the life of a French family. 
12. It is the best way of becoming acquainted with France. 

D. Form questions to which the sentences in C, (2) could be 
considered as anstoers. 

E. (1) a. Observe the similarities bettpeen the stem of the 
present participles of verbs like donner, finir, vendre (§ 100) and 
that of the present and imperfect indicative and the present 





















b. Complete orally or at the board the conjugation of these forms, 
1 (commencer). 

124 A FRENCH GRAMMAR §§ 110-113 

(2) This similarity exists in all the so-called regular verbs, and 
is important for all others. For example: 

Pres. part. ayant 6tant faisant [faza]] dormant 
Pres. indic. ai suis fais [fe] dors 

Imperp. indic. avais 6tais faisais [faze] dormais 
Pres. subj. aie sois fasse [fas] dorme 

Complete orally or at the board the conjugation of these forms. 
Observe that the forms of the verb etre are derived from more than 
one stem. Compare am, was, been. 


110. Imperative of donner, finir, vendre 

Give, etc. Finish, etc. Sell, etc. 

donn e [don] finis [fini] vend s [va] 

qu'il donn e [don] qu'il finiss e [finis] qu'il vend e [vdid] 

donn ons [dono] finiss ons [finiso] vend ons[vad5] 

donn ez [done] finiss ez [finise] vend ez [vade] 

qu'Us donn ent [don] qu'ils finfss ent [finis] qu'ils vend ent [va:d] 

Oba.: The 3rd sing, and 3rd pi. are subjunctive forms used aa imperatives. 

111. Imperative of avoir, etre 

Have, etc. Be, etc. 

aie [e] sois [swa] 

qu*il ait [kile] qu'il soit [swa] 

ay ons [ejo] soy otis [swajS] 

ay ez [eje] soy ez [swaje] 

qu'ils aient [kilze] qu'ils soient [kilswa] 

112. Imperative Negative 

ne donne pas qu'il ne donne pas ne donnons pas, etc. 

113. Position of Objects. 1. Personal pronoun objects 
follow the positive imperative (but not the subjunctive as 
imperative), and are joined to it and to one another by 




Donnez-Zui la plxune. Give bim the pen. 

Donnez-Zo-Zui. Give it to him. 

Donnons-/eur-en. Let us give them some. 

But: Qu'il me la donne. Let him give it to me. 

2. If the imperative is negative, the general rule of posi- 
tion (§81) holds good: 

Ne la lui domiez pas. Do not give it to him. 

3. Moi and toi are used after an imperative instead of me 
and te (unless before y and en, in which case apostrophe 
replaces hyphen) : 

Donnez-moi des pommes. Give me some apples. 

Domiez- m'en. Give me some (of them). 

4. When a verb has two objects, they are usually ar- 
ranged thus after it: 

le (la, les) before moi (toi, lui, nous, vout, leor). 

me (te, lui, nous, vous, leur) before y (en). 
y before en. 


un accord C<Snako:r] agreement 
une encre [a:kr] ink 
un exercice [egzersis] exercise 
lafeuille [fcE:j] leaf, sheet (of 

un instant [estd^ instant, mo- 
le participe [partisip] participle 
la rSgle [rrtgl] nile 
le stylo (graphe) [stilo^ 
fountain pen 

droit [drwa] right 
malade [malad] ill 
allonsl [al5] come! {interjec- 
sedepScher (de) [sadepcSe] hurry 

deranger [derase] disturb 
faire son possible [fe:rB5 

paeiblj do one's (his, etc.) 

prendre [pratdrjtake; prenex! 

[prgne] take! 
remplir [rapliir] fill 

d'accord in agreement 

ferme [f erm] hard 

ne . . . i^us [na ply] no more, 

no longer 
ne . . . que only 

Sa Csa3 contraction (familiar) 
of cela 

moi-m£me [mwameim] my- 

mon cher [m5Se:r] old man, my dear fellow 
sapristil [sapristi] good graciousi 


A. 1. On nous a dit de preparer nos legons et nous faisons 
notre possible pour les bien preparer. 2. Le professeur nous a 
laiss^s ici afin qu'on ne nous derange pas. 3. Nous avons pri6 
nos camarades de nous laisser tranquilles. Nous avons peu de 
temps et il faut travailler ferme. 4. Quel est le livre que vous 
avez^la maindroite? Est-ce votre livre de frangais ? 5. — Oui, 
c'est ma grammaire fran^aise. — Donnez-la-moi un instant, s'il 
vous plait. 6. II faut que je tache de trouver la regie de I'ac- 
cord des participes. La voici. 7. — Moi aussi. Laissez-moi 
la regarder un instant, je vous prie. EUe n'est pas facile. 
8. — Maintenant c'est de I'encre que je cherche. II n'y en a 
plus dans mon stylo [^stilo]. En avez-vous? 9. — Oui, j'en 
ai. — Alors donnez-m'en, s'il vous plait: assez pour remplir 
mon stylo. 10. — Voila. — Je vous remercie beaucoup. 
11. AUons, d^pechons-nous. Travaillons un peu plus vite. Ne 
causons plus. 12. Vous me faites perdre trop de temps. — 
Soyez tranquille, nous finirons avant que le professeur soit pr^t. 

13. — Sapristi! J'ai perdu mpn cahier. — Qa (Cela) ne fait 
rien! Prenez de ce papier-ci. 14. Prenez-en assez, je vous 
prie, mais n'en prenez pas trop, parce que j'ai besoin de quel- 
ques feuilles moi-meme. 15. — Merci bien. Voulez-vous 
que j'en donne aussi k mon camarade Henri? 16. — Oui, 
donnez-lui-en, mais ne lui en donnez pas trop. 17. — N'ayez 
pas peur, mon cher. Je prendrai seulement ces quelques 
feuilles (ou je ne prendrai que ces quelques feuilles). 

B. (1) Substitute personal pronouns for the direct and indirect 
object nouns: 1. Prenez du papier, je vous prie. 2. Ne prenez 
pas trop d'encre. 3. Chassez ces enfants du jardin. 4. Priez 
votre oncle de venir nous voir. 5. ficrivez-lui la lettre tout de 
suite. 6. N'6crivez pas la lettre k votre camarade cette 
semaine. 7. Ne mettez pas la cuiller dans votre tasse. 8. Met- 
tez les cuillers k nos places, s'il vous plait. 9. Pr6sentez-moi 
votre ami. 10. Pr^sentez mon ami k votre p^re, je vous prie. 
11. Donnez le roman a votre tante. 12. Ne donnez pas les 
romans aux enfants. 13. Finissons le devoir vendredi soir. 

14. Ne finissons pas ces devoirs samedi matin. 15. Ne d6- 
rangeons pas nos camarades pendant qu'ils travaillent. 16. Ne 

$113 LESSON xxvu 127 

d^rangez pas le professeur. 17-18. Demandez la r^gle des 
participes h votre voisin; — ^ votre voisine. 

(2) Give orally or write on the board the Ist arui Sd plural 
imperative, affirmative and negative, of commencer, se lever, se 
coucher, voir, aller, se d6p6cher, prendre, remplir, partir (o6- 
serve that partir differs from finir in the imperative exactly as in 
the present indicative), sortir, attendre. 

(3) Complete the following by adding a noun object, and then re- 

pealing the phrase with the proper pronoun: 1. Cherchez {Model: 

Cherchez le livre; cherchez-le). 2. Ne cherchez pas . 

3. Finisaez . 4. Ne finisaez pas . 6. Vendez . 

6. Ne vendez pas . 7. Qu'il 6ooute . 8. Chante 

. 9. Ne chante pas . 10. ChoisiaBes . 11. Ne 

choisissez pas , 12. Donnons . 

C. icrivez en fran^ais: 1. I r^ret to tell (i) his mother that 
he is ill. 2. I regret that he is ill. 3. He will be delighted 
(enchant^) to see you. 4. He will be delighted that you brought 
him some money. 5. We want to learn to skate and to ride 
horseback. 6. My father wants me to learn {pres. subj. td 
pers., apprenne) music. 7. Allow me to tell you my name (use 
s'appeler: see Lesson IX, A). 8. Must (Faut-il que) we begin 
to speak French immediately? 9. They will have to (II 
faudra qu'ils) let her alone (= leave her quiet). 10. She wants 
them to let her alone, but they don't want to let her alone. 
11. Introduce me, please (s*il vous plait or je vous prie) to 
your friend. 12. I beg you to introduce me to him (4 lui). 
13. Introduce him to me, please. 14. Although he has a lot 
of money, he does not travel. 15. Although I thanked him, 
he did not answer me. 16. Leave me alone so that (pour que) 
I may finish my work before dinner. 17. We must (II faut 
que) go to bed early and I must get up to-morrow before sun- 
rise. 18. Although he does his best, he hasn't succeeded in 
learning to pronounce French * very well (after verb). 

D. Dict^: Le^on XXIV, A, (1). 

* We say parler frangais, but prononcer le franctis, comprendre le frui- 
(ais, apprendre le franfais. 

128 A FRENCH GRAMMAR §§ 114-116 

114. Conditional of donner, finir, vendre 

I should give, etc. I should finish, etc. I should sell, etc. 

doimerai5 [don(8)r8] finir afs [finirE^ vendr ais [vadre] 

donner afs [don(8)re] finir ais [finire] vendr ais [vadre] 

donner aft [don(8)re] finir ai7 [finir£] vendr aft [vadre] 

donner ions [donarjo] finir ions [finir jo] vendr ions [vadriS] 

donner iez [donarje] finir iez [finirje] vendr iez [vadrie] 

donner ai'enf [don (9)rE3 finir aicnf [finire] vendr aien/ [vadre] 

Note. — For the pronunciation of the conditional of donner and of the 
future and conditional of fetre (§115) and of faire (§ 117), see the note to 
§ 90; but observe that the 3 is generally sounded in the first and second 
plural of the conditional tense. 

116. Conditional of avoir, Hre 

I should have, etc. I should be, etc. 

aurais[ore] aur ions [orjo] ser ais [s (8)rE] set ions [sarjS] 

aur ais [ore] aur iez [orje] ser ais [s(a)re] ser fez [sarje] 

auraif [ore] aur aienf [orE] ser aft [s(a)re3 ser aienf [s(8)re] 

116. Conditional Sentences. 1. The conditional is used 
to express what would happen {result) in case something else 
were to happen (condition): 

S'il avait le temps (condition), H If he had time (Had he time, etc.), 
finirait sa lejon {result). he would finish his lesson. 

2. A ' result ' clause in the conditional (EngUsh should or 
would) regularly has the 'if' clause in the imperfect indica- 
tive, whatever be the corresponding English form: 

Si j'etudiais bien (condition), le If I studied (or if I were to s., or 
maitre serait content (result). were I to s., or should I s.) well, 

the teacher would be glad. 

3. A * result' clause in the future requires the 'if clause 
in the present indicative, whatever be the corresponding 
EngUsh form: 


LESSON xxvin 


S'il est ici demain (condition), 
je lui donnerai I'argent (result). 

If be is (or be, or will be, or should 
be) here to-morrow, I shall give 
him the money. 

N.B. — Neither the future nor the conditioDal may be used after si in 
the clause that expresses the supposition. 

117. Future and Conditional of faire (irr^.) and otter 


fer ai [f (a)re] fer ais [f (a)n:] ir ai [ire] ir ais [ire] 

fer as P (»)»! ^^- /«' *is [f (a)rEl etc. ir as [iral etc. t ais [irt], etc. 


r Angleterre /. [laglat£:r] Eng- 
la bicyclette [bisikkt] bicycle 
la cathedrale [katedral] cathe- 
le chAteau [Satd] chateau, coun- 
try mansion 
r Espagne /. Qespaji] Spain 
le fleuve [flce:v] river (that JUnrs 

into the sea) 
le gargon [gars5] waiter 
la langue Da:g] language, tongue 
le montmient [monyma] build- 
ing, etc., of interest 
lepaysage Cpeiza:;] landscape 
la rividre [rivJE:r] river (that flows 

into another stream) 
la valine [vale] valley 

Ic vignoble [vipobl] vineyard 

ignorant [ipardj ignorant 
siir [syir] certain 

coftter [kute] cost 

ezpliquer [eksplike] explain 
se mettre [so metr] place oneself 
jc pense bien! I should think so! 

revoir [rovwa:r] see again 

traverser [traverse] cross 
80 trouver [so truve] be, be situ- 

un jour some day 
k temps [a to] in time 

tout le monde [tulm5:d] every- 

sans [sfi] but for, without 

A. 1. Si vous alliez faire un grand voyEtge, oil iriez-vous? 
2. — J'irais en France d'abord. Puis, si j'avais le temps et 
I'argent, j'irais voir 1' Italic, I'Espagne et 1' Angleterre. 3. Ce 
sont les pays les plus int^ressants de TEurope. 4. Sans la 
guerre, je serais d6]h all6 en Europe, mais k pr^nt, m^me 
(even) si j'avais le temps, je n'aurais pas assez d'argent. 5. Les 
voyages cotltent beaucoup plus cher qu'avant la guerre. 6. Si 

fl30 ) A FBENCH GRAMMAR §117 

les billets coAtaient moins cher, j'irais passer les prochaines 
vacances en France. 7. — Si vous 6tiez en France, que feriez- 
vous? 8. — J'irais voir les plus jolies villes, comme Rouen, 
Chartres, Blois, Tours. 9. A Rouen et a Chartres, je visi- 
terais les belles cath6drales. 10. A Blois et a Tours j'iraia 
voir les beaux chateaux et je me promenerais h. bicyclette dans 
la jolie campagne. 11. Toute cette valine de la Loire est 
charmante. 12. Si vous ayiez^yu une fois les jolis paysagea 
et les belles routes, vous regretteriez beaucoup de ne pas y 
passer vos vacances tous les ans. 13. — Y a-t-il d'autres 
villes int^ressantes a voir? 14. — Je pense bien. Si nous 
avions le temps je vous parlerais aussi de Marseille, la ville 
de Monte-Cristo, de Bordeaux, la ville du vin de Bordeaux, 
de Lyon, la grande ville industrielle, de Nimes et d' Aries et 
d' Avignon [avijio], qui sont si riches en beaux monuments du 
pass6. 15. Et nous regarderions aussi les beaux champs de 
bl6, les vignobles, les arbres fruitiers, et les jolies rivieres 
qu'on traverse sou vent en voyageant par le train ou en auto. 
16. Enfin, j'aimerais beaucoup revoir les jolis paysages de 
la France. 17. Si je suis assez riche, j'irai en France I'^t^ 
prochain. Soyez-en s^. 18. — Bon, je vous accompagnerai. 

B. (1) a. Point out in A each illustration of § 116, 2. 

b. Change these conditions to the present when possible, and the 
other tenses correspondingly; for example: Si vous faites un grand 
voyage, ou irez-vous . . ., etc. 

(2) Supply the proper form (two when possible, see § 116, 2, 3) 

of each verb in parenthesis: 1. (dormir) Si vous pendant 

la classe le professeur ne ^ pas trop content. 2. (aller) 

Si je en France, je ^ la cath^drale de Notre-Dame k 

Paris. 3. (pleuvoir) S'il aujourd'hui nous ne ^ pas 

notre excursion. 4. (marcher) Si notre automobile bien, 

nous ■* k Blois avant midi. 5. (^tre) Si le chateau ne 

pas ferm6, on nous ^ d'y entrer. 6. (Mre) Si ce cha- 
teau en Am6rique, tout le monde ^ le voir. 7. (faire) 

Que vous s'il "^ trop froid pour sortir? 

' (§tre). « (visiter). » (faire). « (arriver). 

B (permettre). • (aller). » (faire). 





^^ ' — I-t-l 

• H 

SW • -f+1 


■ ^^ : 

^ ^H 

( 1. ■- 

• J 



• J 

Chateau des Papes, Avignon 

La Maison CAsidiE, NtMES 

§ 117 LESSON XXVlll 131 

(3) Complete the following by an infinitive (with or without a 
preposition) or the subjunctive of the verb in parenthesis, as the 

case demands: 1. (vous voir) Je suis charm6 . 2. (faire) 

Je suis content qu'il enfin son travail. 3. (se d6p6cher) 

Dites-lui qu'il faut . 4. (se d6p6cher) II faut que nous 

si nous voulons * le train de deux heures. 5. (rem- 

plir) Voulez-vous mon verre d'eau? 6. (remplir) Vous 

ne voulez pas que le gargon votre verre? 7. (ticher) 

(le faire) lis peuvent avant midi. 8. (t&cher) (le 

faire) Faudra-t-il que nous tout de suite? 9. (se d6- 

p^cher) Bien que nous , nous n'arriverons pask temps. 

10. (remplir) J'appellerai le gargon pour qu'il votre verre. 

11. (remplir) Donnez votre encre k Pierre afin qu'il son 

stylo. 12. (commencer) (6crire) II faudra que le professeur 

nous explique la le^on avant que nous le devoir. 

13. (perdre) Ccoutez bien, mes amis; il ne faut pas que vous 

votre temps k causer. 14. (entendre) Dites-lui de venir 

86 mettre ici pour qu'il mieux. 15. (d^ranger) Nos 

camarades ont ferm6 la porte afin que nous ne lea pas. 

16. (se lever) II faudra que nous avant qu'il * jour. 

17. (dtre) Je vais me coucher tout de suite bien que mon devoir 
ne pas fini. 

C. Scrivez en frangais: 1. If I went to (en) Europe, I should 
go to England, France, Spain and Italy. 2. I should spend 
more time in France than in England, because I wish to learn 
to understand and speak French. 3. If I had (the) time I 
should learn French before leaving America (I'Amerique). 
4. You (On) enjoy yourself much more if you speak the 
language of the country. 5. When I get (arriver) to France, 
I shall have lessons every day if it is possible. 6. If I had a 
French lesson every day, (and if I heard French spoken (use 
present infinitive) all the time), I should quickly learn to speak 
(it, le) and understand it, shouldn't I? 7.* If you are going 
to travel, you must (il faut) also read the history of the coun- 
tries you will visit. 8. The ignorant traveler doesn't have a 
very good time. 9. He sees only (ne . . . que) towns and hotels 
and restaurants and taxicabs. 

' (prendre). * (f«ir«). 


D. (1) Conjugate in the present indicative: faire, aller, pou- 
voir, vouloir, partir. 

(2) Conjugate in the past indefinite indicative: avoir, etre, 
voir, sortir, s'amuser, ouvrir. 

(3) Conjugate in the imperfect: mOrir, donnir {see Lessons 
XIII, B, 2 and XXVI, E, 2) fake, reussir. 

(4) Conjugate in the future and conditional: dtre, avoir, faire, 
aller, entendre. 

(5) Conjugate in the present subjunctive: dtre, avoir, remplir, 
faire, entendre, partir. 

Note. — Sortir, partir, servir, donnir, differ from finir in the 
present subjunctive as in the present and imperfect indicative and 
imperative, i.e., by leaving out the -iss of the (participle) stem. See 
Lesson XXVI, E. 

E. Repondez aux questions suivantes: 1. Est-ce que vous avez 
voyage en Europe? 2. En Am6rique? 3. Comment? (Par 
le train? en auto? a bicyclette? etc.) 4. Quelles villes am^ri- 
caines avez-vous vues? 5. Quelle ville aimez-vous le mieux? 
6. A-t-elle des musees? 7. Y avez-vous entendu de la loonne 
musique? 8. Y etes-vous alle au theatre? 9. Est-ce que 
cette ville a de jolis pares? 10. Quels pays de I'Europe voulez- 
vous visiter? 11. Est-ce que tout le monde pent voyager 
maintenant? 12. Pourquoi pas? 13. Avez-vous I'intention 
de voyager un jour? 14. Ov irez-vous? 15. Que ferez- 
vous en France? 16. Comment sont les routes en France? 
17. Ferez-vous des excursions h bicyclette? 18. Dites-moi quels 
sont les noms des grandes villes de France. 19. Cherchez 
sur la carte comment s'appellent les grands fleuves. 20. Quelles 
villes se trouvent dans la valine de la Loire? 21. Est-elle 
agr^able, cette valine? 22. Sur quel fleuve la ville de Paris 
se trouve-t-elle? 23. Est-ce que la France est un pays agri- 
cole? 24. Que voit-on dans les champs? 25. A-t-on raison 
d'appeler ce pays « la belle France »? 26. 0\i trouve-t-on les 
belles cathMrales? 27. Ou iriez-vous voir les beaux chMeaux? 
28. Oil voit-on les beaux monuments du pass6? 

§§ 118-119 LESSON XXIX 133 


118. Use of Article. 1. Names of continents, countnes, 
provinces, and large European islands, regularly take the 
definite article: 

La France est un beau pays. France is a beautiful country. 

Nous partons pour le Canada. We are leaving for Canada, 

n demeure aux Etats-Unis. He lives in the United States. 

La Sardaigne est une ile italienne. Sardinia is an Italian island. 

But non-European islands do not r^ularly take the 

Terre-Neuve est une grande ile. Newfoundland is a large island. 
Cuba est la plus grande des Cuba is the largest of the Antilles. 

2. The article is omitted after the preposition en » in, 
to; it is also omitted after de in certain constructions, 
notably when de means from (after verbs of ^motion) or 
denotes of in an adjectival phrase: 

Mon pdre est en Angleterre. My father is in England. 

Nous allons en France. We are going to France, 

n vient d'ltalie. He comes from Italy. 

Les vins d'Espagne. Spanish wines. 

119. 1. Place 'where,' * where to,' is usually denoted by 
en before names of continents, European countries singular 
and feminine countries singular outside of Europe; other 
countries usually take the preposition k + the definite article: 

n est en (va en) Europe. He is in (goes to) Europe, 

n est au (va au) Canada. He is in (goes to) Canada. 

2. Cities, towns, etc., usually take I, without any article. 

D est a (va i) Paris. He is in or at (goes to) Paris. 

But: A la Nouvelle-Orleans. At New Orleans. 




120. Present Indicative of savoir, to know (irreg.) 

/ know, etc. 

je sais [se] ' nous savons [savS] 

tu sais [se] vous savez [save] 

il sait [se] Us savent [saiv] 


TAllemagne /. [lalmaji] Ger- 
une auberge [obers] inn, coimtry 

I'Autriche /. [lotriS] Austria 
la chevre [S£:vr] goat 
la chose [So:z] thing 
la Corse [kors] Corsica 
la cuisine [kipzin] cooking 

Test m. [lest] east 
la montagne [mStaji] mountain 
le mouton [muto] sheep 
le nord [no:r] north 

I'ouest QwEst] west 
la prairie [preri] meadow 
la ruine [rqin] ruin 
la Suisse [sqis] Switzerland 
le sol [sol] soil 
le sud [syd] south 
la vache [vaS] cow 

chaque [Sak] each 
doux [du], douce [dus] sweet, 
gentle, soft 

etranger [etrase] 6trang&re 

[etraseir] foreign 
haut [o] high, tall 
japonais [sapone] Japanese 
large [lars] broad, wide 
vrai [vre] true 

savoir [savwair] know, know 
how, be able 

autrefois [otrafwa] formerly 
quelquefois [kelkafwa] some- 
mal [mal] badly 
malheureusement [maloe- 
r0!zmd] unfortunately, un- 
moins de [mweda] less than 
partout [partu] everywhere 
pas du tout [padytu] not at all 
surtout [syrtu] especially 
t6t [to] early, soon 

tandis que [tadi(s)ka] while, 

A. (1) Supply the article or leave it out as the case may be, 
and put in the proper preposition when one is needed: 1. Savez- 

vous qu'en parlant de France, on I'appelle souvent « 

belle France »? 2. On I'appelle aussi « douce France ». 

3. On dit aussi: « Chaque homme a deux pays, le sien {his 
own) et France ». 4. Au sud de France, se trouve 

Espagne; k Test, 

AUemagne et 

Belgique (/.), et au nord-ouest 

Suisse; au nord 

Angleterre. 5. Pour 

( 120 LESSON XXIX 135 

aller Italic il faut traverser les Alpes, qui sont de hautes 

montagnes. 6. En partant Paris le matin en chemin de 

fer, en moins de deux jours on est Rome. 7. Nous par- 
tons demain pour Italie; aux Alpes nous quitterons le 

sol de France et nous passerons Italie. 8. De 

Italie nous irons Sicile et de \k nous passerons 

Corse pour visiter la maison de Napoleon. 9. Voici un de nos 

amis qui vient de Corse et d(e) Eispagne. 10. Mal- 

heureusement nous ne pouvons pas aller Europe tous les 

ans. 11. Quelquefois nous passons les vacances £!tats- 

Unis ou k faire des voyages Canada. 12. Un jour nous 

irons peut-ltre Mexique (jn.), et je veux voir aussi 

Asie, Japon et Chine. 13. Je voudrais (conditional 

of vouloir) passer le printempe Japon. 14. — Savez- 

vous le japonais? — Non, je ne le sais pas du tout. 15. Je 
sais un peu de fran^ais, d'allemand, et d'italien parce que j'lu 
6iA plusieurs fois dans ces pays-l&. 16. Mes parents savent 
assez bien Tespagnol. 17. lis ont pass^ quelques ann6es 

Mexique, mais Am^rique nous savons assez mal les 

langues 6trang6re8. 18. On apprend mieux fran^ais 

France, allemand Allemagne et italien 

Italie. 19. On pent les apprendre aussi k I'^cole Am^rique 

si Ton * a de bons professeurs. 20. En France tout le monde 
salt parler fran^ais, m^me les petits enfants. 

(2) Review of partitives (§§36, 59). Supply what is lacking: 

1. Faites-vous quelquefois excursions i bicyclette? 2. — 

Oh, oui. Et je vois jolies choees, surtout France. 

3. On trouve partout bonnes routes et bons chemins 

et on s'arr^te pour dejeuner ou pour diner k petites auberges 

od I'on trouve une bonne cuisine. 4. De la route on voit 

beaux bois, champs verts et jolies prairies. 5. Dans 

les prairies il y a souvent vaches, chevaux, 

moutons et ch^vres. 6. Souvent on passe devant 

jolies maisons de campagne et ch&teaux, et de (from) 

temps en (to) temps on voit mines int^ressantes. 7. Nous 

n'avons pas ruines int^ressantes en Am^rique, n'est-ce 

* NoTB. — The / of Ton has the effect of making the sound more 
agreeable after si. It has no other sigmficance here. 


pas! 8. — Non, c'est vrai, mais nous avons hautes et 

belles montagnes, beaux fleuves et larges plaines. 

9. Dans le Far-West il y a aussi ruines tres int6ressantes. 

10. — Oui, mais on ne peut pas aller voir tout cela a bicyclette. 

11. Notre pays est trop grand. II faut plus de quatre jours de 
chemin de fer pour le traverser. 12. Et on voit peu de bicy- 
clettes fitats-Unis, tandis qu'on voit beaucoup, beau- 
coup France. 13. avez-vous une? — Non, je ne 

ai pas maintenant. 14. Autrefois je faisais souvent 

excursions £t bicyclette et je avals touj ours une. 15. Mais 

maintenant j'ai plus travail et moins temps. 

B. (1) Supply the preposition meaning * to,' 'into': Europe 
tcerop], France, Am^rique Camerik], Angleterre [agloteir], 
Italic [itali]], Allemagne Calmaji], Autriche [otri^], (le) Japon 
[sapS], (la) Chine [Jin], Russie Qrysi], (le) Danemark [dan- 
mark], les Eltats-Unis [etazyni], (le) Canada, (la) Pologne 
[pDloji], Espagne [espaji] (fern.), Afrique [afrik] (fern.), (la) 
Syrie [siri], (les) Indes [eid], (la) Normandie [normadi], (la) 
Provence [provais], (la) Touraine [turen], (la) Corse fkors]. 

(2) Learn: A Paris, k Paris 

Sur un p'tit cheval gris, 

A Rouen, k Rouen, 

Sur un p'tit cheval blanc 

Au trot, au trot, au trot, 

Au galop, au galop, au galop! * 

C. Traduisez rapidement: 1. If I had any. 2. If he were 
here. 3. If the postman should not take his letter. 4. If 
she were to put on her prettiest blue dress. 5. If the postman 
were to bring it to me. 6. If you should get up too late, what 
would you do? 7. Would you regret it (le) if you were to 
sleep too late? 8. If she were to put on her prettiest dress, 
she would be the prettiest girl (jeiine fille) in (de) the world. 
9. If you should run too fast you would arrive too soon (tdt). 

* To Paria, to Paris — On a little gray horse; — To Rouen, to Rouen — 
On a little white horse — Trot (at the trot), trot, trot, — Gallop, gallop, 
gallop ! 

§ 120 LBSSON XXIX 137 

10. You would like to (aimer) look at the interesting ruins if 
you took (faire) a bicycle trip in France. 11. If you will 
(_ are willing to, vouloir bien) go with me to Spain next summer, 
I -shall pay for your ticket. 12. If you will pay for my ticket, 
I shall be delighted to go with you. 

o. What two simple tense forms are possible in the'if clause 
of a French sentence f Are we as rigidly limited in English? 

b. Does the English uwrd ' will ' always call for a future form 
in French? {see last two sentences of C). Explain and give three 
examples in French. 

D. (1) The texts of A, (1) and (2) should be read aloud and 
understood and then worked over thoroughly by questions and 

(2) Dict^: Lesson XXVII, A. 

E. (1) Conjugate in the future and conditional forms: avoir, 
gtre, faire (note the pronunciation of the conditional singular: 
[sosre], [safre]), prendre (regular), dire (regular), mettre (regu- 
lar), remplir, courir [see Lesson XXIII, C, (3), 7], remercier, 
appeler, se d6pecher, se lever. 

(2) How does the sound value of the spelling ai differ in the 
endings of the future and conditional? Of what does the ending of 
the conditional form remind you? On the basis of XXII, B, (5), 
how would you say this form is made? 


(1) Donnez les contraires de: facile, prochain, commencer, 
trouver, mal, malheureusement, sud, est, la montagne, t6t, le 

(2) Donnez les synonymes de: chann6, t&cher de, soirde, 
vouloir, causer, demander. 

(3) Supply articles so as to show gender, arui use in a sentence 
or a phrase: glace, roman, soir^, r^gle, feuille, vall^, ch&teau, 
bicyclette, vache, mouton, ch^vre, montagne, prairie, terre, 
sol, guerre, fin, billet, fleuve, nord, carte, exercice, camarade, 
chemin de fer. 


(4) Supply the missing words: 1. Pour bien parler il faut 

savoir les de la grammaire. 2. Nous avons rintention 

faire une a bicyclette dans la de la Loire. 

3. Nous voyons des betes {farm animals) dans les champs; 

des et des et des et des . 4, Mon stylo 

n'6crit pas; il faut que je le . 5. Je fais mon pour 

apprendre k bien prononcer. 6. Vous prononcez trds bien; 

je vous en . 7. Permettez-moi de mon ami, M. Du- 

pont. 8. de faire votre , monsieur. 9. II y a de 

la glace sur le ; nous pouvons . 10. Avez-vous 

besoin d'encre? 11. Merci (= No, thank you), j'ai un . 

12. Avant de monter dans le train il faut prendre un . 

13. Avant de prendre le train il faut payer son avec de 

r . 14. Le dessert vient k la d'un diner. 

(5) Fit the definitions to words: 1. Faire quelque chose tr^s 
vite. 2. La personne qui fait la cuisine. 3. La personne qui 
vient d'un autre pays. 4. Un petit hdtel de campagne. 
5. Aller k travers de. 6. La grande eglise. 7. Les champs 
pour les vignes. 8. Faire tout ce qu'on pent. 9. II ne se 
porte pas bien (se porter = to he [_of healthj). 10. Frier quelqu'un 
de venir chez vous. 11. Dire merci k quelqu'un. 

(6) Supply the proper preposition: 

essayer faire quelque chose permettre quelqu'un 

r^ussir faire quelque chose faire une chose 

regretter avoir fait quelque prier quelqu'un faire quel- 

chose que chose 

tdcher faire quelque chose apprendre faire quelque 

se d^p^cher faire une chose chose 

dire quelqu'un faire s'amuser faire une chose 

une chose commencer faire une 

demander quelqu'un chose 

faire une chose penser faire une chose 

(7) Give the French equivalent: wit (intelligence), the land- 
scape, the doubt, the mountain, the ruin, the river (large); 
next, free, certain, each, ready; to ring the bell, to be named; 
especially, everywhere, formerly, whereas, only; everybody. 

§S 121-123 





le mien [mj€], m. 

la mienne [mjen], /. 

le tien 

la tienne 

le slen 

la sienne 

le ndtre 

la ndtre 

le vfitre 

la vdtre 



The Possessive Pronoims 

I mine 

[tj€l TO. 

[sjel m. 
[sjcn], /. 
[no:tr], m. 
[no:tr], /. 
[voitr], m. 
[lce:r], to. 


les miens [mjg], to. 
les miennes [mjcn],/. 
lestiens [ticl to. \^,. 
lestiemies [tjenl/. l^bme, youm 
les siens [sjf], to. 1 his, here, 
les siennes [sjcnl /. / ite, one's own 

les ndtres [noitrj, oure 
les vdtres [vo:trel youn 
les leurs Doejr], theire 

122. Agreement. Possessive pronoims agree in gender 
and number with the object possessed, and in person with 
the possessor: 

J'ai mes livres; elle a les siens. I have my books; she has here. 

123. Use of Possessive Pronouns. 1. After etre, mere 
ownership is regularly expressed by & + a disjunctive 
personal pronoun, while the use of a possessive pronoun 
implies distinction of ownership, as when a notion of com- 
parison is expressed or suggested. 

Cette montre est d mot. This watch is mine. 

Cette montre est la mienne. This watch is mine (not youre). 

2. De and S + le mien, etc., contract as usual (cf. §§ 35, 

Je parle de son ami et du mien. I speak of his friend and of mine. 

3. Since le sien, la sienne, etc., mean his, hers, Us, one^s 
the context determines which sense is intended : 

n a ses livres; elle a les siens. He has his books; she has here. 




4. Observe the idioms: 
Un de mes amis. 
Un Parisien de mes amis. 

A friend of mine. 

A Parisian, a friend of mine. 

124. Present Indicative of dire, to say, tell (irreg.), and 
of voir, to see (irreg.) : 

I say, etc. I see, etc. 

je dis [di] nous disons [dizo] je vois [vwa] nous voyons [vwajo] 
tu dis [di] vous dites [dit] tu vois [vwa] vous voyez [vwaje] 
il dit [di] ils disent [di:z] il voit [vwa] ils voient [vwa] 


le compagnon [kopajiS] com- 

la comparaison [kSparezo] com- 

le compartiment [kopartima] 

le couloir [kulwair] corridor, pas- 

la coutimie [kutym] custom 
un exemple [egzapl] example 
un individu [edividy] fellow, per- 
son, individual {often c(m- 

le milieu [milj0] middle 

la montre [m5:tr] watch 
Tor m. [lo:r] gold 

la personne [person] person {man 
or woman) 

la poche [poS] pocket 

le revolver [revolve ;r] revolver 

la voiture [vwatyir] carriage 

le voleur [voice :r] thief, robber 

canadien [kanadje] Canadian 
commode [komod] convenient 
dangereux [da3r0] dangerous 
desagreable [dezagreabl] un- 
rare [ra:r] infrequent, rare 

approcher (de) [aproje] ap- 

fallait [fals] was necessary 
{imperf. of falloir) 

pouvait [puve] was able, could 
{imperf. of pouvoir) 

savait [savs] knew {imperf. of 
savoir), sachiez [sajje] 
{pres. suhj.) 

sauter [sote] jump 

tirer [tire] pull out 

actuellement [aktqelma] at 

A. (1) 1. Un Canadien * de mes amis qui voyage actuellement 

en Europe, m'a 6crit une lettre int^ressante. 2. Dans cette 

lettre il fait les comparaisons les plus int^ressantes entre les 

coutumes des Europ^ens [oeropeg] et les n6tres. 3. Par 

* For the use of capital letter here, Bee § 21. 

Une Voiture Divis^e en Compartiments 

Un Compartiment de Premiere Classb 

{ 124 LESSON XXX 141 

exemple, les chemins de fer en Europe sont diff^rents des nAtres. 
4. Les voitures am^ricaines et canadiennes sont plus grandes 
et plus longues que les leurs, et les leurs ont plusieurs comparti- 
ments. 5. Dans ces compartiments il y a de la place pour 
six k huit personnes, et on pent passer d'un compartiment dans 
I'autre. 6. Les voitures am^ricainee ont un couloir au milieu. 
En Europe le couloir est sur un c6t6 de la voiture. 7. Dans 
les vieilles voitures il n'y avait pas de couloir. Une fois 
dans un compartiment, il fallait y rester. 8. Ces comparti- 
ments 6taient assez commodes, mais j'aime mieux les voitures 
modernes. 9. On pouvait s'y trouver avec un compagnon de 
voyage d^sagr^able ou meme dangereux. 

(2) 1. Un jour mon ami s'est trouv6 seul dans un comparti- 
ment avec un homme qui ne savait pas trop bien la difference 
entre le mien et le tien. 2. Mon ami avait une jolie montre 
en or. Son compagnon la voit. 3. Le train approche d'une 
petite ville et marche moins vite. 4. L'individu tire de sa 
poche un revolver et dit k mon ami: Votre montre est plus 
jolie que la mienne. Donnez-la-moi. Je vous donnerai la 
mienne afin que vous sachiez I'heure. 5. — Que dites-vous? 
demande mon ami. Voulez-vous me {from me) prendre ma 
montre? 6. — Oui, dit le voleur en approchant son revolver 
de la t^te de mon ami. 7. Alors mon ami a peur. II lui 
donne sa montre. 8. Le voleur lui donne la sienne et saute 
du train. 

B. (1) Complete by a suilable possessive pronoun: I. La montre 

de mon ami 6tait en or, 6tait en argent. 2. Leurs voitures 

sont moins grandes que . 3. II fait une comparaison 

entre nos chemins de fer et 4. Leurs voitures k (vnth) 

compartiments sont plus commodes que . 5. Votre com- 
pagnon de voyage est moins dangereux que . 6. La 

montre du voleur est moins jolie que . 7. Vous 6criviez 

k votre m^re et j'6crivais k . 8. Je saute de mon cheval 

et elle saute de . 9. Tout homme a deux pays, et 

la France. 10. Maintenant le voleur a ma montre et . 

(2) Supply in each case the usual expression of ownership 
(§ 123, 1): 1. A qui est cette montre? EUe est . 2. A 


qui sont ces cMvres? EUes sont . 3. A qui 6tait cette 

vache? Elle 6tait . 4. A qui sont ces moutons 1^-bas 

dans la prairie? lis sont . 

(3) Supply all the possible tense forms in each case in the 
' if ' clause or in the result clause: 1. (prendre) S'ils voient votre 

montre ils vous la . 2. (avoir) Si je trouve un voleur 

dans mon compartiment je peur. 3. (avoir) Si je voyais 

un voleur, je peur. 4. (sauter) Si le train approchait 

d'une gare, le voleur en . 5, (voyager) Vous aimeriez 

les paysages de France si vous y . 6. (faire) Que 

vous, si un voleur vous ^ votre montre en tirant un 

revolver de sa poche? 7. (vouloir) Si Ton passer d'une 

voiture dans une autre, on ^ dans le couloir. 8. (vouloir) 

J'entrerai dans le couloir si je passer dans un autre com- 
partiment. 9. (s'arreter) Si je faisais une excursion k la cam- 

pagne, je k une auberge pour le dejeuner. 10. (s'arreter) 

Si vous k une auberge, qu'est-ce que vous ' ? 

11. (prendre) Je un potage, du poulet, des haricots 

verts et un dessert. 12. (traverser) Si vous les Alpes, 

vous * en Italic. 

(4) Supply below the proper tense forms (present, imperfect, 
future, past indefinite) and other missing words. The basic time 
of a is the present. 

a. 1. (etre) Je dans le compartiment avec ce voleur- 

1^ depuis plus de trois heures. 2. (approcher) Quand 

nous d'une gare, il me ^ ma montre. 3. (tirer) Quand 

il son revolver de sa poche, j'aurai peur. 4. (s'arreter) 

Quand le train , il sautera de la voiture. 5. Nous ^ 

France depuis plus de quatre mois et nous faisons tous 

les jours des comparaisons entre coutumes et les . 

6. 1. Dans nos voyages dans le midi de France nous 

^ plus de ch^vres que chez nous. 2. (traverser) Nous 

la Normandie la semaine pass^e; il y * beaucoup 

de vaches et de gros chevaux. 3. Les chevaux ' plus 

grands que les . 4. (causer) Je avec mes com- 

> (demander). » (entrer). » (prendre). * (se trouver). 

• (demander). * (voyager). ' (voir). « (avoir). « (6tre). 

S 124 LESSON XXX 143 

pagnons de voyage. 5. (aimer) II y avait quelques individus 

qui ne pas les Am^ricains, mais ce * rare. 6. (dire) 

On me souvent que la France et I'Am^rique * de 

bonnes amies depuis plus de cent ans. 7. (r^pondre) Je 

que ce ^ vrai, et que les Frangais et les Am6ricains ne * 

pas ^tre de bons amis. 

C. (1) Shift A, (1), 7-9, into the present. Note that the verba 
that move the story along fall naturally into this form, as do the 
descriptive imperfect form^. 

(2) Pxd A, (2), 3-6, irUo the past. The direct discourse must 
be made indirect preceded by que. Then the presents that tell 
the story take what form (the past participle of dire is dit)? 
What becomes of presents like approche, marche? What happens 
to est? 

(3) Change A, (2), 7-8, to the past. Does a peur take a 
different form from the other three verbs t See Lesson XXI, § 87. 

(4) a. Note in the vocabulary the imperfects of pouvoir, falloir, 
savoir: pouvait, fallait, savait. Conjugate pouvait and savait 
in the singular and plural. We cannot do this for fallait 05 this 
verb is used only in the Sd singular of all tense forms. It is called 
an impersonal verb. What is the present formt the future? the 
conditional f 

b. The present participle of savoir is sachant Conjugate 
savoir in the present subjunctive. Is the imperfect indicative 
formed as you would expect? Compare Lesson XXVI, E. 

D. Traduisez: 1. This fellow did not know the difference 
between mine and thine. 2. My friend could not jump 
from the train. 3. He was afraid of hurting himself. 4. He 
had to give his watch to the thief who gave him his, saying 
(en lui disant) : "I am giving you mine so that (= in order that) 
you may know when you are hungry. 5. I-wish-you-a-good- 
appetite (Bon appetit)." 6. Although my friend knows that 
this fellow was a thief, he still thinks that he was rather (assez) 

1 (6tra). * (cesser). 





The Demonstrative Pronouns 

ce [s9], this, these, that, those, he, she, it, they 
ceci [sasi], this 
cela [sala], that 
celui [salqi], m. 

this, that (one), 
the (one), 
celle [sel]. /. J he, she 
celui-ci [salqisi], m. 1 this (one), 
celle-ci [selsi], /. J the latter 
celui-1^ [salqila], m. \that (one), the 
oelle-lH [sella],/. /former 

ceux [s0], m. j 

celles [sell /• J 
ceux-ci [s0si], m. 
celles-ci [selsi],/. 
ceux-li [s0la], m. 

these, those, 
the ones, 

1 these, 

/ the latter 

\ those, 

celles-lll [sella],/, /the former 

126. For the use of ce as distinguished from the personal 
pronoun 11 (elle, etc.), see § 97. 

127. Ceci = this, and cela = that, are used to denote 
something pointed out or indicated, but not named. Cela 
is often contracted into ga in familiar language: 

Cela est joli; je prefere ceci. That is pretty; I prefer this. 

Pouvez-vous faire cela ? Can you do that? 

J'aime fa. I like that. 

128. Celui, that (one), the (one), he, is used of persons or 
things, and is regularly followed by a relative clause or a 
de clause: 

Celui que j'attendais est arrive. 
Ceux qui cherchent trouvent. 
Mas fleurs et celles de Marie. 
Celles que vous aimez. 

He whom I expected has arrived. 
Those who seek find. 
My flowers and Mary's. 
The ones (flowers) you like. 

129. 1. Celui-ci, this, this one, he, and celui-l&, that, 
that one, are used of persons or things already mentioned, 
to contrast the nearer and the more remote: 
Voici les deux chaines; gardez Here are the two chains; keep 

celle-ci et donnez-moi celle-la, this (one) and give me that 


§ 129 LESSON XXXI 145 

2. The latter is celui-ci, and the former is celui-ld, the 
order of ideas being inverted as compared with EngUsh: 

Ciceron et Virgile etaient tous Cicero and Virgil were both cele- 
deux celSbres; celui-ci etait brated; the former waa an 
podte et celui-ld orateur. orator and the latter a poet 


un Ane [dknaml ass, donkey courant [kurd] present partit, 

le b&ton [butS] stick pic of courir 

la caresse [kares] caress se demander [sadmade] wonder 

le chien [Sje] dog lu [ly] read {past part, of lire) 

le coup [ku] blow rapporter[rap3rte] bring(back) 

le domestique [damestik] servant renverser [rfiverse] upset 

un Stranger [denetrfise] foreigner voulu [vuly] past participle of 

le maltre [mettr] master youloir 

la parte [pat] foot (o/ animal) ^ ^ /j n r *-t 

1 •> r • n autant (de) [otaj as many, as 

la pidce [pjraj room h 

la vaisselle rvcsen dishes , . ^i .-t t 

lorn Pwf J far 

mScontent (de) [mekStd] dis- par-ci par-lft [parsiparla] here 

satisfied (with) and there 

miserable [miaerabl] wretched prfts {jprz} near {adv.) 

avoir beau [avwair bo] in vain qu'est-ce? [kes] what is it? 

{followed by infinilive) 
caresser [kanae] caress prSs de [prtda] near {prep.) 

A. 1. II y avait une fois un homme qui avait un &ne et un 
petit chien, 2. II caressait celui-ci et k celui-1^ il donnait 
beaucoup de travail k faire. 3. Le chien s'amusait toute la 
journ6e. II courait par-ci par-li. 4. A table il mangcait avec 
son maitre. 5. II donnait la patte k tout le monde et tout le 
monde le caressait. 6. Le pauvre dne voyait tout cela, et il 
en 6tait tr6s m^content. 7. Un jour il se demande: — « Pour- 
quoi ne me donne-t-on pas autant de bonnes choses qu'^ ce 
miserable petit chien? 8. Pourquoi donne-t-on toutes les 
caresses k celui qui ne travaille pas et tous les coups de bSton 
k celui qui travaille toujours? 9. Je cesserai de travailler. 
J'entrerai dans la salle k manger de mon maitre quand il sera 
k table avec ses amis. 10. Je donnerai la patte k tous ceux qui 


y seront et ils me donneront des caresses ». 11. Le pauvre 
Ane tache de faire cela; il entre dans la salle a manger. 12. II 
salue ceux qui y sont; il chante de sa belle voix. 13. II veut 
donner la patte k son maitre et a ses amis. 14. Mais en levant 
la patte, il renverse la table, il fait tomber la vaisselle. 15. Les 
dames ont peur, elles orient. Le mattre se leve de table et 
appelle ses domestiques. 16. II leur dit de donner au pauvre 
dne, non pas des caresses, mais beaucoup de coups de baton. 
17. On lui donne des coups de baton et des coups de pied aussi 
et le pauvre ane sort de la piece en courant. 18. Un ane a 
beau vouloir cesser d'etre ane; il a beau tacher d'etre chien; il 
reste toujours 4ne. (Adapted from La Fontaine, Fables, IV, 5). 

B. (1) Supply the demonstrative pronouns, suffixing -ci and 

-Ik when needed. 1. Cette chevre-ci est blanche, est noire. 

2. J'ai din6 hier dans une meilleure auberge que . 3. J'ai 

deux poches; dans j'ai mon argent et dans ma montre. 

4. Get individu-ci s'appelle Dupin, s'appelle Durand. 

5. Regardez ces deux enfants; se d^peche de finir son tra- 
vail, ne fait rien. 6. Donnez-moi une autre feuille de 

papier; n'est pas propre. 7. que vous me donnez 

actuellement est sale aussi. 8. Voil^ mes deux compagnons 

de voyage; s' amuse a regarder le paysage, tache de 

me faire parler fran9ais. 9. qui est dans le couloir est 

un stranger qui arrive d'Espagne. 10. Dites-moi qui sont ces 

individus-l&,. ci? Non, -1^. 11. Voulez-vous m'ex- 

pliquer ? 12. Oui, mais d'abord parlons un peu de . 

13. Mon camarade a perdu son stylo. ne fait rien; nous 

sommes prets h lui donner -ci. 14. Pendant que cet 

individu-ci me prend ma montre, me prend mon argent. 

15. Ils ont pris ma montre et du monsieur qui m'accom- 

pagnait. 16. A qui est cette montre maintenant? 17. Quelle 

montre? que I'individu a prise. 18. Je ne sais pas, mais 

que j'ai k la main est k moi. 

(2) Replace the dash by ce, or il (elle, ils, elles) : 1. Qu'est-ce? 

est un dne. 2. Et cela? est un chien. 3. sont 

les chiens de mon p^re. 4. est I'dne qui a renvers^ la 

table. 5. Qui a chass^ I'^ne? 6taient les domestiques. 

§ 129 LESSON XXXI 147 

6. Que fait cet Ane? fait tomber la vaisselle. 7. Od est 

le chien? est dans une autre pi6ce. 8. Qui appelle les 

domestiques? est le maltre qui les appelle. 9. se 

16ve de table pour les appeler. 10. Quel est ce monsieur? 

est le maltre de I'&ne et du chien. 11. Quels sont ces 

individus? sont noe amis. 12. Quel est cet animal? 

est notre cher ane. 13. est midi. 14. est 

huit heures. 15. fait beau. 16. pleut. 17. 

est temps de partir. 18. Quand on est dne, est n^cessaire 

de rester &ne. 19. est vrai. 

(3) When is * it' expressed by U (elle)? When is ce equivalenl 
to * he,' ' she,' ' they '? 

C. (1) Shift A, 2-6, to the present. Does this harmonize xoith 
the forms used in the rest of the anecdote t If you were to trans- 
late the whole passage into English in the present, would the ef- 
fect he satisfactory? What do you conclude about the use of the 
present form in French in narration as compared with English? 
This is often called the ' historical ' present, and is far more 
frequently used in French than in English. 

(2) Woidd it be satisfactory to shift to the past indefinite the 
imperfects of A: donnait, s'amusait, courait, mangeait, donnait, 
§tait? See Lesson XXI, §87. Is this anstoer equally true of 
voyait (6)? Explain. 

(3) Beginning with A, 6, teU the story in the past (§ 66, N.B.) 
to the end of the paragraph. Does the direct discourse (7-10) 

(4) Translate, with especial attention to demonstrative pro- 
nouns and participle agreement: 1. Explain this to him; explain 
that to her; explain this to them, please. 2. Don't think that. 
You must not (§ 106, 3) think that. 3. These novels are more 
interesting than those. 4. Which novels? The ones we bought 
in Canada. 5. Have you read (lu) them? Not (non pas) the 
ones that are in the drawing room, but I have read several 
times the one we brought from France. 6. When my father 
was younger he was very fond of (aimer beaucoup) those of 
Victor Hugo, but now he reads (lit) oftener Daudet's and Bal- 

148 A FRENCH GRAMMAR §§ 130-132 

zac's. 7. Whose motor car is that? 8. That one across 
(de I'autre cote de) the street? It is hers. 9, Mine is on the 
other side of the street too, a Uttle farther [away]. 10. And 
those that are nearer belong to (XVII, Vocab.) our schoolmates. 

D. Conjitgate courir {present participle in Vocab.) in the 
present and imperfect indicative, and the present subjunctive (see 
Lesson XXVI, E, dormir); and in the past indefinite, future, 
and conditional (see Lessons XIX, B, (3), XXIX, E). Is the 
auxiliary avoir or etre? How about marcher? 


130. The Relative Pronouns 

qui [ki], who, which, that, whom {after a preposition) 

que [ka], whom, which, that 

dont [do], whose, of whom, of which 

oft [u], in which, into which at which, to which, etc. 

iequel [lakel], m. s., lesquels [lekEl], m. pi. \ , , l- . -t ^ 

laquelle [lakel], /. .., lesquelles [leksl], /. pi. J ^^^' ^^°°^' ^^^^^' *^* 

quoi [kwa], what, which i 

131. Agreement. A relative pronoun, whether variable 
or invariable in form, is of the gender, number and person of 
its antecedent: 

Moi qui etais (vous qui etiez) \k. I who was (you who were) there. 
Les lettres que j'ai apportees. The letters which I have brought. 

132. Use of the Relative. 1. The relative of most com- 
mon use is qui, as subject, and que, as direct object, of a 
verb (cf. § 75). 

2, Qui = whom (of persons only) is also used after a 
preposition : 

L'oncle chez ^wi je demeurais. The uncle with whom I lived. 

3. The force of de + a relative is generally expressed by 

Les amis dont nous parlions. The friends of whom we spoke. 

L'eglise dont je vols la tour. The church whose tower I see. 

§ 133 LESSON xxxn 149 

4. Ou = dans (or some other preposition of position) + a 

L« ville ou {or dans laquelle) je The city in which I live, 

5. Lequel is often used instead of qui (que, etc.), to avoid 
ambiguity, and must be used of things after a preposition: 

Les soeurs de nos amis, lesquelles The aisters of our friends, who 
sont Chez nous k present. (i. e., the sisters) are with ua 


6. Quoi stands after a preposition, rarely otherwise: 
VoiUl de quoi je parlais. That is what I was speaking of. 

7. The absolute what, which, that which as subject is 
ce qui, and, as object or predicate, ce que; qf what, thai 
of which, is ce dent: 

Je vois ce qui vous amuse. I see what amuses you. 

Je sais ce que je sais. I know what I know. 

Vous savez ce que je suis. You know what I am. 

Je n'ai pas ce dont j'ai besoin. I haven't what (that whidi) I 


8. He who, the one who, etc. = celui qui, etc. 

Palme ceux qui m'aiment. I love those who love me. 

Ma montre est plus jolie que ceOe My watch is prettier than the one 
que vous avez. you have. 

9. The relative pronoun, often omitted in English, is never 
omitted in French: 

Le tableau que j'ai vu hier. The picture I saw yesterday. 

133. Present Indicative of connaitre, to knew, be aC' 

quainied with, etc. (irr^.). 

/ know, etc 
Je connais [sakone] nous connalssons CnukotraSj 

tu connais [tykone] vous connaissez [vukonese] 

il connait [ilkanej Us connaissent [UkonersJ 





un agent (de police) [oenasa- 

dpolis] policeman 
un Allemand [cenalma] German 
im anniversaire [denaniverseir] 

anniversary, birthday 
im arc [oenark] arch, bow 
une avenue [avny] avenue 
la banque Cbaik] bank 
le bassin [basej basin 
le bout [bu] end 
le depute [depyte] congressman 
un edifice [oenedifis] building 
une eglise [egliiz] church 
la fa^de [fasad] front, f agade 
la figure [figy:r] figure, face 
la loi [Iwa] law 

un obelisque [denobelisk] obelisk 
la peintiure [pety:r] painting 
la pierre [pjeir] stone 
la portiere [portjeir] door, win- 
dow (o/ car) 
le roi [rwaU king 

la statue [staty] statue 

agreable [agreabl] pleasant 
important [eporta] important 
magnifique [majiifikj mag- 
parisien [parizje] Parisian 

b4tir [batiir] build 
connaitre [koneitr] be ac- 
quainted with, know 
garder [garde] keep, guard 
menacer [manase] threaten 
representer [raprezQte] repre- 
sent, stand for 

done [d5(;k)] then, therefore 
longtemps [lota] long 
meme [meim] even 
que! how! 

volontiers [volotje] gladly, 
with pleasure 

autour de [otuir do} around 

A. (1) Supply the proper relative word and the demonstra- 
tive, too, if one is lacking. Substitute suitable forms of the past 
participle for the infinitives in footnotes: 1. II y a ici un voleur. 
Voil^ le voleur nous parlous. 2. Voici la montre il 


• ^. 3. Voilk la fenetre par - 

pris le revolver avec il m'a 

dans (or ) nous voyagions 

il a 

*. 4. On lui a 

'. 5. II a quitt^ la voiture 

6. Nous sommes * 

k la gare k (or ) j'allais descendre. 7. Je vous dirai 

il a fait apres. 8. II a ^ dans sa poche le revolver 

il s'etait « pour me menacer. 9. II m'a dit: — 

Gardez ces quelques francs vous aurez besoin pour payer 

votre dejeuner. 10. II ne faut pas montrer votre argent et 

votre montre k qui voyagent dans le m^me comparti- 

ment. 11. Alors il a * dans une poche ma montre, 

* (prendre). « (sauter). » (menacer). 

* (arriver). * (mettre). • (servir). 


) 133 LESSON xxxn 151 

mon p^re m'a * k mon anniversaire. 12. Dans 

I'autre il a mis mes billets de banque on m'avait * 

k la banque et j 'avals besoin pour mon voyage. 13. Comme 

il veut sortir par la portiere, 6tait *, un agent de 

police le connait entre d'une autre voiture il voyageait. 

14. Mon voleur, a peur, s'arrete un instant. 15. VoilA 

ce I'a »! 

(2) Fill in blanks ioith suitable words (demonstratives, rela- 
tives, verbs, etc.): 

1. Je me prom^ne aujourd'hui k Paris avec un de mes amis. 
Nous voil4 sur la Place de la Concorde Ck5kord3. Connaissei- 

vous cette 6glise on voit la facade au bout de la rue Royale 

[rwajal]? 2. — C'est I'^glise de la Madeleine je vous 

ai parl6. 3. Je vous y mineral un jour quand nous plus 

de temps. 4. Quel est cet autre Edifice de I'autre c6t6 de la 
Seine? — C'est la Chambre des d^put^. 5. — Savez-vous 

on y fait? — Oui, on y fait les lois du pays. 6. — Con- 

naissez-vous des d^put^? — Oui, je connais un m'a 

donn^ deux cartes je vais me servir demain. 7. Voulee- 

vous m'y accompagner? — Volontiers. Et savez-vous ce qu'est 

(ce que c'est que) ce grand monument en pierre se trouve 

au milieu de la Place? 8. Ik, sur on voit ces 

figures amusantes? 9. — Oui, Ik. — C'est un ob^lisque 

vient d'Egypte [esiptj 10. — Voilk de grandes et 

belles statues autour de la Place. Savez-vous ellea 

repr^sentent? 11. II y a huit. — Elles repr^ntent les 

villes les plus importantes de la France. 12. Voyez-vous 

1^ sur il y a tant de fleurs? 13. — Oui, je me 

demandais ce c'^tait. — C'est la statue de la belle ville 

de Strasbourg [strazbuir] en Alsace [alzas]. 14. Vous saves 
que la France I'a perdue apr^ la guerre de soixante-dix. Les 
Parisiens sont si heureux que Strasbourg soit maintenant una 

ville frauQaise! 15. Mais en voWk une autre sur il y a 

beaucoup de fleurs. 16. — C'est la statue de Lille [Til] 

a 6t6 longtemps aux mains des Allemands pendant la grande 
^{uerre. 17. Dites-moi maintenant quel est ce joli pare k 

» (donner). • (ooTrir). • (perdreX 


Touest de la Place, au bout de on voit cet arc magnifique? 

18. sont les Champs-£llys6es [Jazelize] dans il y 

a de tres jolies promenades, et Tare vous parlez est I'Arc 

de Triomphe [arkdatriof], a ^t^ bati par Napoleon 

Cnapoleo]. 19. Regardez done (Just look)\ Qu'elle est large 

et belle, I'aveuue par on en approche! 20. — Oui, en 

effet c'est magnifique. Et voila h, I'est I'entree d'un autre 

pare. Qu'est-ce? 21. sont les jardins des Tuileri-^s 

[tqilri] dans il y avait autrefois un beau palais des rois 

de France. 22. On y trouve arbres, fleurs, 

jolies statues et agr^ables promenades. 23. II y a presque 

tou jours enfants jouent avec leurs petits bateaux 

autour du bassin des Tuileries. 24. Si nous ^ les Tuileries, 

nous nous trouverions devant le Louvre [luivr], dans ipr 

) il y a un musee celebre. 25. C'^tait autrefois un palais 

des rois de France. — Que tout cela est int^ressant! 26. Nous 
irons un jour y voir les peintures, n'est-ce pas? — Oh, oui. 
Quelle ville int^ressante que ^ Paris! 

B. Repondez aux questions suivantes: 1. Qu'est-ce qu'un 
ane? 2. Est-ce qu'on le caresse? 3. Que lui donne-t-on? 
4. Que veut-il avoir? 5. A qui donne-t-on les caressec? 
6. Ou sont le maitre et ses amis? 7. Que fait I'dne? 
8. Qu'est-ce qu'il tache de faire? 9. Est-ce qu'il r^ussit h 
amuser son maitre? 10. Que fait celui-ci? 11. Et que 
font les domestiques? 

C. (1) Racontez d'abord oralement, puis Scrivez « L'Histoire 
de I'ane qui veut qu'on le caresse ». 

(2) Traduisez: 1. With whom are you going to go around 
(se promener) in (dans) Paris? 2, With my old friend; the 
one with whom I traveled in Italy last year (annee). 3. We 
visited the Place de la Concorde yesterday (after past part.), 
around which are (se trouver) eight fine statues. 4. The ones 
that represent Strasbourg and Lille are covered (XXIV, Vocah.) 
with (de) flowers. 5. What I liked best was (c'etait) Napo- 

1 (traverser). 

» This que is untranslatable. It is often found before nouns in apposition. 

S§ 134-135 LESSON xxxm 153 

leon's Arc de Triomphe which one sees at the end of that 
magnificent avenue. 6. We want to go to see the Madeleine, 
the fagade of which we could see at the end of (la) rue Royale. 
7. We want to visit also the Louvre of which I have often 
heard (entendre parler), and the Tuileries gardens in which 
the children Uke to play with their little boats. 8. What 
an interesting city Paris [is]! 

D. 1. Count from 50 to 59, putting a different noun after each 
numeral: Cinquante et un monuments, cinquante-deux ave- 
nues Q8gka:td0zavny], etc. 

2. Count from 60 to 69: soixante Qswasdit] d^put^, soixante 
et un billets de banque, etc. 

3. Count from 70 to 79: soixante-dix agents Qswaa&tt diiz asfil 
soixante-onze figures, etc. 

E. Dict^: Lesson XXVIII, A. 

LESSON xxxm 

134. The Interrogative Pronouns 

qui? [ki], who? whom? 

que? [kal what? 

quoi? [kwa], what? 

lequel? [laktl], m. »., lesquels? [lekerj. "»• pl 1 which? which oneCs)? 

laquelle? [lakel],/. «., lesquelles? [lekel], /. pi. /what one(8)? 

136. Use of Interrogatives. 1. Qui? = whof whomf is 
used of persons: 

Qui Sonne? Qm sont-elles? Who is ringing? Who are they? 

Dites-moi qui sonne. TeU me who is ringing. 

Qui a-t-il frappe? Whom has he struck? 

De ^i parlez-vous? Of whom are you speaking? 

2. Whose? denoting ownership simply = k qui? otherwise 
generally de qui? but never dont: 
A qui est ce livre? Whose book is this? 

De qui £tes-yous (le) fils? Whose son are you? 




3. Que? = whatf stands always as the object or the 
predicate of a verb: 

Que vous a-t-il dit? Qu'est-ce? What did he tell you? What is it? 

4. Whatf as subject is usually qu'est-ce qui? and what 
in indirect question is usually ce qui (ce que, etc.) : 
QWest-ce qui vous a interesse? What has interested you? 

Je ne sais pas ce qui m*a frappe. I do not know what struck me. 
Dites-moi ce que vous desirez. Tell me what you desire. 

5. Quel? = whatf stands regularly after a preposition, or 
absolutely, the verb being understood: 

A quoi pensez-vous? What are you thinking of? 

Je cherche quelque chose. — Quoi? I am looking for something. — 


6. Lequel? [laquelle? etc.) = which? which or what one? 
agrees in gender with the noun referred to. Both parts of 
lequel (le and quel) are inflected, and the usual contractions 
with de and a (cf. §§35, 46) take place: 

Laquelle des dames est Ik? Which of the ladies is there? 

Auquel des hommes parle-t-il? To which of the men does he 

speak ? 


une architecture [arjitsktyir] ar- 
le banquier Q)akje] banker 
la cite [site] oldest part of cer- 
tain cities 
un hdpital [opital] hospital 
une lie [il] island 
un interieur [eterioeir] interior 
le marl [marij] husband 
le personnage [personals^ char- 
acter {in hook), personage 
la photographie [fotografi] pho- 
le Pont-Neuf [p5noef3Pont-Neuf 
('New Bridge') 

la question [kestjS] question 
la scene [sen] scene 
le sommet [some] top 
la tour [tu:r] tower 
la traduction [tradyksjo] trans- 
la vue [vy] view 

bete [belt] stupid, foolish 
cent [sa] hundred 
droit [drwa] right 
gauche [goi^] left 
gothique [gotik] gothic 
impossible [gposibl] impossi- 

§ 135 LESSON xxxm 156 

EXERCISE xxxm (Continued) 

terrible [teribl] terrible tourner [tume] turn 

J r f,xj T venir de fvaniir dal to have 

8'approcher de [saproSeda] just .. .(foW>wed by anin- 

^pouser [epuzej marry 

Jeter [sate] throw ^ ^g^t [onefe] in fact 

poser [po:ae] put, ask (of ^^^ ^^^ j-^^g-j opposite 

questioTu) ensemble [dsfiibl] together 

ramasser [ramase] pick up ^^^ ^ j-ply j^-j j^Q^g jj^^ 

se rappeler [saraple] remember, ^^^^ (d^) QtAj ^ many, so 

recall much 

rencontrer [rakStre] meet 

repeter [repete] repeat car [kar] for 

ressembler (4) [raedble] re- 
semble, be like il y a [ilja] ago 

A. 1. Pendant notre promenade je pose k mon ami beau- 
coup de questions sur ce que nous voyons k Paris. 2. Je lui 
demande, par exemple: — Qu'est-ce que (or qu'est-ce que c'est 
que) rtle de la Cit6 dont vous me parlez si souvent? 3. — L'lle 
de la Cit6 est une lie de la Seine [sen] od se trouve la partie la 
plus ancienne de Paris. 4. VoilA le Pont-Neuf par lequel on 
entre dans la Cit4. Traversons-le et toumons k gauche et puis 
k droite. 5. — Quel est ce grand Edifice dont nous nous ap- 
prochons? — C'est le Palais de Justice. 6. — Mais il y en a 
une partie qui ressemble k une 6glise. Qu'est-ce que c'est? 

7. — C'est en effet une 6glise qui s'appelle la Sainte-Chapelle 
et qui a 6t6 b&tie par Saint Louis il y a plus de six cents ans. 

8. C'est un des bijoux de I'architecture gothique. Son int^rieur 
est trds, tr6s joli. 9. Prenons maintenant la rue de Lut^ce, 
et tournons k droite. Voyez-vous ce grand Edifice k notre gauche ? 
10. C'est rH6tel-Dieu, un hdpital qui a 6tA b&ti il y a tr6s, 
trSs longtemps. 11. — Et en face de nous quelle est cette 
grande ^glise? 12. — C'est la cath^drale de Notre-Dame 
dont vous avez tant entendu parler. 13. — Oh oui, je me 
rappelle. Que je suis b^te! J'en ai vii souvent des photographies. 
14. Voili en effet les deux grandes tours. C'est 1^ que se trou- 
vent les cloches, n'est-ce pas? 15. — Oui. Avez-vous lu Notre" 

156 A FRENCH GRAMBiAR § 135 

Dame de Paris, ce grand roman de Victor Hugo? 16. — Oui. 
Je I'ai lu dans une traduction anglaise. 17. Je me rappelle 
qu'un des personnages de ce roman a 6t6 jet6 du sommet 
d'une de ces tours-la, ce qui m'a beaucoup frapp6. 18. C'est 
une scene terrible. — Oui, terrible. Victor Hugo aimait les 
scenes terribles. 19. Allons maintenant visiter I'interieur de 
r^glise qui est tres beau. 20. La cathedrale est une des plus 
anciennes et des plus belles de la France. 21. Elle a ^te batie 
il y a plus de huit cents ans. 22. Du sommet des tours il y a 
une vue magnifique sur Paris. 

B. Supply the missing relative or interrogative words. Be or^ 

the look out especially for examples of § 132, 7. 1. Dites-moi 

vous avez k la main. 2. Demandez-lui il desire faire 

aujourd'hui. 3. Ne vous rappelez-vous pas votre cama- 

rade vous a dit? 4. Nous ne pouvons pas entendre vous 

dites, monsieur. 5. me frappe dans ce roman c'est la 

sc^ne de la tour. 6. vous me demandez est impossible. 

7. Comprenez-vous me fait rire? 8. Savez-vous 

est cet objet-ci? C'est k moi. 9. Je vais vous dire je 

pense. 10. Voici me fait penser que vous aviez tort. 

11. Tout vous dites est vrai. 12. II ne faut pas r^p^ter 

tout vous entendez dire. 13. Tout est sur la table 

est k Marie, n'est-ce pas? 14. Non, est k ce bout-ci est 

k moi, et est h I'autre bout est k elle. 15. Je crois 

vous me dites. 16. II vient de me demander j 'avals 

I'intention de faire demain. 17. Mais j'ai beau lui expliquer; 

il ne pent pas comprendre je lui dis. 18. II faut que 

j'apprenne (pres. subj.) k parler frangais, sera tres difficile 

pour moi. 

C. (1) Some of the following sentences have " ragged " ends. 
Straighten them out, supply missing words (prepositions, relatives, 
and the correct forms of verbs). 1. Oil est I'autobus que nous 

* coin rue ? 2. S'arr^te-t-il au coin de la rue dans 

nous ' ? 3. Les dames k I'ane voulait donner 

la patte ' peur. 4. Voil^ I'^ne k (qui? lequel?) les 

domestiques ont * coups. 5. Les domestiques ont 

* (prendre). * (demeurer). » (avoir). * (donner). 


3 ra 

•:5 <" T! 

O (1) -■ '^ 

li-s^g-S tfu^-a^^s..^- 

3 rt 


J5 u o o <Li o gW'O 5 

§ 135 LESSON xxxm 157 

ramass^ la vaisselle que I'^ne * fwt' tomber en » 

patte amis son maltre. 6. Coanaissez-vous les 

messieurs qui causent ensemble l^bas? — Oui, ce sont les mes- 
sieurs (two ways) votre femme vient de me presenter. 

7. Ce sont des personnes mon p6re m' » souvent 

.* 8. Je ne connais pas ces deux autres 1^-bas vous 

voyea les t6tes. Us viennent d'entrer. 9. Quelle est cette 

^^ise vous voyez la f a9ade au bout de cette grande rue ? 

10. C'est r^glise je viens de rencontrer le man de ma 

sceur. 11. Ah oui! Celui qu'elle vient d'^pouser est un jeune 

militaire de mes amis. Je le (connaUre) bien depuis 

dix ans. 

(2) A good many idioms or expressions peculiar to the 
French language in the arrangement arul choice of words have 
already occurred. Express in English: 1. Vous avez beau me 
r6p4ter ce que vous avez entendu dire, je ne vous comprends 
pas. 2. Nous venons de rencontrer le man de ma soeur. 
3. Ma soeur I'a 6pous6 il y a plus de trois ans. 4. Monsieur 
I'agent, voulez-vous me dire oil se trouve le Bon-March4? 
5. II a trouvS que cette sc^ne ^tait terrible. 6. Ne vous rap- 
pelez-vous pas que ce personnage a €t4 jet^ du sommet de la 
tour? 7. Combien 6tes-vous? Nous sommes dix. 8. Quelle 
belle ville que Paris! 

(3) Make French sentences of your own on each of these models. 

(4) 1. We have just seen Notre-Dame. It is magnificent. 
2. We climbed (in) one (I'une) of the towers and admired the 
view. 3. What a magnificent view of Paris! 4. I thought 
of (4) Victor Hugo's great novel, but I tried in vain to recall 
the name of the heroine (ITiSroIne), although I have just read 
the book for the second time. 5. Ah! I remember it! La 
Esmeralda! 6. The cathedral was built more than eight 
hundred years ago and is one of the most beautiful in the whole 
world. It is in the lie de la Cit^, which is the oldest part 
of Paris. 7. It is there that the first Parisians lived {invert 
order of subject and verb) a long time ago. Now it is a very 

' («TOtr). ' When followed by an infinitive, fait does not agree with 
a noun or pronoun object that precedes. * (donner). * (parlv). 


quiet spot. 8. It is there that the traveler must go to see 
(the) old Paris, for Paris is now a modern (moderne) city, 
which makes it (le) less interesting for the foreigner (etranger), 
but more convenient for everybody. 

D. Supply questions for the following answers: 1. Ce chien 
noir est h mon fr^re. 2. Mon frere a un baton h la main. 
3. II va donner un coup de baton au chien. 4. C'est le do- 
mestique qui a chass6 I'ane de la salle a manger. 5. Nous 
allons visiter les monuments de Paris aujourd'hui. 6. Nous 
allons dejeuner au restaurant du cafe Voltaire. 7. Des hari- 
cots verts et des petits pois. 8. Nous allons payer notre de- 
jeuner avec ces billets de banque. 9. On nous les a donnas 
dans une banque qui s'appelle le Credit Lyonnais. 10. Mon 
banquier de New- York m'a dit d'y aller. 11. J'y ai rencontr^ 
un ancien camarade d'^cole. 12. Je lui ai parl6 de notre 
projet d'aller voir la cath^drale de Notre-Dame et la Sainte- 
Chapelle. 13. II m'a dit qu'il a eu beau essayer de se faire 
comprendre en fran^ais; personne ne le comprenait. 14. II 
est le fils d'un vieil ami de mon pere. 15. II s'appelle Pierre 
Dupont. 16. Des deux 6glises, la Madeleine et Notre-Dame, 
nous trouvons Notre-Dame la plus int^ressante. 17. Notre- 
Dame est la plus ancienne des deux. 

. E. Dict^e: Lesson XXXI, A. 


136. Indefinite Pronouns. The indefinite pronouns of 
most frequent occurrence are: 

1. On [5], one, some one, we, you, they, people, etc. (cf. § 48). 

2. Quelqu'un [kelkde], m., quelqu'une [kelkyn], f., some- 
body, some one, any one, plural quelques-uns [kelkaz(£], m., 
quelques-unes [kelkazyn], /., some, some people, any, a few. 

II y a quelqu'un h la porte. There is somebody at the door. 

J'ai vu quelques-unes de vos amies. I have seen some of your friends. 

Avez-vous des cerises, madame? Have you any cherries, madam? 

J*en ai quelques-unes. I have a few. 

§ 137 LESSON XXXIV 169 

3. Quelque chose [kelkdJoisJ, m., something, anything: 
Quelque chose est tombe. Something has fallen. 

J'ai quelque chose de bon. I have something good. 

4. Along with ne -|- a verb, or when alone, a verb being un- 
derstood, personne [person], m., means nobody, not anybody, 
no one, and rien [r'lt], m., nothing, not anything: 

Je n'ai parl6 i personne. I did not speak to anybody. 

Vous n'avez rien apport§. You have brought nothing, 

n n'a rien dit de mauvais. He said nothing bad. 

Qu'a-t-U dit? — Rien. NVhat did he say? — Nothing. 

Personne ici! Nobody here! 

137. Certain forms serve both as adjectives and as pro- 
nouns. Those of most frequent occurrence are: 

1. Autre Cotr], other (adjective); un autre, another, I'autre, 
t?te other (pronoun): 

Une autre fois; d^autres causes. Another time; other causes. 
Les autres iront aussL The others will go too. 

2. Distinguish un autre from encore un: 

Une autre plume. Another (a different) pen. 

Encore une pltmie. Another (an additicnal) pen. 

3. With autre are formed various locutions: 

L'une et I'autre occasion. Both occasions. 

Les uns et les autres partent. All are going away. 

Donne z-le k I'un ou i V autre. Give it to either. 

Ce n'est m pour les uns ni pour les It is for none of them. 


Elles se flattent les unes les autres. They flatter each other. 

Ds ont peur les uns des autres. They are afraid of one another. 

4. When used with ne + a verb, or when alone, the verb 
being understood, aucun [okdfe], nul [nyl], pas un [pazde], as 
adjectives = no, not one, not any, and as pronouns = none, ru) 
one, not one: 

Aucun auteur ne dit cela. No author says that. 

A-t-on de I'espoir? — Aucun. Have they any hope? — None. 

5. Tel [tel] = such, un tel = stich a. Such as an adverb is 
si [si] or tellement [tclma]: 




Telles sont mes douleurs. 
Qui raconte une telle histoire? 
Une si belle maison. 
Un honune tellement cruel. 
D s'est couche tout de suite, telle- 
ment U etait fatigue. 

Such are my griefs. 
Who tells such a story? 
Such a beautiful house. 
Such a cruel ruan. 
He was so tired that he went to 
bed at once. 

Note. — Observe the idiomatic use of tel (telle) in the expressions Mon- 
sieur un tel, Mr. So-and-So; Madame une telle, Mrs. So-and-So. 

6. Tout [tu], m., toute [tut], /., tous [pronounced tu (as 
adj.), tus (as pron.)], m. pi, toutes [tut], /. pi., = all, every, 
any, whole, etc.: 

Tous les hommes. All (the) men. 

Toute ma vie. All my (My whole) life. 

Tous (toutes) sont arrive (e)s. All have come. 

7. Meme [me:m], before a noun or as a pronoun = same; 
meme, following the noun or pronoun qualified = self, very, 
even, and agrees, but has no article; as adverb meme = even. 

La m^me chose. 
Ce sont les memes. 
Dieu est la bonte m^me. 
Les enfants mimes le savent. 
Nous-m^mes; elles-m^mes. 
Us nous ont mime battus. 

The same thing. 
Thej are the same. 
God is goodness itself. 
The very children know it. 
We ourselves; they themselves. 
They even beat us. 


la beaute [bote] beauty 
le berger [berse] shepherd 
un endroit [denadrwa] spot, place 
une entree [atre] entrance 
la grandeur [gradoeir] size, gran- 
le loup Pu] wolf 
la revolution [revolysjSl revolu- 

actif [aktif] lively, energetic 
intelligent [gtslisa] intelligent 
plein [pie] full 
Tide [vid] empty 

aider (k) [ede] help 
devenir [davniir] become; 
qu'est-il devenu? what has 
become of him (it)? 
envoyer [Qvwaje] send 
iocendier [esadje] set fire to, 

ramener [ramne] bring back 
rendre [raidr] give back, re- 

tellement [telma] so 
rarement [rarma] rarely, not 

§ 137 LESSON XXXI V 161 

A. Bring out the differences between the words in black type: 
1. Nous venons de faire une promenade dans les champs qui 
^taient pleins d'animaux, 2. Nous avons vu des vaches, des 
moutons, des chdvres, et des chevaux qui mangeaient I'herbe 
dans des prairies vertes. 3. II y avait 1^ quelques enfants qui 
les gardaient. 4. lis avaient des chiens de berger avec eux. 
5. Quelques-uns des enfants nous ont arrit^ et ont demand^ 
quelle heure il 6tait. 6. Pendant que nous causions avec eux, 
quelques-unes des vaches ont voulu {wished) manger le bl6 d'un 
champ voisin. 7. On a envoys des chiens aprte elles pour les 
chasser. 8. Les chiens jouaient en courant, mais quelques-uns, 
en entendant la voix des petits gar^ons, sont partis au galop 
pour ramener les vaches. 9. C'6tait quelque chose d'amusant 
de les voir chasser ces grosses Mtes dont quelques-unes ne 
voulaient pas quitter le champ de bl6. 10. Mais elles avaient 
beau vouloir y rester, elles ne le pouvaient pas, tellement les 
chiens ^taient actifs. 11. Aucune (Pas une) n'y est rest^. 

12. Je n'ai rien vu de plus intelligent que ces chiens de berger, 
dont quelques-uns ressemblaient beaucoup k de groe loupe. 

13. lis ont fait tout ce que les enfants leur ont dit de faire. 

B. (1) Supply from §§ 136-137 the missing words: 1. Je n'ai 
■{two possibilities) mang6 aujourd'hui, et j'ai faim. 2. Don- 

nez-moi de bon pour mon diner, s'il vous platt. 3. Je 

crois que la salle est vide. Je n'y vois . 4. Ma tasse est 

vide; il n'y a dans ma tasse. 5. n'est dans la salle. 

6 Voyez-vous quelqu'un dans la salle? Non, ; elle est 

vide. 7. S'il y avait une vache et un mouton dans le champ 

de bl6, les chiens iraient les chasser (= both). 8. Je ne 

peux pas dormir, (§ 137, 5) je suis fatigu6. 9. Nous 

serons fatigu^ que nous ne jwurrons {fut. of pouvoir) 

pas dormir. 10. Dites-moi de nouveau. 11. Je ne sais 

de nouveau. 

(2) Tramlate in several ways: 1. On dit. 2. Que dit-on? 
3. On apprend h parler en parlant. 4. On sert le potage avant 
la viande. 

C. (1) tcrivez en frangais: 1. Paris is a city of which people 


have often spoken to me. 2. My friend knows the city well 
and will show me everything that is interesting. 3. The place 
at which we begin our trip (promenade) is the Place de la Con- 
corde. 4. What do those statues represent? Which ones? 
The ones that are (se trouver) around the square. 5. They 
represent the most important cities in (de) France. The one 
on which you see so many flowers is the statue of the city of 
Strasbourg, which has just been restored to France. 6. What 
strikes me is (c'est) the size of the square, and the beauty of 
that broad avenue by which you approach the Arc de Triomphe. 
7. But first let's visit those gardens the entrance of which 
we (on) see there, behind us. They are the Tuileries gardens in 
which (two ways) there was formerly a fine palace of the kings 
of France. 8. What has become of it? It was burned (On and 
active voice) during a revolution. 9. Wasn't the Louvre for- 
merly a palace too? What has become of it? 10. There it 
is on the other side of that square. It is now a famous museum. 

(2) 1. We like the very streets of Paris. 2. In France even 
the children speak French. 3. Everything is interesting. 
4. We (On) see something new at every street corner. 5. The 
sheep walk one in front of (devant) the other. 6. The cows 
and dogs were afraid of each other (§ 137, 3). 7. I never saw 
anything funnier. 8. Some of the goats got frightened. 
9. Not one stayed in the neighboring wheat field. 10. Not 
one? Some of the sheep got frightened too, the dogs were so 
(tellement) energetic. 

(3) Rewrite A, 5-11, wsrwgr the historical present as the basic 
tense. The 3d sing. pres. of envoyer is envoie. Why do not 
jouaient and c'etait shift to the present? 

D. (1) a. Conjugate in the present and in the past indefinite: 
Je me rappelle cette sc^ne. Do the same, substituting a pronoun 
for the noun object. 

b. Conjugate in the present and translate: je viens {see § 178) 
de rencontrer un vieil ami. In the imperfect: je venais de ( = 
h^d just) rendre le journal a mon voisin. Repeat, substituting 
the proper pronouns for the noun objects. 


c. Conjugate in the future and conditional, making the neces- 
sary changes in the possessive adjective: je ressemble k mon pdre; 
je ressemble k mes parents. 

d. Conjugate in the present and also in the past indefinite: je 
viens voir mon ancien professeur. 

e. Conjugate in the present and in the imperfect: je pars avant 
la fin de la pi^e; je finis un roman de Victor Hugo. 

/. Make a list of the verbs that resemble partir (see Lesson 

xvni, C, 2). 

(2) a. Study the forms of envoy er (§ 161). 

b. Does the peculiarity of the present indicative and subjune- 
tive, 1st, 2d, 3d, sing, and Sd pi., appear in the pronunciation or 
only in the spelling f Is the same thing true of the irregularity 
of the future and conditional T This peculiarity occurs in the 
forms of verbs in -oyer where the -y- would otherwise come before [a]. 

c. Supply the forms of envoyer and then vary by changing the 

person or number of each subject: 1. Les enfants (present) 

les chiens aprds les b^tes. 2. II faut que nous (present) 

des chiens pour chasser ces moutons. 3. Le berger (fut.) 

le chien pour chasser les vaches de cet endroit. 4. Si nous 

avions des chiens de berger nous les (cond.) chercher nos 

moutons perdus. 

E. (1) Rtpondez aux questions: 1. Qui gardaient les bfites? 
2. Qui les aidait? 3. Est-ce que les enfants allaient chasser 
les b^tes des champs de bl6? 4. Est-ce que les chiens dor- 
maient ou jouaient? 5. Comment jouaient-ils? 6. Lesquels 
6taient les plus grands, les vaches ou les chiens? 7. Est-ce 
que les chiens avaient peur des vaches? 8. A quels animaux 
les chiens ressemblaient-ils? 9. Est-ce que quelques vaches 
restaient dans les champs de bl6? 10. Que voulaient-elles y 
faire? 11. Pourquoi les chiens sont-ils partis au galop? 12. Ont- 
ils fait tout ce que les enfants leur ont dit de faire? 13. Que 
venons-nous de faire dans les champs? 14. Qu 'est-ce que les 
enfants nous ont demand^? 15. Avez-vous jamais vu des chiens 
de berger? 

(2) Dict^e: Lesson XXXIII, A, 1-12. 



(1) Donnez le contraire de: loin de, actuellement, d4sagr6a- 
ble, rarement, content, possible, a droite, nouveau, bete (adj.), 

(2) A quels autres mots pensez-vous quand on dit: le milieu, 
un individu, la soupe, le chien, des caresses, la journ6e, la 
soiree, un baton, une piece, une 6glise, une grande rue, le bout, 
iin roi, un mus^e, mener, autrefois? 

(3) Fit words to the definitions: dire plus d'une fois; aller 
pres de quelqu'un; celui qui accompagne quelqu'un; les as- 
siettes, les tasses, les verres, etc. pour la table; le pied d'uu 
animal; une figure en pierre, etc., qui repr6sente une personne, 
une ville, etc, ; porte d'une voiture; I'endroit ou I'on entre dans 
un pare, etc.; celui qui garde les moutons; animal qui mange 
les moutons. 

(4) Translate: 1. The policeman has arrested (arreter) this 
fellow. 2. He has just set fire to the palace. 3. The dogs 
tried in vain to bring back the sheep; they would not (= did 
not want to) come. 4. He cannot remember what you told 
(past part, of dire is dit) him ten minutes ago. 5. These statues 
are like each other. 

(5) Supply the missing words: 1. Les voitures de chemin de 

fer en France ont plusieurs . 2. D'un c6t^ elles ont un 

. 3. Pour sortir il faut ouvrir les . 4. L'ane a 

la table et fait la vaisselle. 5. Le maitre a les 

domestiques qui ont donn6 k l'ane des de et I'ont 

de la salle. 6. L'^ne veut chanter mais sa est . 

7. Les d^put^s font les du pays. 8. Presque (Almost) 

tous les Edifices en France sont batis en . 9. Louis XVI 

6tait de France. 10. Son palais a 6t6 incendi^ pendant 

une . 11. Le voleur a son revolver de sa . 

12. Dans le mus^e du Louvre il y a de belles . 13. Nous 

traversons la Seine sur un qui s'appelle le . 14. La 

de Notre-Dame se trouve sur une de la . 

15. EUe a 6t6 batie plus de huit ans. 


(6) Translate: over there, convenient, infrequent, wretched, 
so much (many), as much (many), together, in fact, opposite, 
threaten, a bank note, with pleasure (gladly), around, for, be- 
cause, why, spot (place), give back, full, empty, in former 
times, to become, to meet, to relate, to send. 

(7) Translate: 1. What has become of the kings of France 
(What have the kings . . . become)? 2, What became of 
you? 3. I shall send you news of myself (= of my news). 
4. I begged him to send me news of them. 5. What [a] 
terrible scene (que) that one [is]! 6. What do you think of* 
(two nxiys) that scene? 

(8) Translate: Everybody, nobody, somebody; everything, 
something, nothing; such a day, such a bad day; each other 
(two persons), each other (more than two persons), to each 

(9) Pidce is the general word for * room *: what other meaning 
has it? What are the distinctive meanings of chambre and salle? 

Supply the missing words: 1. Ma maison a six , un salon, 

une cuisine, trois k coucher et une k manger. 2. Le 

jour je travaille k I'^cole dans notre de classe; je passe la 

nuit chez moi dans ma . 3. Nous avons cherch6 I'enfant 

dans toutes les de la maison. 

(10) Racontez d'abord oralement, puis icrivez iLa Montre de 
mon ami. » (Make use of the following words and expressions in 
Leqon XXX:) Un jour, se trouver, compartiment, homme, ne savoir 
pas, la difference, mien, tien. Ami, avoir, montre, or. Train, ap- 
procher de, petite ville, marcher, moins vite. L'individu, tirer, 
poche, revolver, dire. Votre montre, plus jolie, la mienne, donnez- 
la-moi. Je, donner, la mienne, afin que, vous, savoir I'heure. Le 
voleur, approcher, revolver, de la t^te. Ami, avoir peur. II, 
donner, montre. Voleur, donner, la sienne, sauter du train. Com- 
partiment, fran^ais, 6tre, commode, mais, on, pouvoir, se trouver 
avec, compagnon de voyage, d6sagr6able, meme dangereux. 

♦ Penser de = think of, have an opinion of; penser i = think of, have 
in mind. Example: Au revoir! Pensez k moi quand vous serez en France I 
— Je penserai souvent i vous et je vous enverrai des cartes postales. May 
penser i be used in (7), 67 



§§ 138-139 


138. Cardinal Numerals 

1 im, une [ce, yn] 

2 deux [d0] 

3 trois [trwa] 

4 quatre [katr] 

5 cinq [seik] 

6 six [sis] . 

7 sept [set] 

8 huit Cqit] 

9 neuf [ncef] 

10 dix [dis3 

11 onze [5iz] 

12 douze [du:z] 

13 treize [treiz] 

14 quatorze [katorz] 

15 quinze Qceiz] 

16 seize [se:z] 

17 dix-sept [disset] 

18 dix-huit [dizqit] 

19 dix-neuf [diznoef] 

20 vingt [ve] 

Nouns of Number: 1,000,000 = un millior [de miljo]; 2,000,000 
= deux millions [d0 milJDj; 1,000,000,000 = un milliard [de miljair]. 

Observe: 1. The hyphen unites the parts of compound numerals 
under 100, except where et occurs. 2. Et stands regularly in 21, 31, 
41, 51, 61, 71, omitted in 81, and elsewhere. 

Notes on Pronunciation: 1. The final consonant of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
10, 17, 18, 19, is silent before initial consonant or h aspirate of a word 
multiplied by them, not elsewhere: Cinq livres [s£ M:vr], but le cinq 
mai [b se:k me]. 2. No elision or liaison occurs before huit, onze: 
le huit [l8 qit]; les huit livres Qe qi H:vr]; le onze [la 5:z]; les onze 
francs [le 5:z fra]. 3. The t is sounded in vingt in 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 
27, 28, 29, is sounded with the d in 22, is silent from 81 to 99, is 
silent in cent im, deux cent un, etc. 

139. Million and milliard require de before the object 
enumerated; cent = a (or one) hundred; mille = a (or one) 

21 vingt et un 


22 vingt-deux 


30 trente 


31 trente et un 


40 quarante 


50 cinquante 


60 soixante 


70 soixante-dix 


71 soixante et onze 


80 quatre-vingts 


81 quatre-vingt-un 


90 quatre- vingt- dix 


91 quatre-vingt-onze [katrave5:zj 

100 cent 


101 cent un 

[sa de] 

200 dexix cents 


201 deux cent un 


1000 male 


1001 mille un 


2000 deux mille 


§§ 140-143 LESSON XXXV 167 

U a paye un million de francs. He has paid a million (of) francs. 

Ceci vaut cent francs. This is worth a hundred francs. 

140. Quatre-vingt and the multiples of cent take -s only 
when immediately preceding a noun, or when they themselves 
are used as nouns of number: 

Quatre-vingts francs. Eighty francs. 

Trois cenU francs. Three hundred francs. 

Les cinq cents. The five hundreds. 

But: Trois cent un francs; quatre-vingt-un francs, etc. 

Oba.: They are not nouns of number in dates, or when used as ordinals. 

141. Multiplicatives. Once = une foiSi tvnce = deux fois, 
three times = trois fois, etc.: 

Dix fois dix font cent. Ten times ten make a hundred. 

142. Ordinal Nimierals. They are formed from 'third' 
upwards by adding -ieme to the corresponding cardinal, 
final e being dropped ; cinq adds u, and neuf changes f to v 
before -ieme: 

Ist premier [pramje] 7th septidme Cs^tjcm] 

- . I second [sagS] 8th huitieme Cqitjem] 

deuzieme [d0zjem] 9th neutndme nnoevjem] 

3rd troisiSme [trwazjem] 10th dizidme CdizjemJ 

4th quatridme [katriem] 11th onzidme [Szjem] 

5th cinqui^me [sekjem] 21st vingt et unilme [vetej-njem] 

6th sixiSme [sizjem] 22nd vingt-deuzi^me [v£td0zjem] 

143. Fractions. The numerator is expressed by a cardi- 
nal, the denominator by an ordinal, as in English. Half = 
moitie, /. (as noun), and demi (as adjective); J =im quart, 
f = im tiers Qjeir], Before a noun, demi is invariable and 
joined by a hyphen, but agrees elsewhere. Use la moitie (not 
demi) where the half of is, or may be, used in English: 
Un huitieme; les trois diudmes. One-eighth; the three tenths. 
La moitie de I'annge. (The) half (of) the year. 

Une heure et demie. An hour and a half. 

Une demi-heure. Half an hour. 

Les trois quarts de cette somme. Three-fourths of that sum. 



le centime [satim] centime en etre k [aneitr a] be (at a point 

la fagon [faso] manner, way in a book, etc.) 

la moitie [mwatje] half se fficher [safaSe] get angry 

la monnaie [mone] change, indiquer [edike] assign, point 

money; moimaie frangaise, out 

French money (argent is nommer [name] name 

more general) 6ter [ote] take off, remove 

le nom [no] name il vaut [vo] is worth {pres. of 

un objet [obse] object, article, valoir) 

thing venillez [vceje] please (impera- 

la page [pais] page live of vouloir) 

le par-dessus [pardasy] overcoat ^ j^^^j^ ^^^ [aoitvwa] aloud 
le quart [kairj fourth 

le sou [su] cent, penny, sou autant (de) [ota] as many, as 

le tiers [tjeir] third much 

jusqu'a [syska] until, as far 

demi [dami] half ^^ ^p ^ 

completer [kSplete] fill out, par [par] by 

finish sur [syr] out of 

A. (1) Lisez d, haute voix en frangais: 40, 41, 50, 51, 55, 
60, 61, 66, 69, 70, 71, 75, 79, 80, 81, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 99, 
100, 101, 140, 175, 190, 200, 201, 250, 281, 500, 1000, 1001, 
25,000 hommes, 1,000,000 de francs. 

(2) CompUtez: 2 fois 1 font ; 2 fois 2 font - — ; 2 fois 3 

font . Continuez jusqu'd 2 fois 25. 

(3) Parlez-vous frangais le ^ du temps, ou la ^ du temps, ou 
les f du temps, ou les f du temps ou tout le temps en classe? 
Quelle partie du temps le professeur parle-t-ilf Parle-t-il tropf 

(4) On indique la valeur des ohjets par francs, par sous et par 
centimes. II y a 20 sous dans un franc. Un sou vavt un cent 
amiricain. Cinq centimes font un sou. 

1. Combien de centimes y a-t-il dans un franc? 2. Combien 
de sous un dollar am^ricain vaut-il? 3. Quelle partie d'un 
franc un sou est-il? 4. Quelle partie d'un franc un centime 
est-il? 5. Quelle partie d'un dollar am^ricain un franc est-il? 
6. Quelle est la valeur en monnaie am^ricaine de cinq francs? 

S 143 ' LESSON xxxv 160 

7. De dix francs? 8. De cent francs? 9. De cinq centimes? 
10. De vingt-cinq centimes? 11. De cinquante centimes? 
12. De soixante-quinze centimes? 

Note, — If the teacher can secure some French coins and bank notes 
or facsimiles of them, it will be helpful at this point. The teacher may 
also exhibit a number of articles with the prices marked in francs and 
centimes. This will stimulate interest in converting the sums into 
dollars and cents. 

Much drill is needed for teaching the numerals thoroughly, more 
than can be provided in Exercises in the text. In addition to seizing 
every occasion to make the students count, have them tell the page of 
each lesson, answer questions involving dates, and tell the prices in 
French money of real and imaginary articles and meals. The teacher 
will find it profitable to cut up several pages of a calendar that has the 
numerals printed in large type and to paste the numbers in order on 
sheets of paper. These may be manipulated before the class like flash- 
cards so as to show any desired combination, and are very useful in 
rapid daily practice. 

B. (1) Study (a), the future and conditional forms of voir 
(§224); and (6), the present indicative and subjunctive, the tm- 
perfect indicative, and the imperative. Refer each of these forms to 
the " principal parts " according to the grouping in § 159, 1, 2, 3, 4. 

(2) Study the present, imperfect, and future of mettre (§ 198). 
Tabidate according to § 159. 

C. (1) Dites en franqais: 1. You must get a ticket before 
taking the train. 2. We got enough bread for two days. 
3. This fellow gets angry too easily. 4. Please go and get 
my hat. 5. His horse got frightened, 

(2) iScrivez en franqais: 1. If the cows were in our neigh- 
bor's wheat field, the dogs would see them. 2. If they were 
to see the cows, they would go and bring them back. 3. Please 
go [and] get the animals (bfete) when you see them in your 
neighbor's yard. 4. If no one went and got them, they would 
eat [up] the grass in our neighbor's yard, 5. If he saw them, 
he would get angry. 6. He will get angry when he sees them 
in his field. 7. If our neighbors were to see these goats in their 
fields, there would be no use (avoir beau in 1st pi.: which tense f) 


in our trying to run them out, for (car) our neighbors would go 
and get them first (les premiers). 

(3) 1. No one puts on his hat in the house. 2. I shall put 
on my hat before (avant de) going out (see § 99, 5). 3. When 
it is cold, you (indef.) put on your (which possessive adj.?) 
overcoat before going out and take it off before coming in. 
4. Half the time he would put on his overcoat in the house, 
because his mother had told him to do it (le), but once outside 
he would take it ofif. 5. Nine times out of ten he would get angry. 

D. RSpondez en frangais: (1) a. 1. Combien de jours y 
a-t-il dans une semaine? 2. Combien de semaines dans un 
mois? 3. Combien de jours y a-t-il dans les mois de sep- 
tembre [septdibr], avril [avril], juin [sqe], novembre [novaibrj? 
4. Combien de jours dans les mois de Janvier [savje], mars 
[mars], mai [me], juillet [sqije], aoM [u], octobre [oktobr], 
d^cembre [desaibr]? 5. Quels sont les mois qui ont trente et 
un jours? 6. Nommez ceux qui ont trente jours. 7. Combien 
de jours le mois de fevrier [fevrie] a-t-il? 8. Combien de 
jours y a-t-il dans une ann6e? 

6. 1. Combien d'eleves ^tes-vous dans cette classe? 2. Comp- 
tez: un €ihve, deux Olives, etc. 3. Comptez les places dans 
la salle de classe: une place, deux places, etc. 4. Y a-t-il 
assez de places pour les Aleves? 5. Y a-t-il autant d'eleves 
qu'il y a de places? 6. Y a-t-il autant de places qu'il y a 
d'616ves? 7. Y a-t-il plus de places ou moins de places que 

c. i. Combien de pages votre livre de frangais a-t-il? 2. A 
quelle page est-ce que nous en sommes? 3. A quelle page 
en 6tions-nous hier? 4. Avant-hier? 5. Lundi dernier? 
6. A quelle page en serons-nous demain? 7. A quelle page 
en sommes-nous rest6s hier? 8. A quelle page en 6tes-vous 
rest6 avant-hier? 

(2) 1. Quel est le premier jour de la semaine? 2-7. Quel 
est le deuxieme jour de la semaine, etc. 8. Quel est le premier 
mois de l'ann<§e? 9-19, Quel est le deuxieme mois de Tannic? 
etc. 20. Quelle legon 6tudions-nous aujourd'hui? 21. Quelle 


le^on aurons-nous pour demain? 22. A quelle le^on en ^tions- 
nous hier? 23. A quelle page nous sommes-nous arrSt^ hier? 
24. A quelle page en sommes-nous restfe avant-hier? 

E. Dict6e: Lesson XXXIU, A, 1^-22. 

F. Lisez d haute voix {compare Lessons V, VII) : un billet, un 
&ne, une banque, un; deux d^put^s, deux Edifices, deux; trois 
monuments, trois ob^lisques, trois; quatre statues, quatre 
arcs de triomphe, quatre; cinq rois, cinq avenues, cinq; six 
lois, six ^gUses, six; sept promenades, sept objets, sept; huit 
personnages, huit endroits, huit; neuf ponts, neuf ans, neuf; 
dix repas, dix avenues, dix. 

a. Which of these numerals have two pronunciations? Make 
examples illustrative of each, using other nouns than those 
above. See § 138, N(^es on Pronunciation. 

b. Which of these numerals have three pronunciations? Illus- 
trate as in a. 


144. Dates, Titles, etc. 1. The form mil is used in 
dates of the Christian era, from 1001 to 1999 ; from 1100 
onward, dates are often expressed by hundreds, as so fre- 
quently in English: 

(En) Tan mil six. (In) the year 1006. 

En mU neuf cent vingt In nineteen hundred and 

En dix-neuf cent vingt et nn. In 192L 

2. Dajrs of the month and numerical titles of rulers are 
indicated by cardinals, except first = premier: 

Le premier mai. Charles premier. The first of May. Charles I. 
Paris, le deux maL Paris, on the 2nd of May. 

Louis quatorze (XIV). Louis XIV. 

Observe: — The F.ngli«^h word the in titles is not translated in 


3. Observe the following date idioms: 

Quel jour du mois est-ce aujour- What day of the month is this? 

Quel jour du mois sommes-nous " " " " " 

Quel quantieme [katjem] du mois " *' " " " 

est-ce aujourd'hui? 

C'est aujourd'hui le quinze. To-day is the fifteenth. 

Ce sera domain le seize. To-morrow will be the sixteenth. 

Le six Janvier. On the sixth of January. 

Ds sont arrives Itmdi. They came on Monday. 

D'aujourd'hui en hmt. A week from to-day {future). 

II y a quinze jours. A fortnight ago. 

Observe: — The English words on and of in dates are not trans- 
lated. Before days of the week on is likewise omitted. 

4. The names of the seasons are: I'ete, summer, Tau- 
tomne, autumn, I'hiver, winter, le printemps, spring. The 
names of the months may be conveniently learned from the 
following rhyme; they are all masculine: 

Trente jours ont septembre, 
Avril, juin, novembre; 
Trente et un ont mars et maiy 
Ao&t, octobre, puis juillet, 
Et decembre et Janvier; 
De vingt-huit est fevrier. 

5. Observe the following idioms referring to age: 
Quel kge avez-vous? How old are you? 

J'ai vingt ans. I am twenty (years old). 

Une fillette (Sgee) de six ans. A girl six years old {or of age). 

A l'4ge de vingt-cinq ans. At the age of twenty-five (years). 


le cadeau [kado] present le foyer [fwaje] hearth 

la date [dat] date une importance [eporta:s] impor- 

une encyclopedie [Qsiklopedi] en- tance 

cyclopedia la naissance [nesais] birth 

la fete [fsst] festival, holiday le Noel [noel] Christmas 





une origine [on sin] origin 
laplupart (de) [plypair] ma- 
jority, most 
la prise [priiz] capture 
la prison Qprizo] prison 
le rSgne [rrji] reign 
ie souvenir Qsuvniir] memory 

catholique [katolik] Catholic 
historique [istorik] historical 
national [nasjanal] national 
protestant [protestd] Protes- 
religieux [r3li3J0l religious 

croire [krwair] believe, think 
durer [dyre] last 

faire froid [fe:r frwo] be, get 

cold (o/ weather) 
regner [repe] reign 
revenir [ravniir] come back 

couramment Pcuramd] flu- 
ently, generally 

environ [dviri] about 

non (dus [Q^pIyD either, 

davantage [davfita'.s] more 

k cause de [akoiz da] on ac- 
count of 
jusqu'i [syska] until, up to, 

as far as 
parmi Cparmi] among 

A. (1) 1. Dans tous les pays il y a des jours de f^te oii on ne 
travaille pas. 2. Quelques-uns de ces jours de f4te ont une 
origine religieuse, comme les dimanches et le jour de Noel, 
le 25 d^cembre. 3. D'autres ont une origine historique, 
comme le 14 juillet. 4. La plupart des fStes ont une origine 
religieuse, surtout dans les pays catholiques, comme la France. 
5. Combien de dimanches y. a-t-il dans une ann^? — II y en 

a (?), 6. On appelle le premier jour de I'annde le • jour 

de I'an ». 7. Ce jour-1^ on fait des visites, on envoie des 
cartes et des lettres h ses amis. 8. La fdte du jour de Tan a 
plus d'importance en France que chez nous. 

(2) 1. Le 14 juillet on c^l^bre la fete nationale frangaise en 
souvenir de la prise de la Bastille, le 14 juillet, 1789. 2. La 
Bastille 6tait une prison oh le roi mettait les indi\'idus dont il 
avait peur. 3. Ce jour-U la Revolution frangaise a com- 
mence. 4. Elle a dur^ dix ans environ, jusqu'^ Napoleon. 
5. Quelle est la date de la fete nationale americaine? 6. Quand 
est-ce qu'on I'a ceiebr^e la premiere fois? 

(3) 1. Le 25 d^cembre nous c^l^brons le jour de Noel, en souve- 
nir de la naissance de J6sus-Christ [sezykri]. 2. On c^l^bre 
ce jour-l^ dans les pays protestants aussi bien que dans les pays 


catholiques. 3. Le soir du 24 d^cembre, avant de se coucher, 
les petits FranQais laissent leurs souliers autour du foyer, et le 
petit Noel (ou le petit J^sus [sezy]) vient y mettre des cadeaux 
pendant la nuit. 4. Dans trois semaines nous allons c416brer 
la fete de Noel. 

B. (1) 1. Parmi les rois de France les plus c^l^bres se 
trouvent Charlemagne, Saint Louis (Louis IX), Fran9ois I*'", 
Henri IV, Louis XIV et Louis XVI, sous lequel la Revolu- 
tion a commence. 2. Trouvez dans une encyclop4die ou un 
livre d'histoire, les dates de leurs rhgnes et lisez-les d haute voix 
dans la dasse. Par exemple, Frangois I^ a rSgne de 1516 d, 
1547. 3. Trouvez les dates de trois presidents de la R^puhlique 
frangaise et lisez-les devant la classe. ( 

(2) a. Study the present, imperfect, and future indicative, the 
present subjunctive, the conditional and compound forms of aller 
(§160); of venir (§ 178). Tenir is conjugated like venir except 
that it takes a different auxiliary in the compound tenses. 

b. TabuIcUe the forms of these verbs under the principal parts 
(§ 159). 

C. (l) Studiez la ^{section [szkspli) lOQ. ^crivez en frangais: 
1. Will winter come soon? I do not want it to come this 
month. 2. I am glad that it is not cold yet, but I am afraid 
that winter will come soon. 3. Last year it got very cold in 
November. 4. Old people (Les vieux) do not like the cold, 
and I do not like it either, although I am young. 5. I want 
my family to go south (dans le sud) before winter comes, be- 
cause when January and February and March come there will 
be much snow and ice. 6. It will be necessary for us to wear 
our gloves and overcoats when we go out, in order not to be 
cold (in order that we, etc.). 7. When spring and summer 
come, I shall prefer that we come back (subjunct.) (to the) 
north before it gets too warm. 8. We went south last year 
in December and we came back in April. 9. My mother wants 
the family to go to Canada for May, June, July, August, and 
September. 10. I think (Je crois) that we shall have to come 
back before the middle of September, on account of the cold. 

$ 144 LESSON XXXVI 175 

(2) a. 1. He is coming to-morrow. 2. He used to come 
every day. 3. They will come on Friday. 4. Our sisters 
came back on June 1st. 5. They would come back at once 
if you asked them to do it (le). 

b. 1. We shall go to the country on June 2nd. 2. We used 
to go (y) on June 15. 3. We should go to France in July if 
we had 3500 francs. 4. Did those ladies go to England in 
July or in August? 

c. 1. How old is he? He is ten. 2. What is his name? 
His name is Pierre. 3. He has a sister 15 years old. 4. He 
wants to go to Europe when he is sixteen and stay two years. 

5. He thinks that in (au bout de) two years he will be able to 
speak French fluently. 

D. (1) Void le participe pr^erU du verbe lire: lisant. 

Complitez par la forme convenable (proper) de lire: 1, Je^— 

(present) un roman de Dumas. 2. Nous ne (present) pas 

beaucoup de romans frangais. 3. II faut que vous (pres- 

ent) I'histoire de France avant de visiter ce pays. 4. Quoique 

cet enfant ne (present) pas trop facilement le frangais, il 

aime les MisSrabks de Victor Hugo. 5. Si tons les voyageurs 
(imperfect) plus d'histoire, ils s'amuseraient davantage. 

6. Quand nous aurons le temps, nous (future) des ro- 
mans de Balzac. 7. J'ai d6j^ (past participle) son Euginie 


(2) Ripondez aux questions: 1. Quel dge avez-vous? 
2. Quel dge aurez-vous dans cinq ans? 3. Quelle est la date 
de I'anniversaire de votre naissance? 4. Quel jour du mois 
sommes-nous aujourd'hui? 5. Quel jour du mois serons-nous 
d'aujourd'hui en huit? 6. D'aujourd'hui en quinze? 7. Quel 
jour du mois 6tions-nous il y a huit jours? 8. II y a trois 
jours? 9. Quel dge a\'iez-vou3 il y a trois ans? 10. II y a 
cinq ans? 11. Quel jour de la semaine Noel tombe-t-il cette 
ann^? 12. Et le 14 juillet quel jour de la semaine tombe-t-il? 
13. Quels sont les mois qui n'ont que trente jours? 14. Le mois 
de f6\Tier combien de jours a-t-il? 15. R^p^tez-moi les noms des 
six premiers mois de I'ann^. 16. Dans quel mois etes-vous n6? 



145. The Time of Day. The hours and fractions of 
hours are indicated as follows: 

Quelle heure est-il? What time (o'clock) is it? 

II est deux heures. It is two o'clock, 

Trois heures et demie. Half-past three. 

Trois heures (et) un quart. A quarter past three. 
Quatre heures moins un (le) quart. A quarter to four. 

Trois heures dix (mmutes). Ten minutes past three. 
Quatre heures moins cinq (minutes). Five minutes to four. 

Trois heures cinquante-cinq. Three fifty-five. 

-II est midi et demi. It is half-past twelve (noon). 

11 est minuit. It is twelve o'clock (midnight). 

A sept heures du soir. At seven o'clock in the evening. 

A quelle heure? At what time? 

A trois heures precises. At three o'clock precisely. 

Vers (les) trois heures. About three o'clock. 

It will be noted that: 

1. liie time of day is expressed by etre combined with 
the impersonal subject il. 

2. Contrary to English usage, in French the hour is 
given first and then the minutes are added or subtracted. 
The word heure (s) is always mentioned, but the word 
minute (s) is frequently omitted. 

3. Le midi [midi] means noon, midday; le minuit [minqi] 
means midnight. 

4. Demi when preceding a noun, is regar(fed as part of 
the noun and is joined to it by means of a. hyphen and 
does not agree with it in gender; as an adjective, following 
the noun, demi(e) observes the usual rules of agreement; 
e.g. une demi-heure, a half-hour, but une heure et demie, 
half paM one or, one and a half hours. 

5. In the French time tables and in the usage of some 


LESSON xxxvn 


Frenchmen, time is counted from 1 to 24 hours; e.g. 
heures (du soir) = vingt-deux heures. 

N.B. — Distinguish carefully between telling the time of day (11 + itre) 
and describing the condition of weather, temperature and naturai phenomena 
(U + f Aire). 198. 


UD avis [denavi] opinion, mind 
un employe Cdenaplwaje^ clerk, 

lelendemain QadmS] next day, 

la m6fiance [mefjdts^ distrust 
la part [pa:r] portion, share; 

pour ma part for my part; 

de ma part, from me 
la partie [parti] part, game 
la poste [post] poet office 
le repos Parpo] rest 
le veston [vests] (sack) coat 

fou [fu], (/. foUe) mad, craiy 
precis [preei] exact, precise 

agir [asirr] act, have an effect 
avancer [avose] be fast, ad- 
changer [Sose] change 
discuter [diskyte] argue, dis- 
se fier k [ssf jea] trust, have faith in 
se mefier de [samefjeda] distrust, 
beware of 

oublier [ubiie] forget 

plaisanter [pkzdte] joke 

raconter [rakSte] relate, re- 

rec<Hnmencer [rakamdse] be- 
gin again, do again 

remonter [ramSte] wind (0/ a 
watch or dock) 

retarder [ratarde] be behind, 
be late, delay 

tromper [trSpe] deceive, fool 

varier [varje] vary 

d'aillears [dajoe;r] besides, fur- 

d'autant [dotfi] so much more, 
all the more 

(• va it's all right, it will do, 

that works 
nc — jamais [na same] never 

pourtant [purta] however 

tiens! [tJO Is that so! Indeed! 
{imperative of tenir, hold) 

A. (1) 1. Avez-vous une montre, Louise? — Oui, made- 
moiselle, j'en ai une. 2. C'est un cadeau de men p^re. II me 
I'a donn^ pour men anniversaire. 3. — Est-elle en or ou en 
argent? — En or, mais elle marche mal. A present elle retarde 
d'un {hy) quart d'heure. 4. — Alors 9a ne va pas. On ne pent 
pas se fier ^ votre montre. 5. Et la v6trc, £)douard, marche- 


t-elle mieux que celle de Louise? 6. — Oui, mademoiselle, la 
mienne marche ties bien. Vous savez que les montres des 
gargons marchent toujours mieux que celles des jeunes fiUes. 
7. — Tiens! Comment expliquez-vous cela, Edouard? — Mais, 
c'est facile! 8. Les jeunes filles changent si souvent d'avis, 
elles varient tant elles-memes, qu'on ne pent pas se fier a elles, 
et cela agit sur leurs montres. 9. D'ailleurs elles ne les re- 
montent jamais. Elles oublient toujours de les remonter. 
10. — Tiens, Edouard! Vous commencez tr^s jeune k vous 
m^fier des femmes. 11. Vous avez entendu chanter sans 
doute: « Souvent femme varie, Bien, (very) fou qui s'y fie ». 
12. Pourtant vous avez beau parler de cette fagon, vous ferez 
comme les autres. 13. Vous payerez bien cher cette m^fiance. 
On vous trompera d'autant plus facilement. Vous allez voir! 
14. Mais ne discutons pas cette question. Quelle heure est-il 
k votre montre? — II est midi moins le quart. 15. — Et k 
la v6tre, Pierre? — II est midi moins treize, mademoiselle. 
16. — Alors vous avancez de deux minutes? — Non, made- 
moiselle; je ne crois pas. 17. C'est que la montre d'fidouard 
retarde de deux minutes. On ne pent pas s'y fier. 18. — Ah? 
Alors vous n'etes pas de I'avis d'fidouard sur les jeunes filles 
et les gargons et leurs montres? 19. Mais je crois qu'il plai- 
santait. Pourtant nous He pouvons pas passer I'heure k discuter 
sur les femmes et leurs montres. 20. Nous ne serions jamais 
d'accord. Nous n'arriverions jamais k rien. 

(2) 1. Racontez-moi votre journ^e, Pierre. — Les jours de 
classe je me l^ve a sept heures moins vingt. 2. II me faut 
vingt-cinq minutes pour faire ma toilette, et a sept heures cinq 
je suis pret k travailler une demi-heure avant le dejeuner. 
3. Le dejeuner est prdt k huit heures moins vingt-cinq et k 
huit heures dix je pars pour I'^cole. 4. J'arrive a I'^cole k 
huit heures vingt-cinq. La premiere classe commence a huit 
heures et demie et dure quarante-cinq minutes. 5. La 
deuxi^me classe commence k neuf heures et quart, . . . etc. (Con- 
tinuez). 6. A midi nous avons un peu de repos. Nous pre- 
nons notre dejeuner et k une heure les classes recommencent. 
7. J'arrive chez moi k quatre heures de I'apres-midi, nous dinons 
k six heures et demie, et apr^s le diner je travaille ou je m' amuse 

§ 145 LESSON xxxvn 179 

k lire jusqu'i dix heures. 8. Alors je me couche et je dors 
jusqu'au lendemain matin. 9. — Tr6s bien, Pierre. Voua 
6te8 un jeune homme sage. 10. Je comprends pourquoi votre 
montre marche mieux que celle de Louise, — et m^me que celle 

B. (1) StibstitiUe pronouns for the italicized object nouns: 

I. Voici une lettre. 2. J'ai 6crit la leUre hier soir. 3. J'ai 
demand^ k mon fr^re de mettre la lettre k la poste, mais il a 
mis la lettre dans sa poche. 4. II a mis la Idtre dans sa poche 
11 y a cinq jours. 5. II y a trouv^ la lettre ce matin quand il 
changeait de veston. 6. II n'avait pas ouvert la lettre. 7. En- 
fin il a donn6 la lettre au facteur le 4 juillet. 8. Donnez 
la lettre au facteur. 9. Ne mettez pas la lettre k la poete. 
10. Prenez vos billets avant de monter dans une voiture. 

II. II faut donner les billets k Vemployi avant de sortir de la 
gare de destination. 

(2) Study the present iruiicative and subjunctive, the imperfect, 
future, and conditional forms, and the compound forms of dire 
(§ 193) and of prendre (§ 202). 
Group these forms according to § 159. 

C. (1) Traduisez en frangais: 1. People say so (le). 2. Some 
one said so. 3. No one will say so. 4. Your father doesn't 
want him to say so. 5. Tell me at once. 6. I regret that 
he told (perf. subj.; see § 155) you that. 7. You never 
say anything (rien). 8. What would you say if I told him 
what you said yesterday? 9. She takes sugar in her coffee. 

10. They take the 8:28 train (le train de . . .) every morning. 

11. Your father must get (prendre) the tickets before taking 
the train. 12. The apples we took were yours, weren't they? 
13. Somebody has just taken all my apples. 14. It is 5:45 
exactly; I shall put on my overcoat at once and take the street 
car at the corner. 15. If you took the car at 6:15 exactly, you 
would get (etre) to my house before a quarter to seven. 16. Tell 
him to take the 7:36 train. 17. Don't let's take it. 

(2) For les jours de classe in A, (2), 1 substitute hier and re- 
vrite to the end of the eighth sentence, making the necessary changes 
in the tense form. 




(3) Substitute demain for les jours de classe, and rewrite as 
indicated in (2). 

D. (1) The teacher dictates the English of the examples in 
§ 145 and the class gives the French, orally or in writing. 

(2) a. Note the idiomatic expressions: 1. Cette dame a 
change de robe. 2. Vous pouvez vous fier k cette jeune fille, 
car elle ne ressemble pas aux autres. 3. Si vous vous mefiez 
trop des hommes, ils vous tromperont d'autant plus sou vent. 
4. II passe son temps k penser aux {compare Lesson XX, A, (3), 
11, 12, 13 and (7) of Vocabulary Review No. 5) parties de base- 
ball. 5. Elle ne pense jamais k remonter sa montre. 6. Get 
enfant ne pense k rien d'utile. . 

b. Write sentences in French after the model of those in (2) a. 

E. Dict^e: Lesson XXXIV, A. 

146. Past Definite of donner, finir, 

I gave, etc. I finished, etc. 

donn ai [done] 
donn as [dona] 
donn a [dona] 
donn ames [donam] 
donn ates [donat] 
donn ^ent [doneir] 

fin is [fini] 
fin is [fini] 
fin it [fini] 
fin imes [finim] 
fin lies [finit] 
fin irent [finiir] 


I sold, etc. 
vend IS [vadi] 
vend is [vadi] 
vend it [vadi] 
vend imes [vadim] 
vend ites [vadit] 
vend irent [vadi:r] 

147. Past Definite of avoir, etre 

I had, etc. I was, etc. 

eus [y] eflmes [ym] fus [fy] fiimes [fym] 

eus [y] elites [yt] fus [fy] ffites [fyt] 

eut [y] eurent [y:r] fut [fy] furent [fy:r] 

a. All verbs have the same endings (-mes, -tes, -rent) in the plural, 
and aU take a circumflex over the vowel of the first and second plural. 

b. In the donner group, the letter a appears in the endings of all 
forms except the 3d plural. Note the pronunciation of fi in -tmes and 

c. The past definite endings of the finir and vendre groups are alike. 

d. Observe the pronimciation of the past definite of avoir. 

SS 148-149 

LESSON xxxvm 


148. Use of the Past Definite. The past definite is used 
in the Uterary narrative style to denote what happened 
(completed past action), or what happened next (successive 
events). It never denotes, like the imperfect (§ 87), what was 
happening or used to happen, or continued to happen: 

Les Romains brMSrent Carthage. The Romans burnt Carthage. 

Dieu accepta les presents d'Abel, 
qui &ait plus pieux que son frdre; 
mais 11 detouma les yeux de ceux 
de Cain [ka^l parce que son coeur 
li'itait pas pur. . . Un jour Cain 
et Abel &ment seuls dans un 
champ, et Cain se jeta sur Abel, 
et le tua. 

God accepted the gifts of Abel, 
who was more righteous than his 
brother; but he turned away his 
eyes from those of Cain, because 
his heart was not pure. . . . One 
day Cain and Abel were alone in a 
field, and Cain fell upon Abel, and 
slew him. 

148. Past Definite of Jmre (irr^.) 

/ did, etc. 
je fis Csafin nous fimes [nufim^ 

tu fis [tyfi] vous fites [vufit] 

U fit [ilfi] ils firent Cilfi:r3 


un accuefl [ftnakcEij] welcome, 

un automne [oton]] autumn 

le chant [Sa] song 

la compagne QcSpaji] wife, mate 

la confiance Pc5fja:s] confidence 

le dieu [(lj0] god 
un evenement [cenevcnmQ] event 

lafaute [fo:t] mistake, fault 

la miette Co^jct^ crumb 

le nid Cni3 nest 

la pitil [pitje] pity 

le printemps [prgta], spring 

le rouge-gorge [rursgors] red- 

la saison [sezS] season 

gentil [sfiti] nice, pretty 
joyeuz C5waj03 merr>', cheerful 

avoir piti£ de [avwairpitjeda] 
have pity on 

corriger [korise] correct 

employer [fiplwaje] use 

savoir Csavwair] know how 
(= can); jenesauraiSf I can- 

sembler [saible] seem, appear 

tu* [tqe] kill 

voler [vole] fly 

de nouveau [danuvo] ngaia 
lorsque Porskal when 
entre [a:tr] between 


A. 1. Un petit rouge-gorge frappa a notre fenStre. II sem- 
blait dire: « Ayez piti6 de moi! 2. Ouvrez-moi, je vous prie; 
il neige, il fait du vent. 3. J'ai bien froid et je ne puis rien 
trouver k manger parce que la terre est couverte de neige. » 
4. Nous etimes piti6 du petit rouge-gorge, et nous ouvrtmes la 
fenetre. 5. Le gentil petit oiseau entra dans la chambre. 
6. II vola mSme dans la salle a manger et mangea les miettes 
qui 6taient tomb6es de la table. 7. Bientdt il mangea me me 
dans nos mains et il resta chez nous tout I'hiver jusqu'au prin- 
temps. 8. Mais lorsque la neige fut partie, le printemps 
revint, et les arbres se couvrirent de feuilles. 9. Nous ouvrimes 
de nouveau la fenetre, et notre petit ami en sortit joyeux. 
10. II alia dans le bois voisin oCi il fit son nid et nous enten- 
dtmes souvent ses chants joyeux. 11. Lorsque I'^t^ et I'au- 
tomne furent passes, I'hiver revint, et le rouge-gorge revint aussi, 
cette fois avec sa petite compagne. 12. Les deux petits oiseaux 
ne semblaient pas du tout se m^fier de nous. 13. J'ouvris la 
fenetre et ils entr^rent avec confiance dans la maison, oii ils 
passerent la froide saison sans essayer meme de nous quitter 
avant le printemps. 14. Vous pouvez 6tre sAr que nous leur 
fimes bon accueil. 

B. (1) Study the present indicative and subjunctive, the irfi- 
perfect, future, conditional, and compound tense forms of pouvoir 
(§ 221); of savoir (§ 222). Group these forms according to § 159. 

(2) a. Change to the conversational past the literary past forms 
in the story of Cain and Abel (§ 148). Are the three imperfect 
forms changed? Explain. 

b. Similarly, retell the incident in the present. 

(3) Traduisez: 1. I* cannot trust you (i vous). 2. They 
can trust their friends. 3. Why couldn't you trust your watch? 
4. We shall come when we can. 5. He could come to-morrow 
if he wished {insert le). 6. The pupils must (II faut) be able to 
leave home (partir de chez eux) earlier (compar. of t6t). 7. I 
could have left home earlier if I had wished. 

C. (1) Traduisez (use the past definite where suitable): 
1. What did Cain do? 2, Do you not know what Cain did 


(inverted order)? 3. Did you know that Cain killed his 
brother (see § 148, example 2)? 4. I couldn't {compare B, (1)) 
kill my brother. 5. Could you kill yours? 6. Cain did not 
know that God was looking at him. 7. Do you know that God 
saw everything (§ 132, 7, 9) Cain did (use past of conversation)! 
8. When he learned (past indef. of savoir) that I had fallen 
ill, he came to see me at once. 9. You must (devez) know that 
I would not distrust those persons if I did not know (connattre 
or savoir?) them very well. 10. The pupils must (II faut) 
know how to explain the difference between " connattre " and 
" savoir." 11. If I were to ask you (supply it, le), could you 
answer the question? 

(2) Rewrite A, changing the past narrative of literary style to 
the past narrative of conversational style. Note that fut partie 
becomes 6tait partie. Why do not the imperfects change? 

(3) a. Some verbs have a special meaning in the past definite, 
differing from that of the infinitive: 

avoir to have j'eus I have received 

savoir to know je sus I found out (learned) 

dtre to be je fus I became 

h. Tradidsez: 1. II 6tait bien triste quand il re^ut (see §213) 
ma lettre. 2. II fut bien triste quand il regut ma lettre. 

(4) Racontez en franqais les ivhiemenis de la jourr^ie, en indi- 
quarU Vheure d laqueUe voits votis Hes levS, etc. [Le^on XXXVII, 
A, (2)]. 

(5) ^crivez t L'Histoire du rouge-gorge, » le livrefermS. Employez 
Us temps de la conversation. Servez-vous des expressions et des 
mots suivants: frapper, sembler dire, avoir piti6, ouvrir, il neige, 
fait froid, terre couverte de neige. Nous ouvrir, gentil petit 
oiseau, entrer, manger miettes, rester, tout I'hiver, partir au 
printemps, b&tir nid, chanter, 6t€, automne passer, hiver revenir, 
rouge-gorge revenir avec compagne, ne se m^fier pas, leur faire 
bon accueil. 

D. Dict^: f L'Histoire du rouge-gorge. » Chaque 616ve cor- 
rige les fautes de son devoir en se servant du texte, et le donne 
ensuite au professeur. 



§§ 150-152 


150. Imperfect Subjunctive of donner, finir, vendre 

(That) I gave, might 
give, etc. 
donn asse [donas] 
donn asses [donas] 
donn at [dona] 

donn assions [donas j 5] 
donn assiez [donasje] 
donn assent [donas] 

(That) I finished, 
might finish, etc. 
fin isse [finis] 
fin isses [finis] 
fin it [fini] 

fin issions [finisjS] 
fin issiez [finis je] 
fin issent [finis] 

{That) I sold, might 
sell, etc. 
vend isse [vQdis] 
vend isses [vadis] 
vend it [vadi] 

vend issions [vQdisjS] 
vend issiez [vadis je] 
vend issent [vadis] 

151. Imperfect Subjxmctive of avoir, etre 

(That) I had, might have, etc. 
eusse [ys] eussions [ysjo] 
eusses [ys] eussiez [ysje] 
e(it [y] eussent [ys] 

(That) I was, were, might he, etc. 
fusse [fys] fussions [fysjo] 
fusses [fys] fussiez [fysje] 
f<it [fy] fussent [fys] 

152. Tense Sequence. In complex sentences any other 
tense than the present or future (§ 107) in the governing 
clause regularly requires the imperfect subjunctive in the 
governed clause; so also for compound subjunctive tenses, 
the auxiUary in the principal clause being considered as the 

Impf. Je desirais 
P. Dep. Je desired 
P.Ikdef. J'ai desire 
CoNDL. Je desirerais 
Fluff. Pavais desire 

qu'il restat. 

' I was desiring him to remain. 
I desired him to remain. 
I (have) desired him to remain. 
I should desire him to remain. 
I had desired him to remain. 

Note. — The imperfect subjunctive is of very limited use in the 
language of everyday life, being rarely employed except in the hterary 
or elevated style. There is a tendency in tense sequence to avoid the 
imperfect and the pluperfect subjunctive in favor of the present and 
the perfect subjunctive; e.g. j'allais rentrer dans I'eglise en attendant 
qu'il vienne {instead of vint) me chercher. 





le compatriote PcSpatriot] fellow 

la mort [moir] death 
le petit-fils [bptifis] grandflcm 
le prince [pre:s] prince 
la religion [larlisjo] religion 
le rochet [roje] rock {large), 

le sang [sa] blood 
le siicle [sjckl] century 
lesoldat [solda], soldier (mora 

specific than militaire) 

assassine Casasine] assassinated 
dvil [sivil] civil, civilian 
entier [atje] whole, entire 
habitue [abitqe^ accustomed 
montagneuz [m5tap0] moun- 

royal [rwajal] royal 

accepter [akscpte] accept 
s'agir de [8a3i:rd3] be a question 

devoir [davwair] owe 

§lever [elve] bring up 

grimper [grSpe] climb 

lutter [lyte] fi^t, struggle 

mourir [muri:r] die 

nourrir [nuriir] feed 

ordonner [ordone] give orders 

reconnattre [rskonettr] recog- 
nize, acknowledge 

ruiner [rqine] ruin 

yivre [virvr] live 

d' ordinaire [d3rdine:r^ usually 

en soldat [osolda] like a soldier, 

in the r61e of a soldier 

A. (1) 1. II s'a^t de l'6ducation d' Henri IV qui fut roi de 
France au seizi^me si^le. 2. II fut 6\e\€ non (not) en prince, 
mais en soldat. 3. Son grand-pdre ne voulut pas qu'on 
l'6lev&t comme on 616ve d'ordinaire lea enfants de sang royal. 

4. II ordonna qu'on habill&t et qu'on nourrlt son petit-fils 
comme les autres enfants de son pays montagneux de Navarre. 

5. II voulut aussi que le jeune prince v6c<lt (vivre, §211) 
comme ses jeunes compatriotes. 6. II voulut qu'il courOt, 
jou&t, lutt&t avec eux comme s'il n'^tait pas de sang royal. 
7. Et mime il voulut qu'il fM habitu6 k grimper aux arbres 
et k courir sur les rochers pour se faire fort. 8. II d6sira 
que son petit-fils n'eM peur de rien. 

(2) 1. Henri IV devint roi de France en 1589 par la mort de 
son cousin Henri III. 2. II fut le premier roi de la famille 
des Bourbons. 3. La ville de Paris ne voulut pas le recon- 
naltre roi parce qu'il 6tait protestant. 4. Voyant que la 
France enti^re ne voulait pas accepter un roi protestant, et 
qu'il s'£kgissait de ruiner son pays par la guerre civile, s'il con- 


servait sa religion, il se fit catholique. 5. Henri IV fut un 
excellent roi jusqu'au moment oH il mourut assassine en 1610. 

B. (1) a. With what tense of the indicative is the imperfect 
subjunctive evidently to be grouped in formaiionf With what 
tense of the indicative do we group the present subjunctive in 

b. Observe thai the endings of all imperfect subjunctives are 
spelled alike: -sse, -sses, -t, -ssions, -ssiez, -ssent; and that 
the stem vowel preceding the -t of the 3d pers. sing, is always 
spelled with a circumflex accent. 

c. Study the forms of mourir (§174) and of vivre (§211). 
Are there any irregularities in groups 2 and 4 (§ 159) o/ mourir? 

Does the vowel sound represented by eu [oe] occur in those forms 
of mourir that have the stress on the stem or on the ending ? 

d. Point out the phonetic resemblances in the conjugation of 
appeler, mener, venir, mourir, vouloir, pouvoir. 

(2) Study devoir and vouloir (§§214, 225) as in the preceding 
lessons. Group all the forms according to § 159. 

(3) a. Note the various meanings of devoir and vouloir. Devoir* 
may be translated in several ways: 

Combien est-ce que je vous dois? How much do I owe you? 
n me doit 3 fr. 50. He owes me three francs fifty cen- 

Vous devez expliquer clairement You are to explain this sentence 
cette phrase. clearly. 

6. It is less emphatic than il faut. 

Vous devez avoir froid. You must be cold. (It is likely 

that . . .) 
n devait raconter cette histoire. He was to tell that story. 
Le facteur devait passer a 3 h. 10. The postman was to go by at 3:10. 
II dut (a dfi) changer de veston. He had to change his coat. 

* The chief difficiilty with devoir is due to the fact that it is a fully con- 
jugated verb in French, and that the corresponding English verbs {cmght, 
should, must) have only a few forma. The result is that in English we 
have to make up for the missing forms by the use of auxiliaries. The 
same is true of pouvoir and, to a certain extent, of vouloir. 




Le professeur deyrait indiquer la 
le$on d'avance. 

D aurait d& expliquer cette dif- 

Elle a dH changer d'avis. 

Vous auriez dd vous mefier. 

Le facteiir a dd passer sans ap- 
porter de lettres. 

(4) Meanings of vouloir: 

Je ne veuz pas. 
L'oiseau veut entrer. 
Voxilez-vous manger ces miettes 

de pain? 
Le rouge-gorge n'a pas voxJu rester 

plus longtemps. 
Je lui ai demand^ de raconter son 

histoire, mais il n'a pas voiilu. 
Je voudrais (aimerais) discuter la 

question avec euz. 
J'aurais voulu agir autrement. 

n voulait que le prince se mefiAt 
des fenimes. 

The teacher ou^t to (but does 
not) assign the lesson in ad- 

He should have (ou^t to have) 
explained this difficulty. 

She must have (probably has) 
changed her mind. 

You ought to have been on your 

The {xietman must have gone by 
without bringing any letters. 

I will not. 

The bird wants to come in. 

Will you (Do you want to) eat 

these bread crumbs? 
The robin would not stay longer. 

I asked him to tell his story, but 
he wouldn't. 

I should Uke to discuss the ques- 
tion with them. 

I should have liked to act differ- 

He wanted the prince to beware 
of women. 

Note that English * will,* ' should,' ' would,' have a variety of 
meanings, which are therefore expressed in French in variout 
ways, according to the particular case. 

' C. Traduisez: (1) 1. You must know the date of the cap- 
ture of the Bastille. 2. The Bastille must have been a prison. 
3. The French national festival must have had an historical 
origin. 4. The taking of the Bastille was to be the beginning 
of the French revolution. 5. Henry IV was obliged (past def.) 
to become [a] Catholic in order (pour) to be king. 6. You 
should have given the letters to the postman. 7. You ought 
to know that he is to come at 8:35. 


(2) 1. However, if you will not give him the letter, please 
(veuillez) mail it yourself. 2. We begged the robin to come 
in, but he wouldn't. 3. I should Uke the robin and his mate 
to come back {pres. suhj.) every winter. 4. We should hke to 
hear his merry songs again. 5. I have explained the matter 
(affaire) to him, but he will not {two ways, two meanings) 
change his mind. 6. We begged the teacher to explain the 
use (emploi) of these verbs, but he will not or cannot. 7. Say 
what you will (§ 94), he will not change reUgions (sing.). 
8. Do what you will (§94). 

(3) * Beginning with II fut 61ev6 in A, write out the passage in 
the conversational past, making the necessary changes in the verb 
forms, e.g., II a ete eleve, etc. 

(4) * Write out the passage on the basis of the historical present. 

(5) Racontez en frangais, oralement, V Anecdote du rouge-gorge. 

D. Dict6e: Legon XXXVIII, A. 


(1) A quels autres mots pensez-vous quand on dit: la moiti^, 
un franc, de la monnaie, avoir froid, croire, Noel, la Revolu- 
tion frangaise, catholique, le facteur, la m^fiance, le nid, vivre, 
le prince, civil, le printemps? 

(2) Quel est le contraire de: se fier k, vivre, joyeux, gentil, 
avancer, avoir chaud, faire chaud, se rappeler, s'en aller? 

(3) Remplacez le tiret par le mot convenable (' Replace the dash 
by the proper word '): 1, J'ai quatre francs et je vous en donne 

deux; c'est la de ce que j'ai. 2. Louis XVI quand 

la Revolution a commence ; elle a commence pendant son . 

3. Le quatorze juillet est la nationale frangaise. 4. Le 

25 decembre est le jour de . 5. Le I®'" Janvier est le jour 

de . 6. Un homme qui est en prison n'est pas . 

* Note. — In doing (3) and (4), shift the imperfect subjunctives to 
present or perfect subjunctives, consulting the alphabetical Refer- 
ence List, §226, in order to find the proper forms of the irregular 

{ 152 LESSON XXXIX 18d 

7. Le jour de Tan en France on envoie des et on fait 

des . 8. II faut mettre cette lettre k la . 9. Ma 

montre ne marche pas; j'ai dd oublier de la . - 10. Voulez- 

vous corriger lea dans ce devoir? 11. Les enfants aiment 

^ sur les arbres. 12. Les granda-p^res aiment leure , 

13. Henri IV est en 1610. II a 6t6 . 14. Son grand- 

p^re a voulu le prince comme les autres . 15. Le 

voisin se si les betes mangent son bl6. 

(4) Traduisez: pendant, pendant que. Distinguish the latter 
from tandis que. Use the two in sentences. 

(5) Employez daris des phrases: jusqu'^; k cause de; penser 
k, penser de; il s'est agi de; tiens!; d'ailleure; pourtant. 

(6) Traduisez: q& ne va pas, habill6 en soldat, environ cent 
personnes, k six heures precises, couramment, lorsque, jours 
d'^cole, la montre marche mieux, elle retarde d'une heure, 6tre 
d'accord, d'autant plus facilement, avoir beau, h, haute voix, neuf 
fois sur dix. 

(7) Racontez en frangais, oralement, c L'£!ducation et I'histoire 
de Henri IV, roi de France, » en vous servant des expressions et des 
mots suivants: s'agir, ^ucation, seizidme sidcle, Clever, en prince, 
en soldat. Son grand-p^re, vouloir, 61ever, d'ordinaire, enfants 
de sang royal. II ordonna, habiller, nourrir, comme, les enfants, 
pays montagneux. II voulut, jeune prince, courir, jouer, lutter, 

grimper, les arbres. Henri IV, devenir roi en . La ville 

de Paris, ne vouloir pas, reconnaltre, protestant. II s'agissfut, 
miner, pays, guerre civile, se faire catholique. II, 6tre, excellent 
roi, mourir, assassiner en . 

(8) Traduisez: 1. You're joking, aren't you? 2. Tell lum 
from me {use part) that I was joking. 3. That's right! That 
works! 4. It is a question of bringing him up like the son of 
a poor man. 5. However, he is rich. Furthermore, he will 
be king of France some day. 6. What page are we on? At 
what page did we stop yesterday? 7. He lost a third or a 
fourth of his money. 8. I think so. He says so. We think 
not (que non). 9. We have just finished this part of the 
book. 10. It is a question now of remembering what we have 
learned. 11. If we succeed in doing so (le), we shall know 
a good deal of French. 



XL. La Theidre du Matelot 

(The sections indicated give the forms of the irregular verbs.) 

A. Un matelot, h bord d'un vaisseau, ayant ^ eu la maladresse 
de laisser tomber par-dessus le bord une thei^re d' argent, alia ^ 
trouver le capitaine et lui dit ^: « Peut-on * dire ^ d'une chose, 
qu'elle est * perdue ^, lorsqu'on sait ^ ou elle est ^? — Non, mon 
ami. — En ce cas, vous n'avez ^ rien a craindre ^ pour votre 
th^i^re, car je sais ^ qu'elle est * au fond de la mer. » 

1 § 154. » § 193. » § 154. " § 222. « § 190. 

» 5 160. < § 221. • § 210. 

B. Complete the following by conjugating the tense in full, 
repealing also the remainder of the expression along with the verb: 

1. II alia trouver le capitaine. 2. II lui dit. 3. Peut-il dire? 
4. II sait od elle est. 5. Elle est perdue. 6. Vous n'avez 
rien k craindre. 

C. (Oral.) 1. De quelles personnes parle-t-on dans cette 
histoire? 2. Ou 6taient ces personnes? 3. Qu'avait fait le 
matelot? 4. Qu'est-ce que c'est qu'une th^idre? 5. En quoi 
6tait cette th^i^re? 6. A qui 6tait-elle? 7. Oh 6tait-elle 
tomb^e? 8. Savait-on ou elle 6tait? 9. fitait-elle alors vrai- 
ment perdue? 10. Mais quel 6tait I'argument du matelot? 

D. 1. The sailor was so clumsy as to let the teapot fall. 

2. If you let a silver teapot fall into the sea, it is lost. 3. Go 
to the captain. 4. I went to the captain. 5. Tell him that 
the teapot is not lost. 6. The captain will say: " My good 
fellow, did you drop my silver teapot into the sea? " 7. When 
we are on board of a ship we do not let teapots fall into the 
sea. 8. Where is the teapot? 9. I do not know where it is. 
10. No one finds teapots at the bottom of the sea. 


XLI. L'Arabe et les Perles 

A. Un Arabe, 6gar6 dans le desert, n'avait * pas mang^ ' 
depuis deux jours, et se voyait ' menace * de mourir * de faim. 
En passant prha d'un de ces puits oii les caravanes viennent' 
abreuver leurs chameaux, il voit * sur le sable un petit sac de 
cuir. II le ramaase et le tfite. t Allah soit ^ b^ni *! dit-il »; 
ce sont,' je crois,*" des dattes ou des noisettes. » Plein de cette 
douce esp6rance, il se hdte d'ouvrir " le sac; mais, k la vue de 
ce qu'il contient **: « H61as! 8'6crie-t-il douloureusement, ce ne 
sent ' que des perles! » 

> J 154. « § 166. M 164- • I 193. " | 17fi. 

» I 156. • 8 174. • § 163. ' » I 191. » 1 177. 

» { 224. • S 178. 

B. Complete the following, cu in the preceding exercise: 1. II 
n'avait pas mang^. 2. II se voyait menace. 3. lis viennent. 
4. II voit son sac. 5. II le t&te. 6. Qu'il soit b^ni! 7. Je 
le crois. 8. II se h&te d'ouvrir le sac. 9. II s'^cria. 

Relate the story in the first person singular, thus: c figar^ 
dans le d6sert, je n'avais pas, » etc. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Od demeurent les Arabes? 2. Oil est I'Arabie? 
3. Od s'^tait 6gar6 I'Arabe? 4. Est-ce qu'il y a beaucoup de 
deserts dans ce pays? 5. Dans quel 6tat se trouvait I'Arabe? 
6. Par oil passait-il? 7. Qu'est-ce qu'il a vu? 8. Qu'est-ce 
qu'il y avait dans le sac? 9. fitait-il content de trouver les 
perles? 10. Est-ce que les perles ne sont pas des choses pr^ 
cieuses? 11. Qu'est-ce qu'il esp^rait trouver dans le sac? 
12. Pourquoi pr6f6rait-il des noisettes k des perles? 13. Les- 
quelles pr6f6reriez-vous maintenant? 

D. 1. The Arab has lost his way. 2. If we had not eaten 
for two days, we should be hungry. 3. We saw ourselves 
threatened with starvation. 4. The caravans will come to 
water their camels at the well. 5. We shall water our camels. 
6. If I saw pearls on the sand, I should pick them up. 7. He 
felt the dates in the bag. 8. If there had been hazelnuts in 
the leathern bag, he would have hastened to open it. 9. But 
the bag did not contain nuts, it contained only pearls. 10. At 
the sight of that he exclaimed: "I shall die of hunger." 


XLII. Le Paysan et les Epis de B16 

A. Un paysan accompagne de son fils, le petit Augusta, alia ^ 
un jour visiter ses champs pour voir ^ dans quel 6tat 6tait ' 
son h\6. lis arriverent k un champ ou certains epis se te- 
naient * droits tandis que d'autres 6taient ' lourdement inclines 
vers la terre. Auguste s'^cria: « Quel dommage que ces 6pis 
soient ' si courbes! Combien je pr6fere ^ ceux-la qui sont ' 
vigoureux et droits. » Le pere prit ^ deux des 6pis, les roula 
entre ses doigts pour faire'' sortir ^ le grain, et r^pondit^: 
« Regarde un peu mon enfant; ces 6pis courbes sont ^ pleins 
du meilleur ble, car c'est ^ le poids qui fait ^ pencher leur tete, 
tandis que ceux qui la reinvent ^° si fierement sont ^ vides et ne 
valent ^^ rien. » 

1 § 160. ■• § 177. • § 202. * § 166. " § 158. 

2 § 224. » § 168. 7 § 195. • § 210. " § 223. 
» § 154. 

B. Complete the following, as above: 1. II alia visiter ses 
champs. 2. lis arriverent k un champ. 3. lis se tenaient 
droits. 4. II s'^cria. 5. Quel dommage qu'ils soient si 
courbes! 6. Je pr^fere ceux-la. 7. II en prit deux. 8. II 
fait pencher leur t^te. 9. lis ne valent rien. 

Give the present indicative in full of : 1. Alia. 2. Se tenaient. 
3. Prit. 4. Fait. 5. Valent. 

Relaie the story, substituting the past indefinite for the past 
definite, thus: « Un paysan ... est all6 visiter, » etc. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Qu'est-ce que c'est qu'un paysan? 2. Oil ce 
paysan est-il all6? 3. Est-ce qu'il 6tait seul? 4. Qui est all6 
avec lui? 5. Pourquoi sont-ils all6s aux champs? 6. Com- 
ment se tenaient certains 6pis dans les champs qu'ils ont 
visit^s? 7. Tons les 6pis se tenaient-ils droits? 8. Comment 
les autres se tenaient-ils? 9. Quels 6pis pr^f^rait le petit 
Auguste? 10. Qu'est-ce qu'il s'est 6cri6? 11. Lesquels pr6- 
f6rez-vous? 12. Pourquoi les pr6f^rez-vous? 13. Lesquels 
des 6pis 6taient courbes? 14. Qu'est-ce qui leur faisait pen- 


cher la tete? 15. Pourquoi les autres se tenaient-ib si droits? 
16. Lesquels valent le plus? 17. Comment le pdre a-t-il d6- 
montr6 cela k son fik? 18. Les personnes fieres valent-elles 
ordinairement grand'chose? 19. Pr6f6rez-vous les personnes 

D. 1. I am going to see the fields. 2. If you were to go 
and visit the fields, in what condition would you find the 
wheat? 3. We reach the field where the wheat is standing 
upright. 4. Some of the ears of wheat are heavily weighted. 

5. Why do you exclaim: " What a pity they are so bent down?" 

6. You prefer those that are standing upri^t, do you? 7. Hold 
yourself upright, 8. Take two ears of wheat. 9. Rub 
the grain out. 10. The best wheat is not in the upright ears. 

11. The full ears are bent, while the empty ears are upright. 

12. Just look, my boy, the upright ears are empty. 13. Full 
heads are worth a great deal, but empty heads are worth nothing. 
14. Do you not observe Uie same thing amongst men as among 
the ears of wheat? 

Use either the past definite or the jmst indefinite for the not' 
rative tenses of the following: 

E. Little Augustus went one day to the fields. He went 
with his father who was going to see whether his wheat was 
ripe. They arrived at a wheat field. Augustus observed that 
certain ears of wheat were bent down towards the earth. He 
observed also that others held themselves upright. He said 
to his father: " Look at those ears of wheat. What a pity 
they are so bent down! I prefer those which hold them- 
selves upright." His father wished to teach him a lesson. 
He took two of the ears of wheat and rolled them between 
his fingers. The one was empty and was worth nothing. The 
other was full of good wheat. Then he said: " Look, my boy, 
this ear which raised its head so proudly was almost empty. 
On the contrary, this other which was so bent down was full 
of the best grain. We observe the same thing amongst men. 
Those who are proud have an (the) empty head. They are 
worth nothing. On the contrary, those who are modest and 
humble are generally the best." 


XLni. Le Tresor du Labouretir 

A. Un laboureur etant sur le point de mourir ^, et voulant ' 
donner a ses enfants une derniere preuve de sa tendresse, les 
fit 2 venir * aupres de lui, et leur dit *: « Mes enfants, apres 
moi vous aurez le champ que mon pere a possed6®, le champ 
qui m'a servi "^ k Clever ^ et ^ nourrir ma famille. Cherchez 
bien dans ce champ, et vous trouverez un tr6sor. » 

Les enfants, apres la mort de leur pere, se mirent ' ^ retour- 
ner le champ en tons sens, bechant, labourant la terre. lis 
n'y trouverent ni or ni argent; mais la terre bien remu6e, bien 
labouree, produisit ^° une moisson abondante. Le sage vieillard 
ne les avait pas tromp6s; il leur avait enseign^ que le travail 
est un tresor. 

1 § 174. 8 § 195. » I 193. ■> § 166. » § 198. 

« § 225. •• § 178. • § 158. s § 153. 10 § ig5_ 

B. Complete the following, as above: 1. II les fit venir aupres 
de lui. 2. lis se mirent a retourner le champ. 3. II produisit 
une moisson. 4. II ne les avait pas tromp^s. 

Give the future and the past definite in full of: 1. Mourir. 
2. Voulant. 3. Fit. 4. Venir. 5. Dit. 6. Servir. 

C. (Oral.) 1. De quelles personnes parle I'histoire? 
2. Qu'est-ce (que c'est) qu'un laboureur? 3. Ce laboureur-ci 
6tait-il un jeune homme? 4. Dans quel 6tat se trouvait-il? 
5. Qu'est-ce qu'il allait laisser a ses enfants? 6. Avait-il 
achate ce champ? 7. £tait-ce un bon champ? 8. Quel con- 
seil le laboureur a-t-il donn6 h. ses enfants? 9. Ont-ils bien 
cherch6? 10. Est-ce qu'ils y ont trouve de I'or? IL Leur 
pere les avait-il tromp6s, alors? 12. Quel tr6sor ont-ils trouv6? 
13. Quelle est la morale de I'histoire? 

D. 1. The father gave his children a proof of his love. 2. He 
called his children into his presence. 3. The children will 
own the field after the father. 4. The children dug up and 
plowed the field. 5. Stir the land, and it will produce a 
harvest. 6. If you plow this field, you will find a treasure. 
7. It will not be silver or gold, but it will be a good harvest. 


8. Your father is not deceiving you, he is teaching you a good 

E. A husbandman, who was at the point of death, wished to 
teach his children that labor is a treasure. Calling his chil- 
dren into his presence, he told them that they would have the 
field which his father had owned. It was a good field, and it 
had fed his father and his father's family. If they would 
seek in it, they would find a treasure there. After the old 
man's death, the children dug everywhere in the field, but 
they found no treasure. There was no gold or silver, but they 
stirred the land so well that they had an abundant harvest. 
They had not been deceived. Their father had taught them a 
good lesson. 

XLIV. Louis XIV et Jean Bart 

A. Louis XIV, traversant avec sa cour la galerie de Ver- 
sailles, apergoit * Jean Bart fumant sa pipe dans I'embrasure 
d'une fenfire ouverte *; il le fait' appeler*, et lui dit ' d'un 
ton affoctueux: • Jean Bart, je viens* de vous nommer chef 
d'escadre. — Vous avez bien fait ', sire, r^pondit ^ le marin en 
continuant de fumer tranquillement sa pipe. • Cette brusque 
r^ponse ayant excite parmi les sots courtisans un grand 6clat 
de rire: t Vous vous trompez, messieurs, leur dit ' gravement 
le roi, cette r^ponse est celle d'un homme qui sent ' ce qu'il 
vaut ', et qui compte m'en donner bient6t de nouvelles preuves. 
Sans doute, Jean Bart ne parle pas comme vous; mais qui de 
vous pent ^'^ faire * ce que fait » Jean Bart? » 

» § 213. « § 195. » S 193. » S 210. • § 223. 

* i 176. « § 158. • 5 178. • 5 166. >» § 221. 

B. Complete the following, as above: 1. H apergoit Jean Bart. 
2. II le fait appeler. 3. Je viens de le nommer. 4. Vous 
avez bien fait. 5. Vous vous trompez. 6. II sent ce qu'il 
vaut. 7. II ne parle pas comme les autres. 8. Je ne peux faire 
ce que fait Jean Bart. 9. II continue de fumer tranquillement. 
10. II leur dit gravement. 11. Comptez-vous donner de nouvelles 
preuves ? 


Give the imperfect indicative and the imperfect subjunctive of. 
1. Apergoit. 2. Fait. 3. Dit. 4. Viens. 5. Sent. 6. Nomme. 
7. Repondit. 8. Vaut. 9. Appelle. 10. Pennit. 11. Montre. 
12. Continuant. i 

C. (Oral.) 1. Qui 6tait Louis XIV? 2. O^ est Versailles? 
3. Qu'est-ce que c'^tait autrefois? 4. Quel est I'autre person- 
nage de notre histoire? 5. Quelle 6tait sa profession? 6. fitait- 
il, ce jour-la, a bord de son vaisseau? 7. Qu'est-ce qu'il faisait 
qui montrait qu'il n'etait pas courtisan? 8. De quelle fagon le 
roi a-t-il montre qu'il n'en etait pas m^content? 9. Quelle 
sorte de r^ponse Jean Bart a-t-il faite au roi? 10. Quelle im- 
pression a-t-elle faite sur les courtisans? 11. Quelle en 6tait 
I'opinion du roi? 12. Pourquoi 6tait-il permis k Jean Bart, et 
non pas aux courtisans, de faire une brusque r^ponse? 

D. 1. The king sends for Jean Bart. 2. I shall call him. 
3. We have just called Jean Bart. 4. The king had just 
appointed him rear admiral. 5. A great outburst of laughter 
was excited by Jean Bart's blunt answer. 6. The king did not 
appoint the silly courtiers rear admirals. 7. We are mis- 
taken; it is not a blunt answer. 8. Do not make a mistake. 
9. The silly courtiers did not make blunt answers, because 
they did not feel their own worth. 10. Jean Bart hopes soon 
to give the king new proofs of his worth. 11. We cannot do 
what Jean Bart did. 

E. Jean Bart was coolly smoking his pipe in the embrasure 
of a window in the palace (chiteau) of Versailles, as the king, 
accompanied by his courtiers, was passing through the great 
gallery. The king sent for the brave sailor, and told him that 
he had just been appointed rear admiral. The sailor's blunt 
reply: " You have done well, sire," caused a burst of laughter 
among those who were with the king. But Louis knew that 
it was the reply of a man who would soon give proofs of his 
worth. Jean Bart did not talk like a courtier, but he did 
what courtiers could not do. At that time Jean Bart was 
already forty-one years old and it was late for him (pour qu'il) 
to change the habits of his youth. 


XLV. La Fourmi et le Brin d'Herbe 

A. J'ai vu * une petite fourmi qui allait * 9^ et li cherchant 
fortune. Elle a rencontr^ sur son chemin un brin d'lierbe 
qu'elle voudrait ' bien emporter; mais comment faire *? II est 
si gros, et elle est si faible. Alors elle est mont6e sur un 
caillou, du haut duquel elle regarde la campagne, comme du 
haut d'une tour. Elle regarde, elle regarde; enfin elle a 
apergu * deux de ses compagnes qui passent par 1^, et elle 
court • k elles. Elle se frotte le nez contre leur nez pour leur 
dire': « Venez ' vite avec moi; il y a par l^ quelque chose de 
bon! » Les trois fourmis se pr6cipitent vers le brin d'herbe et 
le saisissent. Ce que Tune ne pouvait • faire *, les trois le font * 
ars^mcnt, et elles emportent en triomphe le brin devenu"" 
16ger pour elles. 

» 5 224. » J 225. • § 213. » ( 193. • f 221. 

M 160. * i 195. • J 164. • I 17a "» § 178. 

B. Complete the following, as above: 1. Elle allait qk et 1^. 
2. Elle voudrait bien I'emporter. 3. Elle est mont^. 4. Elle 
court k elles. 5. Elle se frotte le nez. 6. Venez. 7. Elles 
se pr6cipitent. 8. Elles le saisissent. 9. Elle ne pouvait pas 
le faire. 10. Elles le font ais^ment. 

Give in full the past definite of: 1. Vu. 2. Rencontr6. 3. Re- 
gard6. 4. Apergu. 5. Court. 6. Se pr^cipitent. 7. Font. 

Beginning at the second sentence, relate the story in the past 
definite, thus: t Elle rencontra, » etc. 

C. {Oral.) 1. De quel insecte parle-t-on ici? 2. Qu'est-ce 
qu'elle faisait? 3. Qu'est-ce qu'elle a rencontr^ sur son 
chemin? 4. Le brin d'herbe 6tait-il gros ou petit? 5. Et la 
fourmi 6tait-elle forte ou faible? 6. Qu'est-ce que la fourmi 
aurait voulu faire? 7. Est-ce qu'elle pouvait le faire toute 
seule? 8. Oil est-elle mont^? 9. Qu'est-ce qu'elle a regard^ 
du haut du caillou? 10. Pour la fourmi le caillou 6tait comme 
une tour, n'est-ce pas? 11. Qu'est-ce qu'elle apergoit enfin? 
12. Que faisaient les deux compagnes de la fourmi? 13. Et 
la fourmi qu'est-ce qu'elle a fait? 14. Est-ce qu'elle leur a 
parl6? 15. Comment leur a-t-elleparl6? 16. Qu'est-ce qu'elle 


leur a dit? 17. Quelle est la premiere chose qu'ont faite les 
trois fourmis? 18. Et ensuite qu'ont-elles fait? 19. Une 
fourmi pouvait-elle emporter le brin d'herbe? 20. Les trois 
fourmis ensemble pouvaient-elles le faire ais^ment? 21. Pour- 
quoi le brin d'herbe est-il devenu leger? 

D. A little ant was going hither and thither one day. She 
found a blade of grass on the road. " This blade of grass is 
very big," thought the ant. " I am too weak to carry it off 
alone. I know what I shall do. I shall chmb upon a pebble. 
From the top of the pebble I shall look around. The pebble 
will be for me like a tall tower." She did so. She looked 
about her a long time. At last she saw two of her compan- 
ions. They were passing along (par) the same road. She 
called them, and they ran to her. She said to them: " Come 
here, for I have found something good." She said this by 
rubbing her nose against theirs. Ants, as you know, cannot 
5peak like men. After that the three ants rushed towards 
the blade of grass. They seized it quickly. It had been very 
heavy for one ant. But the three together carried it off easily. 

XLVI. Le Bon Samaritain 

A. Un homme descendit ^ de Jerusalem a Jericho, et tomba 
parmi des brigands, qui le depouillerent. Apres I'avoir bless^ 
de plusieurs coups, ils s'en allerent ^, le laissant a demi mort.' 
Un pr^tre, qui par hasard descendait ^ par ce chemin-la, I'ayant 
vu *, passa outre. Un Invite, venant ^ aussi dans le meme 
endroit, et le voyant *, passa outre. Mais un Salharitain, 
qui voyageait ^, vint ^ vers cet homme, et le voyant *, f ut 
touch6 de compassion. S'approchant de lui, il banda ses 
plaies, et il y versa de I'huile et du vin; puis il le mit ' sur sa 
monture, le mena ^ k une auberge, et prit ^ soin de lui. Le 
lendemain, en partant^", il tira de sa poche deux deniers d'ar- 
gent, et les donnant h I'aubergiste, lui dit^^: « Aie soin de lui, 
et tout ce que tu d^penseras de plus je te le rendrai ^ £1, mon 
retour. » 

» § 210. •• § 224. « § 156. 8 § 158. i" § 166. 

« § 160. « § 178. » § 198. » § 202. " § 193. 

" § 174. 


B. Complete the foUomng, as above: 1. II descendit. 2. lis 
le d6pouill6rent. 3. lis s'en alldrent. 4. II descendit par ce 
chemin. 5. II passa outre. 6. II vint vers cet homme. 7. II 
y versa de I'liiiile. 8. II le mit sur sa monture. 9. II prit 
soin de lui. 

Give the present indicative and present subjunctive of: 1. S'en 
alldrent. 2. Mort. 3. Venant. 4. Voyant. 5. Mit. 

C. (Oral.) 1. D'oCl a-t-on tir6 cette histoire? 2. Com- 
ment s'appelle I'histoire? 3. Oil sont Jerusalem et Jericho? 

4. Est-ce que la terre sainte est un grand ou un petit pays? 

5. Qu'ont fait les brigands au voyageur? 6. En quel ^tat se 
trouvait-il apr^s leur d6part? 7. Quelles personnes sont venues 
ensuite? 8. Qu'est-ce qu'elles ont fait? 9. Qui est venu 
apr6s le prStre et le 16vite? 10. Est-ce que les Samaritains 
6taient bien aim63 des Juifs? 11. Est-ce que cela a empdch^ 
le Samaritain de faire le bien? 12, Qu'est-ce qu'il a fait au 
Juif? 13. Apr^s I'avoir 8oign6 qu'a-t-il fait? 14. Qu'a-t-il 
donn6 k I'aubergiste? 15. En quittant I'auberge, qu'a-t-il dit? 

D. 1. If we fall among thieves, they will strip us. 2. After 
having wounded us they will depart. 3. If you should see a 
poor traveler half dead, would you pass by on the other side? 
4. If the priest had been touched with compassion, he would 
have bound up the wounds. 5. Let us pour oil and wine into 
his wounds. 6. Let us put the poor man on our own beast. 
7. Let us take him to the inn. 8. Let us take care of him 
there. 9. The next day we shall give money to the inn- 
keeper. 10. On our return we shall give him back whatever 
he shall have spent for our friend. 

E. A man, who was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, 
fell among thieves. They stripped him and wounded him, 
and left him half dead. Then a priest and a Levite came by 
chance to the same place, and they saw him and passed by on 
the other side. But a Samaritan, who was going down by 
that road, saw him, and was touched with compassion. Then, 
after having bound up his wounds, he put him on his beast 
and took him to an inn. On the morrow he gave money to 


the innkeeper, and said that on his return he would give the 
innkeeper whatever he should spend if he took care of the 
poor man. 

XLVn. M. Laffitte et I'Epingle 

A. Lorsque M. Laffitte, le fameux banquier, vint* k Paris, 
en 1788, a I'age de 21 ans, toute son ambition se bornait k ob- 
tenir ^ une petite place dans une maison de banque. II se 
presenta chez un riche banquier. « Impossible de vous ad- 
mettre ^ chez moi, du moins pour le moment, lui dit * le banquier: 
mes bureaux sont au complet. » Le jeune homme salue et se 
retire. En traversant la cour, il apergoit ^ a terre une ^pingle, 
et la ramasse. Debout devant la fenetre de son cabinet le 
riche banquier avait suivi ^ des yeux la retraite du jeune homme. 
II lui vit ^ ramasser I'Epingle et ce trait lui fit ^ plaisir. Le soir 
meme le jeune homme regut^ un billet du banquier, qui lui 
disait *: « Vous avez une place dans mes bureaux; vous pou- 
vez ^ venir^ I'occuper des demain, » Le jeune homme devint ^ 
bientdt caissier, puis associ6, puis mattre, de la premiere maison 
de banque de Paris, et enfin homme d'fitat tr^s influent sous 

» § 178. s § 198. e § 213. » § 224. » § 221. 

«§177. <§193. «§206. 8 §195. 

B. Complete the following, as above: 1. II vint k Paris. 
2. EUe se bornait k cela. 3. II se presenta chez le banquier. 
4. II se retire. 5. II apergoit k terre une 6pingle. 6. II I'avait 
suivi des yeux. 7. II vit ramasser I'Epingle. 8. II regut un 
billet. 9. II lui disait. 10. Vous pouvez venir. 11. II de- 
vint mattre. 

Give in full the future and conditional of: 1. Tenir. 2. Ad- 
mettre. 3. Apergoit. 4. Suivi. 5. Vit. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Quel age avait M. Laffitte k son arriv^e k 
Paris? 2. Qu'est-ce qu'il cherchait? 3. R6ussit-il d'abord k 
trouver une place? 4. Oil se pr6senta-t-il? 5. Que lui a-t-on 
dit? 6. En se retirant ou va-t-il? 7, Qu'est-ce qu'il trouve? 
8. Qui I'a vu? 9. En 6tait-il content? 10. De quelle fagon 

LESSON xLvm 201 

a-t-il montr^ son contentement? 11. Qu'est devenu le jeune 
homme par la suite? 12. Quelle est la morale de I'histoire? 

D. 1. If your ambition is only to get a humble position, 
you will get it. 2. Present yourself at the oflSce of the rich 
banker. 3. He will admit you into his employ. 4. His 
offices are not full. 5. Do you see that pin on the ground? 
6. Pick it up. 7. There is the rich banker standing at his 
office window. 8. The banker is watching the young man as 
he retires. 9. If we see him pick up a pin, it (cela) will please 
us. 10. Did you receive a note from the banker? 11. You 
shall have a position in his banking-house. 12. You will 
soon become his partner, will you not? 13. Those who pick 
up pins may become statesmen. 

E. When M. Laffitte was twenty-one years of age he came 
to Paris. He wished to get a humble position with a rich 
banker. But when he presented himself, the rich banker told 
him that his offices were full, and that he could not admit 
him. He withdrew. The rich banker watched him from his 
office window, and saw him pick up a pin which he noticed on 
the ground as he was crossing the yard. This action pleased 
the banker. That very evening he sent a note to the young 
mftn, which said that he could have a position in his offices 
the very next day. The young man became head of a great 
banking-house, and at last an influential statesman. 

XLVm. Le SifBet de Benjamin Franklin 

A. Benjamin Franklin raconte I'anecdote suivante ^: t Quand 
j'^tais un enfant de cinq ou six ans, mes amis, un jour de fete, 
remplirent ma petite poche de sous. Je partis * tout de suite 
pour une boutique oil Ton vendait ' des jouets. Chemin faisant *, 
je vis ' dans les mains d'un autre petit gar^on un sifflet, dont 
le son me charma. Je lui donnai en ^change tout mon argent. 
Revenu* chez moi, fort content de mon achat, sifflant par 
toute la maison, je fatiguai les oreilles de toute la famille. 

» 5 206. » § 210. » § 224. 

* § 166. « S 195. • i 17& 


Mes fr^res et mes soeurs apprenant^ que j 'avals tout donn6 
pour un mauvais instrument, me dirent ^ que je I'avais pay6 ^ 
dix f ois plus cher qu'il ne valait *. Alors ils enumererent ^ 
toutes les jolies choses que j'aurais pu ^ achetor * avec mon 
argent si j 'avals et6 plus prudent. lis me tournerent tellement 
en ridicule que j'en pleural. Cependant, cet accident fut de 
quelque utillte pour moi. Lorsque plus tard j'etais tent6 
d'acheter ^ quelque chose qui ne m'etait pas n6cessaire, je 
disais^ en mol-meme: Ne donnons pas trop pour le sifflet, et 
j'epargnais mon argent. » 

1 § 202. » § 157. 6 I 158. 

2 § 193. * § 223. 6 § 221. 

B. Complete the following, as above: 1. Quand j'etais un, 
enfant. 2. lis remplirent ma poche. 3. Je partis tout de 
suite. 4. Je vis un sifflet. 5. Je fatigual tous mes amis. 
6. Je remplis mes poches, tu remplis tes poches, etc. 7. lis 
me dirent, ils te dirent, etc. 8. Je disals en mol-meme, tu . 
disais en tol-meme, etc. ^ 

C. (Oral.) 1. Qui etait Benjamin Franklin? 2. A quelle 
6poque vivalt-il? 3. Quel age avait-il a I'epoque de I'anecdote? 
4. Qu'est-ce qu'il avait dans sa poche? 5. Qui le lui avait 
donne? 6. Pour quel endroit est-il parti ensuite? 7. Y est-il 
jamais arrive? 8. Quel 6talt I'obstacle? 9. Qu'est-ce qu'il a 
fait de son argent? 10. A son retour chez lui, qu'est-ce qu'il 
a fait? 11. A-t-il charme ses freres et ses sceurs? 12. Est-ce 
qu'il avait pay6 assez cher son sifflet? 13. Est-ce que la 
famille etait contente de son achat? 14. De quelle fagon la 
famille a-t-elle fait voir son m^contentement? 15. Le pauvre 
Franklin 6tait-ll content h la fin? 16. Quelle legon FrankUn 
a-t-il regue par cet accident? 

D. 1. You have paid twice as much for that apple as it is 
worth. 2. If you pay ten cents for that pencil, that will be 
three times as much as it is worth. 3. Never pay more for 
things than they are worth. 4. We could have bought many 
pretty things with our money, if we had been prudent. 5. If 
our friend had been less prudent, he could not have bought so 
many pretty things. 6. That accident will be of some use to 


our friends. 7. When we are (ftU.) tempted to buy some- 
thing which is not necessary for us, we shall say to ourselves: 
" We are not going to give too much for the whistle." 

E. When Benjamin Franklin was five years old, his brother, 
on a holiday, filled his pockets with coppers. Starting off at 
once for a shop where toys were sold, he met on the way 
another Uttle boy who had a whistle. The sound of the in- 
strument charmed him, and he gave all his money to have it. 
He was much pleased with his purchase, but he whistled so 
much all over the house that he tired the whole family. His 
brothers and sisters asked him where he had bought his whistle 
and how much he had paid for it. He told them he had given 
all his money to the little boy. Then they told him he had 
paid too much for it. They said too that if he had been more 
prudent, he could have bought ten times as many pretty things, 
and he cried on account of it. But the affair was of some use 
to him later on. Whenever he was tempted to buy things 
which he did not need, he would always say to himself: " I 
will not give too much for the whistle." 

XLIX- Henri IV et le Paysan 

A. Henri IV, dans une chasse, s'6tant 6cart^, suivant* sa 
coutume, de ses gardes et de sa cour, rencontra un paysan 
assis ' sous un arbre. « Que fais-tu * li? lui dit * le prince. — 
J'6tais venu * ici dds le point du jour, pour voir • passer le roi, 
r^pondit^ le paysan; sans ce d^sir, je serais i labourer mon 
champ, qui n'est pas fort 61oign6. — Si tu veux ' monter sur la 
croupe de mon cheval, lui r6pliqua Henri, je te conduirai • oil 
est le roi, et tu le verras • k ton aise. i» 

Le paysan, enchants, profite de la rencontre, monte k c6t^ 
du roi, et demande, chemin faisant ', comment il pourra "• recon- 
naltre " le roi. t Tu n'auras qu'^ regarder celui qui sera cou- 
vert*' pendant que tons les autres auront la tete nue. » 

Enfin le moment arrive oil le roi rejoint"" une partie de sa 
cour et se trouve parmi ses courtisans; tous se d^couvrent", 

» § 206. * § 193. » 5 210. "» § 221. " § 170. 

» § 215. » § 178. • § 225. " 8 188. " § 190. 

* i 195. • § 224. • i 185. 


excepts lui. Alors il demande au paysan: « Eh bien, quel est 
le roi? — Ma foi, monsieur, lui r6pondit-il ^, c'est vous ou moi, 
car il n'y a que nous deux qui ayons le chapeau sur la tete. » 

1 § 210. 

B. Complete the following, as above: 1. J'^tais venu. 2. Tu 
veux voir le roi. 3. Tu le verras k ton aise. 4, II pourra 
reconnaitre le roi. 5. II sera convert. 6. II rejoint les 
courtisans. 7. lis se d^couvrent. 8. II n'y a que nous qui 

C. (Oral.) 1. Qui ^tait Henri IV? 2. A quelle 6poque 
vivait-il? 3. Quelle 6tait sa coutume quand il 6tait a la 
chasse? 4. Qui a-t-il rencontr^ un jour? 5. Qu'est-ce que 
c'est qu'un paysan? 6. Que faisait le paysan? 7. Depuis 
combien de temps y 6tait-il? 8. Pourquoi y 6tait-il venu? 
9. S'il n'6tait pas venu ou aurait-il 6t6? 10. Qu'est-ce que le 
roi a propose au paysan? 11. Le paysan a-t-il accepts? 

12. Qu'est-ce que le paysan a demand^ au roi en chemin? 

13. Quel 6tait le signe par lequel on reconnattrait le roi? 

14. Ou le roi et le paysan arrivent-ils bientot? 15. Qu'est-ce 
que les courtisans ont fait a leur approche? 16. Combien 
de personnes restaient couvertes? 17. Et combien de rois y 
avait-il dans la compagnie? 

D. 1. We have wandered from the court. 2. If the king 
had not wandered from the court, he would not have met the 
peasant. 3. We came here at the very peep of day. 4. I 
have not seen the king go by. 5. The peasants are busy 
plowing the field. 6. If you get up beside me, you will see 
the king. 7. As they went along, the peasant said to the 
king: " Take me where the king is." 8. Everybody had his 
hat on, and we could not recognize the king. 9. If the 
courtiers had taken off their hats, we could have recognized 
the king. 

E. One day Henry IV had wandered from his courtiers. 
Meeting a peasant who was sitting under a tree, he asked 
the latter what he was doing there. The peasant replied that 
he had beeu there since daybreak, and that he wished to see 


the king, and that if he had not come, he would be busy 
plowing his field. The king said to him: " Get up behind 
me, and I shall take you where you can see the king." The 
peasant was delighted, and got up beside the king. As they 
went along, he asked how he should recognize the king, and 
the king told him to look at the one who should have his hat 
on, while the others should be bareheaded. When they ar- 
rived where the cOurtiers were, the latter took off their hats. 
Then the king asked the peasant which was the king. He 
replied: " We two have our hats on, the others are bare- 
headed: it is you or I." 

L. Thomas et les Cerises 

A. Un paysan traversait la campagne avee son fils Thomas, 
t Regarde! lui dit-il * en chemin, voili par terre un fer k cheval 
perdu *, ramasse-le! » 

€ Bah! r^pondit * Thomas, 11 ne vaut • pas la peine de se 
baisser pour si peu de chose! » Le p6re ne dit * rien, ramassa 
le fer et le mit * dans sa poche. Arriv6 au village voisin, il le 
vendit * pour quelques centimes au mar^chal ferrant, et acheta ' 
des cerises avec cet argent. 

Cela fait •, ils se remirent * en route. Le soleil ^tait br^ilant. 
Thomas mourait ^ de soif , et avait de la peine k poursuivre • 
son chemin. Le pdre, qui marchait le premier, laissa, comme 
par hasard, tomber une cerise. Thomas la ramassa avec em- 
pressement, et la mangea '. Quelques pas plus loin, une seconde 
cerise s'^chappa des mains du p^re, et Thomas la saisit avec 
le m^me empressement. Le p^re fit ' de m^me avec toutes les 
cerises. Lorsque I'enfant eut port^ k la bouche la derni^re 
cerise, le p^re se retouma et lui dit *: « Vois *", mon ami, tu n'as 
pas voulu " te baisser une fois pour ramasser le fer k cheval, et 
tu as 6i6 oblige " de te baisser plus de vingt fois pour ramasser 
les cerises. » 

» S 193. < J 198- » § 174. • § 156. u j 225. 

» i 210. » § 158. • § 206. «> 5 224. " § 156. 

» 5 223. • § 195. 

B. Complete the following, as above: 1. II ne dit rien. 2. II 


vendit le fer, 3. II mourait de soif. 4. II mangea une 
cerise. 5. II la saisit. 6. II fit de meme. 7. lis se remirent 
en route. 8. II s'echappa de ses mains. 9. II se retourna. 
10. Tu t'es baisse. 

C. (Oral.) 1. De quelles personnes parle-t-on dans cette his- 
toire? 2. Qu'est-ce que c'est qu'un paysan? 3. Etait-il seul? 
4. Qu'est-ce qu'ils ont vu en chemin? 5. Qu'est-ce que c'est 
qu'un fer a cheval? 6. Qu'est-ce que le pere a dit au fils? 
7. Qu'est-ce que le fils a repondu? 8. Lequel des deux 6tait 
le plus prudent? 9. Par quelle action a-t-il montr6 sa pru- 
dence? 10. A qui a-t-on vendu le fer a cheval? 11. Pour- 
quoi I'a-t-on vendu k un marechal ferrant? 12. Qu'est-ce 
qu'on a achet6 avec I'argent? 13. Quel temps faisait-il? 

14. Quel 6tait I'effet de la chaleur sur le petit Thomas? 

15. Est-ce que le pere n'avait rien pour la soif? 16. Est-ce 
que les cerises sont bonnes pour la soif? 17. Qu'est-ce que le 
p^re a fait des cerises? 18. Et qu'est-ce que son fils en a fait? 
19. Combien en a-t-il mangles? 20. Pourquoi aurait-il mieux 
fait de se baisser pour le fer a cheval? 

D. 1. It was not worth the trouble. 2. It will not be 
worth the trouble. 3. If it is worth the trouble, we shall 
pick up the horseshoe. 4. Put the horseshoe into your pocket 
and buy cherries. 5. We shall set out again on our journey. 
6. If the sun is hot, they will not set out again. 7. I am 
very thirsty (dying with thirst) ; give me some cherries. 8. We 
have difficulty in picking up the cherries. 9. If you are dying 
with thirst, I shall drop a cherry. 10. The cherries are on the 
ground; pick them up. 11. If you walk ahead, will you pick 
up the cherries? 12. A few steps farther on, I stooped to 
pick up the horseshoe. 13. Why did you seize the horseshoe 
so eagerly? 14. We did not seize it eagerly. 15. If you had 
been wilUng to turn around, we should have given you the 
cherries. 16. Stoop, if you wish to pick them up. 

E. As a peasant and his son were crossing the country, 
they saw a horseshoe on the ground. The father told his son 
to pick it up and put it into his pocket. The son replied that 
it was not worth while to stoop for a horseshoe. Then the 


father stooped and picked it up. They sold it to the black- 
smith of the neighboring village, and bought some cherries, 
which the father put into his pocket. They pursued their 
way, the father walking ahead. The sun was hot and Thomas 
was very thirsty, and, as if by chance, a cherry fell from his 
father's pocket. The son seizing it, ate it, and also a second 
one, which slipped from his father's pocket. Soon the last 
cherry was carried to his myuth, and his father, turning round, 
told him that if he had been willing to stoop once for the horse- 
shoe, he would not have been obliged to stoop twenty times for 
the cherries. 

LL Fr§d6ric le Grand et son Page 

A. Un jour Frederic le Grand, roi de Prusse, ayant 8onn4 
sans que personne r^pondit * k cet appel, ouvrit * la porte de 
son antichambre et trouva son page endormi * sur une cluuse. 
Au moment oii il allait * le r6veiller, il aper^ut ' un papier 6crit • 
sortant ^ de la poche du page. La curiosity du roi f ut excit^e, 
il prit • le papier et le lut '. C'6tait une lettre de la mdre du 
jeune homme, dans laquelle elle remerciait son fils de ce qu'il 
lui envoyait *" une partie de ses gages pour la soulager " dana 
sa misdre. Le roi, ayant lu • la lettre, prit • un rouleau de 
ducats et le glissa avec la lettre dans la poche du page. Un ins- 
tant apr^s il sonna si fort que le page se r^veilla et accourut " 
auprSs de lui. « Vous avez dormi ' » lui dit " le roi. Le jeune 
homme, ayant honte, tdcha de s'excuser. Dans son embarras il 
mit " la main dans sa poche, et y trouva le rouleau de ducats. 
II le prit *, p&lit, trembla, et ne put *' articuler un seul mot. 
€ Qu'avez-vous? dit " le roi. — H^las! sire, dit " le page, quel- 
qu'un veut" me perdre*; je ne sais " pas d'od m'est venu " 
cet or. — La fortune ne \nent-elle " pas sou vent en dormant '? 
reprit ' Fr^d^ric. Envoie '° cette somrae i ta m^re, en lui fai- 
sant " mes compliments et assure-la bien que j'aurai soin d'elle 
et de toi. » 

» § 210. « 5 213. • 5 197. " § 193. " § 222. 

» § 176. • 5 194. » § 157. " § 198. " § 178. 

» § 166. » § 166. " § 156. » § 221. » § 195. 

M 160. * S 202. u S 164. u fi 225. 


B. Complete the following, as above: 1. Sans qu'il r^pondtt. 
2. II ouvrit la porte. 3. II lut le billet. 4. II allait le 
r^veiller. 5. II apergut un papier. 6. II remerciait le roi. 

7. II envoyait I'argent. 8. II prit le rouleau. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Quel est le sujet de cette anecdote? 2. A 
quelle epoque vivait Frederic le Grand? 3. Ou est la Prusse? 
4. Qu'est-ce que c'est qu'un page? 5. Ou 6tait le page dont 
parle I'histoire? 6. Qu'est-ce qu'll y faisait? 7. Qu'est-ce 
que les pages devraient faire dans les antichambres des rois? 

8. Est-ce que le roi s'est mis en colere contre le page? 

9. Qu'est-ce qu'il a fait? 10. En lisant la lettre qu'est-ce 
que le roi a decouvert? 11. Est-ce que la mere du page 6tait 
riche? 12. Qu'est-ce que le page faisait pour elle? 13. Le 
roi en etait-il content? 14. De quelle fagon a-t-il montr6 son 
contentement? 15. Comment le jeune homme a-t-il decouvert 
ce que le roi avait fait ? 16. Qu'est-ce que c'est qu'un ducat? 

17. Que pensait-il en sentant les ducats dans sa poche? 

18. De quelle fagon le roi a-t-il calm6 le jeune homme? 

19. Est-ce que le proverbe est toujours vrai: « La fortune 
nous vient en dormant? » 

D. One day Frederick the Great rang, and nobody answered 
him. Opening the door of the antechamber, he finds his page 
asleep. A letter, which was sticking out of the page's pocket, 
aroused the king's curiosity. The young man used to send his 
mother a part of his wages, and in this letter she was thanking 
him for it. The king read the letter, and, taking a roll of 
ducats, sUpped it, with the letter, into the young man's pocket. 
Then ringing very loud, he waked the page, who hastened into 
his presence. He asked the young man if he had been asleep. 
The young man was ashamed, and tried to excuse himself. 
Putting his hand into his pocket he finds the ducats. He 
trembles, and cannot utter a word. The king asked him what 
was the matter with him, and he replied that somebody wished 
to ruin him, for he did not know where the ducats came from. 
The king replies that good luck comes to us often while we 
sleep. He tells the page that he will take care of his mother. 

J 5 P 

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153. Regular Conjugations. R^ular verbs are conven- 
iently divided into three classes or conjugations, according 
as the present infinitive ends in -er, -ir, -re, and are inflected 
in their simple tenses as follows: 

donn er, to gipe 

Infinitive Mood 


fin ir, to finish 



romp re, to break 

donn ant, giving 

donn 6, given 


/ give, am giving, 


je donn e 

tu donn es 

il donn e 

nous donn ons 

vons donn ez 

ils donn ent 



fin iss ant, finishing 


fin i, finished 

Indicative Mood 

/ finish, am finishing, 
je fin i s 
tu finis 
nous fin iss ons 
vons fin iss ez 
ils fin iss ent 


romp ant, breaking 


romp u, broken 


/ break, am breaking, 


je romp s 

tu romp s 

fl romp t 

nous romp ons 

vous romp ez 

ils romp ent 




/ was giving, iised 
to give, etc. 

je donn ais 

tu donn ais 

il donn ait 

nous donn ions 

vous donn iez 

ils donn aient 


I was finishing, iised 
to finish, etc. 

je fin iss ais 

tu fin iss ais 

il fin iss ait 

nous fm iss ions 

vous fin iss iez 

ils fin iss aient 


/ was breaking, itsed 
to break, etc. 

je romp ais 

tu romp ais 

il romp ait 

nous romp ions 

vous romp iez 

ils romp aient 

Past Definite 
/ gave, etc. 

je donn ai 

tu donn as 

il donn a 

nous donn ames 

vous donn ates 

ils donn erent 

Past Definite 
I finished, etc. 

je fin is 

tu fin is 

U fin it 
nous fin imes 
vous fin ites 

ils fin irent 

Past Definite 
/ broke, etc. 

je romp is 

tu romp is 

il romp it 

nous romp imes 

vous romp ites 

ils romp irent 

/ shaU give, etc. 

je dormer ai 

tu donner as 

U donner a 

nous donner ons 

vous donner ez 

ils donner ont 

/ shaU finish, etc. 

je finir ai 

tu finir as 

il finir a 

nous finir ons 

vous finir ez 

Us finir ont 

/ shall break, etc. 

je rompr ai 

tu rompr as 

il rompr a 

nous rompr ons 

vous rompr ez 

ils rompr ont 


I should give, etc. 

je donner ais 

tu donner ais 

il donner ait 

nous donner ions 

vous donner iez 

ils donner aient 

/ should finish, etc. 

je finir ais 

tu finir ais 

il finir ait 

nous finir ions 

vous finir iez 

ils finir aient 


/ should break, etc. 

je rompr ais 

tu rompr ais 

il rompr ait 

nous rompr ions 

vous rompr iez 

ils rompr aient 



Give, etc. 
donn e* 
(qu'il donn e) 
donn ons 
donn ez 
(qu'ils donn ent) 

♦ This form becomes 
ob$. 3. 4). 


(That) I (may) give, 


(que) je donn e 

(que) tu donn es 

(qu') il donn e 

(que) nous donn ions 

(que) vous donn iez 

(qu') ils donn ent 

Imperative Mood 
Finish, etc. 
fin is 
(qu'il fin iss e) 
fin iss ons 
fin iss ez 
(qu'ils fin iss ent) 

donn es when followed by -y or -en (cf. { 370, 3, 

Break, etc. 
(qu'il romp e) 
romp ons 
romp ez 
(qu'ils romp ent) 



I (might) give, 

Subjunctive Mood 

(That) f (may) finish, 
(que) je fin iss e 
(que) tu fin iss es 
(qu') il fin iss e 
(que) nous fin iss ions 
(que) vous fin iss iez 
(qu') ils fin iss ent 


(That) I (might) finish, 

(que) je donn asse (que) je fin isse 

(que) tu donn asses (que) tu fin isses 

(qu') il donn At (qu') il fin it 

(que) nous donn assions (que) nous fin issions 

(que) vous donn assiez (que) vous fin issiez 

(qu') ils donn assent (qu') ils fin issent 


(That) I (may) break, 


(que) je romp e 

(que) tu romp es 

(qu') il romp e 

(que) nous romp ions 

(que) vous romp iez 

(qu') ils romp ent 


(That) I (might) break, 
(que) je romp isse 
(que) tu romp isses 
(qu') il romp it 
(que) nous romp issions 
(que) vous romp issiez 
(qu') ils romp issent 


164. The auxiliary verbs avoir, to have, and etre, to be, 
are conjugated in their simple tenses as follows: 

Pres. avoir, to have Pres. ^tre, to be 

Pres. ayant, having 
Past, eu, had 




Fees, etant, being 
Past, ete, been 

/ have, am having, etc. 

j'ai nous avons 
tu as vous avez 
il a ils ont 

I had, was having, etc. 
j'avais nous avions 
tu avals vous aviez 
il avait ils avaient 

/ am, am being, etc. 

je suis nous sommes 
tu es vous etes 
il est ils sont 


I was, was being, etc. 

j'etais nous 6tion8 

tu 6tais vous 6tiez 

il ctait ils 6taient 

Past Definite 

Past Definite 

/ had, etc. 

/ was, etc. 

j'eus nous ellmes 
tu eus vous eAtes 
il eut ils eurent 

je fus nous fiimes 
tu fus vous ftltes 
il fut ils furent 



/ shall have, etc. 

/ shall be, etc. 

j'aurai nous aurons 

je serai nous serons 

tu auras vous aurez 
il aura ils auront 

tu seras vous serez 
il sera ils seront 



I shovM have, etc. 

/ shovld be, etc. 

i'aurais nous aurions 

je serais nous serions 

tu aurais vous auriez 
il aurait ils auraient 

tu serais vous seriez 
il serait ils seraient 


Present Present 

Have, etc. 

Be, etc. 

aie ayez 
(qu'il ait) (qu'ils aient) 

sois soyez 
(qu'il soit) (qu'ils soient) 




(That) I {may) have, etc. 
(que) j'aie (que) nous ayons 
(que) tu aies (que) vous ayez 
(qu') il ait (qu') ils aient 


(That) I {migfU) have, etc. 
(que) j'eusse (que) nous eussions 
(que) tu eusscs (que) vous eussiez 
(qu') il eAt (qu') ils eussent 

(That) I {may) be, etc. 
(que) je aoia (que) nous soyons 
(que) tu sois (que) vous soyez 
(qu') il soit (qu') ils soient 


(That) I {might) be, etc. 
(que) jc f usse (que) nous fussions 
(que) tu fusses (que) vous f ussiez 
(qu') il fdt (qu') ils fussent 


156. Formation. Compound tonses are formed from the 
past participle of the principal verb along with an auxiliary 
verb (usually avoir, sometimes etre), see §§ 227-229. 

Avoir ktre 


To have given 
avoir donn6 

Having given 
ayant donn6 

Past Indefintfe 
I have given, etc. 

j'ai donn6 
tu as donn6, etc. 

/ had given, etc. 
j 'avals donn6, etc. 



To have arrived 
6tre arrive (e)(8) 


Having arrived 
€tant arriv6(e)C8) 

Past Indefinttb 
/ have arrived, etc. 
je suis arriv^(e) 
tu es arrive (e), etc. 

7 had arrived, etc. 
j'dtais arriv6(e), etc. 



Past Anterior 
/ had given, etc. 
j'eus donne, etc. 

Future Anterior 

/ shaU have given, etc. 

j'aurai donne, etc. 

Conditional Anterior 

I should have given, etc. 
j'aurais donne, etc. 


Past Anterior 
/ had arrived, etc. 
je fus arrive (e), etc. 

Future Anterior 
/ shall have arrived, etc. 
je serai aiTiv6(e), etc. 

Conditional Anterior 

7 should have arrived, etc. 

je serais arrive(e), etc . 


(That) I (may) have given, etc. 

(que) j'aie donn6, etc. 


(That) I (might) have given, etc. 

(que) j'eusse donn^, etc. 


(That) I (may) have arrived, etc. 

(que) je sois arriv6(e), etc. 


(That) I (might) have arrived, etc. 

(que) je fusse arrive (e), etc 


156. Verbs in -cer and -ger 

1, Verbs in -cer, e.g., avancer [a vase], to advance, require the [s] 
sound of c throughout their conjugation, and hence c becomes f before 
a or o of an ending (§ 5, 4), but not elsewhere: 

Pres. Part. Pres. Indie. Impf. Indie. Past Def. Impf. Subj. 

avangant avance avanfais avanfai avanfasse 

avances avanfais avangas avanjasses 

avance avanfait avanfa avanfat 

avanfons avancions avan5S,me3 avanfassions 

avancez avanciez avanfates avanjassiez 

avancent avanfaient avancSrent avanpassent 

2. Verbs in -ger, e.g., manger [mace], to eat, require the [[3.1 sound 
of g throughout their conjugation, and hence g becomes ge before a or 
o (§ 19, 2), but not elsewhere: 


Pres. Part. 

Pres. Indie. 

Impf. Indie. 

Past Def. 

Impf. Sul^. 







mange ais 



















167. Verbs in -yer 

Verba in -oyer and -uyer change y to i whenever it oomee before Qa] 
in conjugation, but not elsewhere; verbs in -ayer and -eyer may either 
retain y throughout, or change it to i before [aj: 

Pres. Indie. 
nettoie, etc. 

xe, J paie, J 

Pres. Svbj. 

nettoie, etc. 



nettoierai, etc. 


nettoierais, etc 


168. Verbs with Stem-vowel e or e 

Verbs with stem-vowel e require the [e] sound of e (§ 12, 1) when- 
ever, in conjugation, the next syllable contains [a], i.e., when the stress 
fails on the stem-vowel; so also verbs with the stem-vowel 6, shown 
orthc^raphically as follows: — 

1. By changing e or e to d (§ 12, 1), e.g., mener, to lead, ceder, to 

Pres. Indie. 

Pres. Svbj. 



























But ceder with the stem- vowel 6: 

cide, etc. cide, etc. cederai [[8ed(3)re]], ete. c^derais [sed(3)rEl etc. 

06s.: In men^je ? [mancsl e of the ending is not mute, and hence 
the stem- vowel e is unchanged. 

Like mener: Verbs with stem- vowel e (for exceptions in -eler and 
-«ter, see below). 




Like ceder: Verbs with stem- vowel e + consonant, e.g., regner, 
reign, etc. 

Note. — Verbs like creer, create, with stem-vowel followed by a vowel, 
are regular: Je cree, etc. 

2. Most verbs in -eler, -eter, however, indicate the [e] sound by 
doubhng 1 or t, e.g., appeler, to call, jeter, to throw: 

Pres. Indie. 

Pres. Subj. 





. appelle 








So also, jeter: 

jette, etc. 

jette, etc. 


jetterai, etc. 








jetterais, etc. 

A few verbs in -eler, -eter take the grave accent precisely like mener, 
e.g., acheter, to buy: 

achete, etc. achete, etc. acheterai, etc. acheterais, etc. 

Exceptions like acheter: 

agneler, lamb 
becqueter, peck 
bourreler, goad, torture 
demanteler, dismantle 
6carteler, quarter 

6pousseter, dust 
etiqueter, label 
geler, freeze 
harceler, harass 
marteler, hammer 

modeler, model 
peler, peel 
rapieceter, patch 
trompet«r, trumpet 

* Fut. epousseterai according to the Dictionnaire de VAcadimie. 
Exceptions like appeler or acheter: 

crocheter, pick (a lock) 

botteler, hale (hay, etc.) 
caaneler, groove 

caqueter, cackle 
ciseler, chisel 


159. Principal Parts. By the following rules, the various 
tenses of all regular verbs and of most irregular verbs may 
be known from five forms of the verb, called principal parts 
or primary tenses : — 

1. The- Infinitive gives the Future by adding -ai, -as, -a, -ons, -ez, 
•ont, and the Conditional by adding -ais, -ais, -ait, -ions, -iez, -aient 

§§ 160-161 IRREGULAR VERBS IN -EB 9 

— dropping the final infinitive -e of the third conjugation for both 

2. The Present Participle gives the Imperfect Indicative by changing 
-ant into -ais, -ais, -ait, -ions, -iez, -aient, and the Present Svhjunctive 
by changing -ant into -e, -es, -e, -ions, -iez, -ent 

3. The Past Participle gives the Compound Tenses, with the auxiliary 
avoir (§ 227) or etre (§ 228), and the Passive, with the auxiliary €tre 

4. The Present Indicative gives the Imperative by dropping the 
pronoun subject of the second singular and first and second plural, 
the -s of the first conjugation second singular being also dropped, 
except before y and en (cf. § 370, 3, obs. 3, 4). 

5. The Past Definite gives the Imperfect Subjunctive by changing the 
final letter of the first singular (-i or -s) into -sse, -sses, -t, -ssions, 
-ssiez, -ssent, and putting a circumflex accent over the last vowel of 
the third singular. 

Obs.: The tensoa, except the future and conditional, are not really 
derived from the principal parts, as is sometimes said in grammars: the 
method is merely an aid to memory. 


160. Aller, to go 

1. Infinitive, aller; fut. * irai, iras, ira, etc.; condl. irais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, allant; impf. indie, allais, etc.; pres. subj. aille [a:'}], 
aiUes, aille, aliions, alliez, aillent. 

3. Past Part, alle ; past indef. je suis all^, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, vais [ye], vas, va, allons, allez, vont; impve. va 
(vas-y), allons, allez. 

5. Past Def. allai, alias, alia, alldmes, all&tes, alldrent; impf. subj. 
allasse, allasses, allSt, allassions, allassiez, allassent. 

* The stem of the future is from the Latin infinitive ire. 
Like aller: 
s'en alter, go atoay. 

161. Envoyer, to send 

1. Infinitive, envoyer; fut. enverrai, etc.; condl. enverrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, envoyant; impf. indie, envoyais, envoyais, envoyait, 
envoyions QavwaijS], envojnez, envoyaient; pres. subj. envoie, envoies, 
envoie, envoyions [avwaijSl envoyiez, envoient. 

10 THE VERB §§ 162-164 

3. Past Part, envoye; past indef. j'ai envoys, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, envoie, envoies, envoie, envoyons, envoyez, envoient; 
impve. envoie, envoyons, envoyez. 

5. Past Def. envoyai, envoyas, envoya, envoyames, en\oydte8, 
envoy^rent; impf. subj. envoyasse, envoyasses, envoyat, envoyassiona, 
envoyassiez, envoyassent. 

Like envoy er: 
renvoyer, send away, dismiss 


162. Acquerir, to acquire 

1. Infinitive, acquerir; fttt. acquerrai, acquerras, etc.; condl. acquer- 
rais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, acquerant; impf. indie, acqu^rais, etc.; pres. svbj. 
acquiere, acquieres, acquiere, acqu6rions, acqueriez, acquierent. 

3. Past Part, acquis; past indef. j'ai acquis, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, acquiers, acquiers, acquiert, acqudrons, acqudrez, 
acqnidrent; impve. acquiers, acquerons, acquerez. 

5. Past Def. acquis, acquis, acquit, acquimes, acquttes, acquirent; 
impf. subj. acquisse, acquisses, acquit, acquissions, acquissiez, acquissent. 

Like acquerir: 

conqu6rir, conquer * querir or qu^rir, seek requSrir, require, claim 

s'enquerir, inquire reconquerir, reconquer 

* Has only the infinitive. 

163. Benir, to hless 

Is regular, but has also an irregular past participle benit, used only 
as adjective: 

De Peau binite; du pain henit Holy water; consecrated bread 

164. Courir, to run 

1. Infinitive, courir; fut. courrai, courras, etc.; condl. C3urrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, courant; impf. indie, courais, etc.; pres. subj. coure, 
coures, coure, courions, couriez, courent. 

3. Past Part, couru; past indef. j'ai couru, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, cours, cours, court, courons, courez, courent; impve. 
cours, courons, courez. 

5. Pa^t Def. courus, courus, courut, courAmes, courAtes, couru- 

§§ 165-166 IRREGULAR VERBS IN -IR 11 

rent; impf. subj. courusae, oourusacs, courAt, couruasions, oouniasiez, 

Like courir are its compounds: 
accourir, run up, hasten discourir, discourse recourir, run aoain, apjiy 
concourir, codperate, con- encourir, incur aecourir, succor, help 

cur, compete parcourir, run over 

Note. — Courre, chase (a hunting term), sometimes replaces coorir in 
the infinitive. 

165. Cueillir, to gather, pick 

1. Infinitive, cueillir; fut. cueillerai, etc.; amdl. cueillerais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, cueillant; impf. indie, cueillais, etc.; pres. nibj. 
cueille, cueilles, cueille, cueiilions, cueilliez, cucillent. 

3. Past Part, cueilli; past indef. j'ai cueilli, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, cueille, cueilles, cueille, cueillons, cueiUei, cueillent; 
impve. cueille, cueillons, cueillez. 

5. Past Def. cueillis, cueillLs, cueillit, cueilltmes, cueillftes, cueilli- 
rent; impf. subj. cueillisae, cueilliaaes, cueillit, cueilliasions, cueilliasiex, 

06s.: The present indicative, futxue, and conditional are like those of 

Like cueillir: 
accueillir, welcome * aasaillb', assail * tressaillir, start 

recueillir, oather, collect t saillir, jut out 

* Regular in future and conditional: assaiUirai, etc 

t Saillir, fpuh out, rush forth, is regular, like finir. 

166. Dormir, to sleep 

1. Infinitive, dormir; fut. dormirai, etc.; condl. dormirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, dormant; impf. indie, dormais, etc.; pres. subj. 
dorme, dormes, dorme, dormions, dormiez, dorment. 

3. Past Part, doyii; past indef. j'ai dormi, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, dors, dors, dort, dormons, dormez, dorment; impve. 
dors, dormons, dormez. 

5. Past Def. dormis, dormis, dormit, dormhncs, dormttes, dormirent ; 
impf. subj. dormiase, dormisses, dormtt, dcuinissions, dormissiez, 

Like dormir: 

endormir, put to sleep se rendormir, go to sleep ^bouillir, boQ avxiy 

e'endormir, fall asleep again rebotiillir, boil again 

rendormir, put to sleep redormir, sleep again mentir, lie 

again bouillir, boil d6mentir, contradict, belit 

12 THE VERB §§ 167-169 

partir, set out se repentir, repent servir, serve 

departir, distribute eentir, feel se servir, make use 

Be departir, desist consentir, consent desservir, clear the table 

repartir, set out again, pressentir, forebode sortir, go out 

reply ressentir, resent ressortir, go out again 

Note. — Asservir, enslave, assortir, sort, match, ressortir, depend (on, 

a), repartir, distribute, are like finir. 

Observe the Present Indicative of the following types, which axe 
represented in the above list: 

botxillir: bons, bous, bout^ bouillons, bonillez, bouillent 

mentir: mens, mens, ment, mentons, mentez, mentent 

partir: pars, pars, part, partons, partez, partent 

se repentir: repens, repens, repent, repentons, repentez, repentant 

sentir: sens, sens, sent, sentons, sentez, sentent 

servir: sers, sers, sert, servons, servez, servent 

sortir: sors, sors, sort, sortons, sortez, sortent 

167. Faillir, to fail 

1. Infinitive, faillir; fut. faudrai, faudras, etc.; condl. faudrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, faillant; impf. indie, faillais, etc.; pres. suhj. faille, 
failles, faille, faillions, failliez, faillent. 

3. Past Part, failli; past indef. j'ai failli, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, faux, faux, faut, faillons, faillez, faillent; impve. 

} > • 

5. Past Def. faillis, faillis, faillit, faUlimes, failli tes, faillirent; impf. 
svbj. faiUisse, faillisses, faillit, faUlissions, faillissiez, faillissent. 

Note. — The irreg. forms of pres. indie, fut., and condl. are usually 
replaced by the regular forms (of. finir). 

Like faillir: 
difaillir, faint, fail (pres. indie, usually defaus, defaus, defaut) 
Note. — Faillir, fail in business, is usually hke finir. 

168. Ferir, to strike 

Used only in Sans coup ferir, Without striking a blow, and in the 
past part, feru, wounded (a veterinary term). 

169. Fleurir, to flourish, etc. 

Pres. Part, florissant; impf. indie, florissais, etc. when used of per- 
sons or a collection of p>er8ons, or jfleurissais, etc., when used of things, 
otherwise like finir. 

Note. — Fleurir, blossom, bloom (in a literal sense) is like finir. 


170. Fuir, to flee, fly 

1. Infinitive, fuir; ful. fuirai, etc.; condl. fuirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, fuyant; impf. indie, fuyais, etc.; pres. subj. fuie, 
fuies, fuie, fuyions, fuyiez, fuient. 

3. Past Part, fui; past indef. j'ai fui, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, fuis, fuis, fuit, fuyons, fuyez, fuient; impoe. fuis, 
fuyons, fuyez. 

5. Past Def. fuis, fuis, fuit, fulmes, fuitcs, fuirent; imp/, subj. fuiase. 
fuisses, fuit, fuissioDS, fuissiez, fuiasent. 

Like fuir: 
s'enfuir, flee, escape 

171. G^sir, to lie, lie buried 

1. Infinitive. g6sir; fvl. ; condl. . 

2. Pres. Part, gisant; impf. indie, gisais, etc.; pres. subj. . 

3. Past Part. . 

4. Pres. Indie. , , git, gisons, giaez, giaent; impoe. , 

t • 

6. Past Def. ; impf. subj • 

NoTB. — Its most frequent use is in epitaphs: Ci-glt, Here lies, Ci- 
gisent. Here lie. 

172. Hair, to hale 

1. Infinitive, hair; fut. hairai, etc.; cotidl. hairais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, halssant; impf. indie, haissais, etc.; pres. subj. halase, 
haisses, haiase, halssions, h^Lssiez, haiascnt. 

3. Past Part, hid; past indef. j'ai hal, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, hais, hais, bait, haiiasons, haiaaez, halssent; impve. 
hais, haissons, haissez. 

5. Past Def. hais, hais, halt, haimes, haites, halrent; impf. subj. 
haisse, haisses, bait, halssions, halssiez, halssent. 

06a.: Hair loses its diffiresis in the present indicative and imperative 
singular, and takes no circumflex accent; otherwise like finir. 

173. Issir, to spring (from, de), etc. 

Used oiJy in the past part, issu; pa^ indef. je suis issu, etc. 

174. Mourir, to die 

1. Infinitive, mourir; fut. mourrai, mourras, etc.; condl. mourraia, 
etc. • 

14 THE VERB §§ 175-177 

2. Pres. Part, mourant; impf. indie, mourais, etc.; pres. svbj. meure, 
meures, meure, mourions, mouriez, meurent. 

3. Past Part, mort; past indef. je suis mort, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, meiirs, meurs, meurt, mourons, mourez, meurent; 
impve. meurs, mourons, mourez. 

5. Past Def. mourus, mourus, mourut, mourAmes, mouriites, mou- 
rurent; impf. svbj. mourusse, mourusses, mourut, mourussions, mou- 
russiez, mourussent. 

Obs.: The stem- vowel becomes eu wherever it bears the stress. 

Like mourir: 
se mourir, be dying (used only in infin., pres. indie., impf. indie.) 

175. Ouir, to hear 

Is hardly used beyond the infinitive and past participle: j'ai oul 
dire, I have heard said, etc. 

176. Ouvrir, to open 

1. Infinitive, ouvrir; ftit. ouvrirai, etc.; condl. ouvriraia, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, ouvrant; impf. indie, ouvrais, etc.; pres. svbj. ouvre, 
ouvres, ouvre, ouvrions, ouvriez, ouvrent. 

3. Past Part, ouvert; past indef. j'ai ouvert, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, ouvre, ouvres, ouvre, ouvrons, ouvrez, ouvrent; 
impve. ouvre, ouvrons, ouvrez. 

5. Past Def. ouvris, ouvris, ouvrit, ouvrimes, ouvrltes, ouvrirent; 
impf. svbj. ouvrisse, ouvrisses, ouvrit, ouvrissions, ouvrissiez, ouvrissent. 

Obs.: The present indicative is like that of donner. 

Like ouvrir: 

entr'ouvrir, open slightly decouvrir, discover offrir, offer 

rouvrir, open again recouvrir, cover again eouffrir, suffer 

couvrir, cover 

177. Tenir, to hold 

1. Infinitive, tenir; fvi. tiendrai, tiendras, etc.; condl. tiendrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, tenant; impf. indie, tenais, etc.; pres. subj. tienne, 
tiennes, tienne, tenions, teniez, tiennent. 

3. Past Part, tenu; past indef. j'ai tenu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie. tienS) tiens, tient, tenons, tenez, tiennent; impve. 
tiens, tenons, tenez. • 

§§ 178-179 mREGUIAB VERBS IN -IB 15 

5. Past Def. tins, tins, tint, ttnmes [tgtml ttntes [15: t], tinrent 
[tg:r]; impf. suhj. ivaaae, [ttis}, tinaaes, tint, tinaaions, tinasiez, tinssent. 

Ob*.: The stem-vowel becomes ie wherever it bears the streoB. 

Like tenir are its compounda: 
s'abetenir, abstain d^teoir, detain obtenir, o6totn 

appartenir, belong entretenir, entertain retenir, ntain 

contenir, contain maintenir, maintain aoutemr, sustain 

178. Venir, to come 

1. Infinitive, venir; ftU. viendrai, viendras, etc.; condl. viendrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, venant; impf. indie, venaia, etc.; pres. subj. vienne, 
viennes, vienne, veniona, veniez, viennent. 

3. Pcist Part, venu; past indef. je suis venu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, viens, viens, vient, venoiia, venez, viennent; impve. 
viens, venona, venez. 

5. Past Def. vins, vins, vint, vtnmes [vf:m], vtntes [\'f:tl vinrent 
[vSir]; impf. subj. vinase [vCia], vinases, \1nt, v-inaaions, vinanes, 

Obs.: 1. The stem-vowel becomes ie wherever it bears the stress. 
3. Venir is precisely like tenir in its irregularities, but owing to its diffi- 
culty it is given in full. 

Like venir are its compounda: 

avenir, happen disconvenir, fee discordant redevenir, become again 

advenir, happen intcrvenir, intervene se souvenir, recollect 

convenir, agree, suit parvenir, attain subvenir, aid 

contrevenir, violate pr6venir, prevent, anticipate survenir, occur 

circonvenir, circumvent provenir, proceed (from, de) se ressou venir, recollect 

devenir, become revenir, come back 

179. Vetir, to clothe 

1. Infinitive. vStir; fiU. vfetirai, etc.; condl. vfitirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, vetant; impf. indie. vStaia, etc.; pres. subj. vfite, v^tes, 
v6te, vfitiona, v§tiez, v6tent. 

3. Past Part, vfetu; past indef. j'ai vdtu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie. vSts, vSta, v6t, vfitona, v6tez, v6tent; impve. vdts, 
vfetona, v^tez. 

5. Past Def. vetis, v6tis, vStit, vfittmes, vfitttes, vfitirent; impf. subj. 
vfitisae, vdtisses, vStit, vStiaaiona, vStiasiez, vdUaaent. 

Like v6tir: 

d^vfetir, diveM revfetir, clothe, invest se revfitir, jnit on clothing 

Be d6v6tir, take off clothing 

16 THE VERB §§ 180-183 


180. Battre, to beat 

Loses one t in the present indicative singular: bats, bats, bat; other- 
wise hke rompre. 

Like battre : 
abattre, fell dfebattre, debate rabattre, beat down 

combattre, fight, oppose se d^battre, struggle 

181. Boire, to drink 

1. Infinitive, boire; ftU. borrai, etc.; condl. boirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, buvant; impf. indie, buvais, etc.; pres. Sfubj. boive, 
boives, boive, buvions, buviez, boivent. 

3. Past Part, bu; past indef. j'ai bu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, bois, bois, boit, buvons, buvez, boivent; impve. bois, 
buvons, buvez. 

5. Past Def. bus, bus, but, biimes, bAtes, burent; impf. subj. busse, 
busses, bAt, bussions, bussiez, bussent. 

Like boire: 
emboire, coat (in painting) imboire, imbibe, imbue 

B'emboire, becorne dull (used in third person) reboire, drink again 

182. Bruire, to murmur, rustle 

1. Infinitive, bruire; fvi. bruirai, etc.; condl. bruirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, bruyant; impf. indie, bruyais, etc.; pres. subj. . 

3. Past Part, bruit; past indef. j'ai bruit, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, bruis, bruis, bruit, , , ; impve. . 

6. Past Def. ; impf. subj. . 

Notes. — 1. The pres. part, bruyant, noisy, is used as adjective onlyo 
2. The forms bruissant, bruissais, etc., bruisse, etc., are also in use. 

183. Clore, to close, enclose 

1. Infinitive, clore; fut. clorai, etc.; condl. clorais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part. ; impf. indie. ; pres. subj. close, closes, close, 

closions, closiez, closent. 

3. Past Part, clos; past indef. j'ai clcs, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, clos, clos, cl6t, , , ; impve. . 

5. Past Def. ; impf. siibj. . 

SS 184-185 IRREGULAR VflRBS IN -RB 17 

Like dore: 

d6clore, throw open t enclore, endoae 

♦ feclore, fiatch, open (of flowers) tt forclore, foreclose, debar 

* Has also pres. pi. 6dosons, etc. ; imp/, indie. 6closais, etc. Its future 
and conditional are 6clorai, etc. 

t Has also pres. pi. endosons, etc. ; pre». part, endosant ; imp/, indie. 
enclosais, etc. 

tt Hardly used beyond the infinitive, past partidide, and compound 

184. Concltire, to conclude 

1. Infinitive, condtire; ftU. condurai, etc.; condl. oondurais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, conduant; impf. indie, concluais, etc.; pres. tvi^. 
oonclue, conclues, conclue, concluions, concluiez, oonduent. 

3. Past Part, condu; paM indef. j'ai conclu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, condus, conclus, conclut, concluons, concluez, oon- 
duent; impve. oonclus, concluons, concluez. 

5. Past Def. condus, conclus, conclut, conclAmes, oonclAtes, conclu- 
rent; impf. subj. conclusse, conclusses, concldt, conclussions, oonclus- 
siez, conclussent. 

Like condure: 

exclure, exclude * inclure, enclose t reclure, shut up 

* Past Part, indus. 

t Used only in infin., past part., and comp. tenses. Past part, redna. 

186. Conduire, to conduct, etc. 

1. Infinitive, conduire; fxU. conduirai, etc.; condl. conduirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, conduisant; impf. indie, conduisais, etc.; pres. subj. 
oonduise, conduiaes, conduise, oonduisions, oonduisiez, conduisent. 

3. Past Part, conduit; past indef. j'ai conduit, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, conduis, conduis, conduit, conduisons, oonduiscz, 
conduisent; impve. conduis, conduisons, conduisez. 

5. Past Def. conduisis, conduisis, conduisit, conduiafmes, condui- 
attes, conduisirent; impf. subj. conduisisse, oonduisisses, oondui^t, 
conduisissions, conduisissiez, oonduisissent. 

Like conduire: 

Be conduire, conduct oneself induire, induce reproduire, reproduce 

feconduire, show out, dismiss introduire, introduce sfeduire, seduce 

reconduire, lead back prod aire, produce traduire, translate 

dMuire, deduct r^duire, reduce oonstruire, construct 
enduire, coat (with plaster) 

18 THE VERB §§ 186-188 

d6construire, take apart detruire, destroy * luire, shine 

instruire, instruct cuire, cook * reluire, glisten 

reconstruire, reconstruct recuire, cook again t nuire, injure 

* Past part, lui and relui respectively. No past def. or impf. subj. 
t Past part. ntii. 

186. f tre, to be 

See § 154 for the full conjugation. 

187. Confire, to preserve, etc. 

1. Infinitive, confire; fvi. confirai, etc.; condl. confirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, confisant; impf. indie, confisais, etc.; pres. subj. con- 
fise, confises, confise, confisions, confisiez, confisent. 

3. Past Part, confit; past indef. j'ai confit, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, confis, confis, confit, confisons, confisez, confisent; 
impve. confis, confisons, confisez. 

5. Past Def. confis, confis, confit, confimes, confttes, confirent; 
impf. subj. confisse, confisses, confit, confissions, confissiez, confissent.. 

Like confire: 
dficonfire, discomfit; circoncire (p.p. -cis), circumcise: suffire (p.p. suffi), suffice 

188. Connaitre, to know, etc. 

1. Infinitive, connaitre; fut. connaitrai, etc.; condl. connaltrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, connaissant; impf. indie, connaissais, etc.; pres. 
subj. connaisse, connaisses, connaisse, connaissions, connaissiez, con- 

3. Past Part, connu; j'ai connu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, connais, connais, connait, connaissons, connaissez, 
connaissent; impve. connais, connaissons, connaissez. 

5. Past Def. connus, connus, connut, conntlmes, connotes, connu- 
rent; impf. svbj. connusse, connusses, conntlt, connussions, connussiez, 

Oba.: Stem-vowel i has circumflex (J) everywhere before t. 

Like connaitre: 
m6connattre, not to know comparaltre, appear (law * paltre, graze 
reconnaltre, recognize term) repaltre, feed, feast 

paraltre, appear disparaltre, disappear se repaltre, feed, feast 

apparaltre, appear reparattre, reappear ^ 

* Lacks the past part., past def., and impf. subj. 

Note. — Apparoir (also used in third singular il appert, it appears) and 
comparoir are archaic variants of apparaitre and comparaltre. ; 

$$ 189-191 




Coudre, to sew 

1. Infinitive, coudre; fid. coudrai, etc.; condl. coudrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, cousant; imp/, indie, cousais, etc.; pres. subj. couse, 
couses, couse, cousions, cousiez, cousent. 

3. Past Part, cousu; past indef. j'ai cousu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, couds, couds, coud, cousons, cousez, cousent; impve. 
couds, cousons, cousez. 

5. Past Def. cousis, cousis, cousit, coustmes, cousttes, cousirent; 
impf. subj. cousisse, cousisses, cousit, cousissions, cousissiez, couassent. 

Like coudre: 
d6coudre, rip, unsew 

recoudre, sew again 


Craindre, to fear 

1. Infinitive, cralndre; ftU. craindrai, etc.; condl. craindrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, craignant; impf. indie, craignais, etc.; pres. subj. 
craigne, craignes, craigiie, craignions, craigniez, craignent. 

3. Past Part, craint; pas/ indef. j'ai craint, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, crains, crains, craint, craignons, craigncz, craignent; 
impve. crains, craignons, craignez. 

5. Past Def. craignis, craignis, craignit, craignfmes, craignttes, 
(Taignirent; impf. subj. craignisse, craignisses, craignit, craignissions, 
craignissicz, craignissent. 

Like craindre: 
in -aindre : 
contraindre, constrain 
plaindre, pity 
Be plaindre, complain 

in -eindre : 

astreindrc, abstract 
atteindre, attain 
ceindre, enclose, gird, gird 

on (a sword, etc.) 
d^peindre, depict 
empreindre, imprirU 
enceindre, gird 

* Hardly used beyond 

enfreindre, infringe 
^preindre, squeeze out 
6teindre, extinouish 
fetreindre, draw tight 
feindre, feign 
geindre, groan 
peindre, paint 
ratteindre, overtake 
rej)eindre, paint again 
restreindre, restrain 
teindre, dye 
d^teindre, fade 
the infinitive and future. 

reteindre, dye again 

in -oindre : 
joindre, join 
adjoindre, adjoin 
conjoindre, conjoin 
d^joindre, disjoin 
disjoindre, disjoin 
enjoindre, enjoin 
rej oindre, rejoin 
oindre, anoint 
* poindre, davm 

191. Croire, to believe 

L Ir^finitive. croire; ftU. croirai, etc.; condl. croirais, etc 

20 THE VERB §§ 192-193 

2. Pres. Part, croyant; impf. indie, croyais, etc.; pres. svbj. croie, 
croies, croie, croyions, croyiez, croient. 

3. Past Part, cm; past indef. j'ai cru, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, crois, crois, croit, croyons, croyez, croient; impve. 
crois, croyons, croyez. 

5. Past Def. crus, crus, crut, crAmes, crAtes, crurent; impf. svbj. 
crusse, crusses, criit, crussions, crussiez, crussent. 

Like croire: 

* accroire, believe (an untruth) t dfecroire, disbelieve 

* Found only in faire accroire, to cause to believe (an untruth). 

t Used only in je ne crois ni ne decrois, I neither believe nor disbelieve. 

192. Croitre, to grow 

1. Infinitive, croitre; fut. croitrai, etc.; condl. croitrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, croissant; impf. indie, croissais, etc.; pres. svbj. 
croisse, croisses, croisse, croissions, croissiez, croissent. 

3. Past Part, crft (f. crue); past indef. j'ai crtl, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, crois, crois, croit, croissons, crmssez, croissent; 
impve. crois, croissons, croissez. 

5. Past Def. crfls, crAs, crdt, crimes, crtltes, criirent; impf. svbj. 
crusse, crusses, crtit, crussions, crussiez, crussent. 

Obs. : The circumflex accent distinguishes several otherwise similar forms 
of croitre and croire. 

193. Dire, to say, tell 

1. Infinitive, dire; fut. dirai, etc.; condl. dirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, disant; impf. indie, disais, etc.; pres. svbj. disc, discs, 
diee, disions, disiez, disent. 

3. Past Part, dit; past indef. j'ai dit, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, dis, dis, dit, disons, dites, disent; impve. dis, disons, 

5. Past Def. dis, dis, dit, dimes, dites, dirent; impf. suhj. disse, 
disses, dit, dissions, dissiez, dissent. 

Like dire: 

* contredire, contradict * interdire, interdict * pr6dire, predict 

* dedire, retract, deny * medire (de), slander redire, say again 

* The 2nd pi. pres. indie, and impve. is: Contredisez, d^disez, inter- 
disez, etc. 

Note. — Maudire is like dire only in infinitive, past participle (maudit)( 
future, and conditional; otherwise like finir. 

§§ 194^196 IRREGULAR VERBS IN -RE 21 

194. ficrire, to write 

1. Infinitive. 6crire; fiU. 6crirai, etc., condl. 4crirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, ecrivant; impf. indie. 6crivais, etc.; prea. subj. derive, 
derives, 6crive, ^criv-ions, 6criviez, 6crivent. 

3. Past Part, ecrit; past indef. j'ai dcrit, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, ecris, 6cris, dcrit, ^crivons, 6crivez, 6crivent; impve. 
6cris, dcrivons, 6crivez. 

5. Past Def. ecrivis, 6crivis, dcri\'it, ^crivimes, 6crivites, dcrivi- 
rent; impf. subj. ^criviase, ^riviases, 6crivit, ^crivissions, dcriviasiez, 

Like €crire are all verbs in -(s)crire: 
circonscrire, circumscribe prcecrire, pt escribe souscrire, subscribe 

dfecrire, describe proacrire, proscribe tranacrire, transcribe 

ioacrire, inscribe r6crire, rewrite 

195. Faire, to do, make 

1. Infinitive, faire; ftit. ferai [f(a)re], etc.; condl. ferais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, faisant [faza]; impf. indie, faisais [fazel etc.; pres. 
nibj. faase, fasscs, fasse, fassions, fassiez, fasscnt. 

3. Past Part, fait; past indef. j'ai fait, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, fais, fais, fait, faisons QfazSl faites, font; impve. 
fais, faisons, faites. 

5. Past Def. fis, fia, fit, fimes, fites, firent; impf. subj. fiaae, fiases, 
ftt, fissions, fissiez, fissent. 

Like faire: 

contrefaire, imitate m^faire, harm refaire, do again 

dMaire, undo parfaire, complete Batisfaire, satisfy 

forfaire, forfeit red6faire, undo again surfaire, overcharge 

196. Frire, to fry (intr.) 

1. Infinitive, frire; fut. frirai, etc.; condl. friraia, etc. 

2. Pres. Part. ; impf. indie. ; pres. subj. . 

3. Past Part, frit; past indef. j'ai frit, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, fris, fris, frit, , , ; impve. fris, 

5. Past Def. ; impf. subj. . 

22 THE VERB §§ 197-199 

197. Lire, to read 

1. Infinitive, lire; fut. lirai, etc.; condl. lirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, lisant; impf. indie, lisais, etc.; pres. subj. lise, Uses, 
Use, Usions, Usiez, Usent. 

3. Past Part, lu; past indef. j'ai lu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, lis, Us, lit, lisons, lisez, Usent; impve. Us, lisons, lisez. 

5. Past Def. lus, lus, lut, lAmes, Wtes, lurent; impf. subj. lusse, 
lusses, lilt, lussions, lussiez, lussent. 

Like lire: 
61ire, elect r661ire, re&ect relire, read again 

198. Mettre, to place, pvi 

1. Infinitive, mettre; fvi. mettrai, etc.; condl. mettrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, mettant; impf. indie, mettais, etc.; pres. sid}j. mette, 
mettes, mette, mettions, mettiez, mettent. 

3. Past Part, mis; past indef. j'ai mis, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, mets, mets, met, mettons, mettez, mettent; impve. 
mets, mettons, mettez. 

5. Past Def. mis, mis, mit, mimes, mttea, mirent; impf. subj. misse, 
misses, mit, missions, missiez, missent. 

Like mettre: 

se mettre, begin demettre, dismiss promettre, promise 

admettre, admit 6mettre, emit remettre, put back, hand to 

commettre, commit s'entremettre, interpose repromettre, promise again 

compromettre, compro- omettre, omit soumettre, submit 

mise pennettre, permit transmettre, transmit 

199. Moudre, to grind 

1. Infinitive, moudre; fut. moudrai, etc.; condl. moudrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, moulant; impf. indie, moulais, etc.; pres. subj. moule, 
moules, moule, moulions, mouUez, moulent. 

3. Past Part, moulu; past indef. j'ai moulu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, mouds, mouds, moud, moulons, moulez, moulent; 
impve. mouds, moulons, moiilez. 

5. Past Def. moulus, moulus, moulut, moulAmes, moulAtes, moulu- 
rent; impf. subj. moulusse, moulusses, moulAt, moulussions, moulussiez, 

Like moudre: 
femoudre, whet remoudre, grind again rfemoudre, sharpen 

§§ 200-202 IRREGULAR VERBS IN -RE 23 

200. Naitre, to be bom, arise, etc. 

1. Infinitive, naitre; fiU, nattrai, etc.; condl. nattrais, etc. 

2. Prea. Part, naissant; impf. indie, naissais, etc.; pres. svbj. naisse, 
naisses, naisse, naissions, naissiez, naissent. 

3. Past Part, ne ; past indef. je suis n<5, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, nais, nais, oatt, naissons, naissez, naissent; impve. 
nais, naissons, naissez. 

5. Past Def. naquis, naquis, naquit, naqutmes, naquftes, naqiii- 
rent; impf. subj. naquisse, naquisses, naquit, naquissions, naquissiez, 

068.; Stem-vowel i has the circumflex (I) everywhere before t 

Like naitre: 
renaltre, revive 

201. Plaire, to please 

1. Infinitive, plaire; fiU. plairai, etc.; condl. plairais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, plaisant; impf. indie, plaisais, etc.; pres. subj. phiiae, 
plaises, plaise, plaisions, plaisiez, plaisent. 

3. Past Part, plu; past indef. j'ai plu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, plais, plais, plait, plaisons, plaisez, plaisent; impve. 
plais, plaisons, plaisez. 

5. Past Def. plus, plus, plut, pldmes, plOtes, plurent; impf. subj. 
plusse, plusses, pl<it, plussions, plussiez, plussent. 

Like plaire: 
comploire, humor d^plaire, displease * taire, say nothing about 

* D tait has no circumflex. 

202. Prendre, to take 

1. Infinitive, prendre; fut. prendrai, etc.; condl. prendrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, prenant; impf. indie, prenais, etc.; pres. svbj. prenne, 
prennes, prenne, prenions, preniez, prennent. 

3. Past Part, pris; past indef. j'ai pris, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, prends, prends, prend, prenons, prenez, prennent; 
impve. prends, prenons, prenez. 

5. Past Def. pris, pris, prit, primes, prites, prirent; impf. svbj. 
prisse, prisses, prit, prissions, prissiez, prissent. 

Like prendre are its compoimds: 
apprendre, learn entreprendre, undertake rapprendre, learn again 

dfeprendre, part 8'6prendre, be taken reprendre, take back 

dfesapprendre, unlearn se m^prendre, be mistaken surprendre, surprise 
comprendre, understand 

^4 THE VERB §§ 203-206 

203. Resoudre, to resolve 

1. Infinitive, resoudre; Jvi. r^soudrai, etc.; condl. r^soudrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, resolvant; impf. indie, r^solvais, etc.; jrres. svbj. r^ 
solve, resolves, resolve, resolvions, r^olviez, resolvent. 

3. Past Part, resolu and *resous; past indef. j'ai r^solu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, resous, resous, resout, r6solvons, resolvez, resolvent; 
impve. resous, r^solvons, resolvez. 

5. Past Def. resolus, resolus, r^solut, r6sol<imes, r^solAtes, r6solu- 
rent; impf. svbj. resolusse, r^solusses, resoldt, r6solussions, r^solussiez, 

* Of restricted usage. 
Like resoudre: 

* absoudre, absolve * dissoudre, dissolve 

* Past jMrt. absous (f. absoute), dissous (f. dissoute), respectively; 
lack the past definite and imperfect subjunctive. 

204. Rire, to laugh 

1. Infinitive, rire; fut. rirai, etc.; condl. rirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, riant; impf. indie, rials, etc.; pres. suhj. rie, ries, rie, 
riions, riiez, rient. 

3. Past Part, ri; past indef. j'ai ri, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, ris, ris, rit, rions, riez, rient; impve. ris, rions, riez. 

5. Past Def. ris, ris, rit, rimes, rites, rirent; impf. suhj. risse, risses, 
lit, rissions, rissiez, rissent. 

Like rire: 
ae rire, make sport (of, de) sourire, smile 

205. Sourdre, to rise, spring up, etc. 

1. Infinitive, sourdre; fut. il sourdra; condl. il sourdrait. 

2. Pres. Part, sourdant; impf. indie, il sourdait; pres. subj. il sourde. 

3. Past Part. ; past indef. . 

4. Pres. Indie. , , sourd, , , sourdent; impve. . 

5. Past Def. il sottfdit; impf. svbj. il sourdit. 

Note. — Little used beyond the infin. and third sing. pres. indie. 

206. Suivre, to follow 

1. Infinitive, suivre; fvi. suivrai, etc.; condl. suivrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, suivant; impf. indie, suivais, etc.; pres. svbj. suive, 
suives, suive, suivions, suiviez, suivent. 

55207-209 IRREGULAR VERBS IN -RE 25 

3. Past Part, suivi; past indef. j'ai suivi, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, suis, suis, suit, suivons, suivez, suivent; impve. suis, 
suivons, suivez. 

5. Past Def. suivis, suivTS, suivit, suivimes, suivites, suivirent; 
impf. subj. sui\'isae, suix-iaaes, suivit, suivissions, 8ui^'issiez, suivissent. 

Like suivre: 
s'ensmvre (impers.)i itfoUows poursoivre, pursue 

207. Tistre, to weave 

Used only in the past part, tissu, and compound tenses. 

208. Traire, to milk 

1. Infinilice. traire; fut. trairai, etc.; condl. trairais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, trayant; impf. indie, trayais, etc.; pres. subj. traie, 
traies, traie, trayions, trayiez, traient. 

3. Past Part, trait; past indef. j'ai trait, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, trais, trais, trait, trayons, trayes, traient; tmpps. 
trais, trayons, trayez. 

5. Past Def. ; impf. subj. . 

Like traire: 
abstrairc, abstract eztraire, extract aoustraire, mbtrael 

attraire, attract rentraire, dam * braire, bray 

distrairc, distract retrairc. redeem Qcgal) 

* Commonly used only in the infin. and the third pers. pres. indie, fut. 
and cond. 

209. Vaincre, to conquer 

1. Infinitive, vaincre; fut. vaincrai, etc.; condl. vaincrais, etc 

2. Pres. Part, yainquant; impf. indie, vainquais, etc.; pres. tvitj. 
vainque, vainques, vainque, vainquions, vainquiez, vainquent. 

3. Past Part, vaincu; past indef. j'ai vaincu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, vaincs [ve], vaincs, vainc, vainquons, vainquez, 
vainquent; impve. vaincs, vainquons, vainquez. 

5. Past Def. vainquis, vainquis, vainquit, vainquimes, vainqxrftes, 
vainquirent; impf. »ttbj. vainquisse, vainquisses, vainquft, vainquissions, 
vainquissiez, vainquissent. 

06a.: Stem c [k] beccmes qu [k] before any vowd except a. . 
Like vaincre: 
oonvaincre, eonvinee, convict 

26 THE VERB §§ 210-213 

210. Vendre, to sell 

Irregular only in third singulax present indicative : II vend (t omitted). 

Like vendre: 
All verbs in -andre, -endre,* -erdre, -ondre, -ordre 
* Except prendre, reprendre, surprendre, etc. 

211. Vivre, to live 

1. Infinitive, vivre; fvi. vivrai, etc.; condl. vivrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, vivant; impf. indie, vivais, etc.; pres. subj. vive, vives, 
vive, vivions, viviez, vivent. 

3. Past Part, vecu; past indef. j'ai v^cu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, vis, vis, vit, vivons, vivez, vivent; impve. vis, vivons, 

5. Past Def. vecus, v6cus, v^cut, v^ctlmes, v^cAtes, v^curent; impf, 
svlyj. v6cusse, v6cusse8, v6c<it, v^cussions, v6cussiez, v^cuasent. 

Like vivre: 
revivre, revive survivre, survive 


Note. — The few verbs in -oir, which are all irregular, form in 
some grammars a separate conjugation, the third, verbs in -re being 
the foxirth. 

212. Avoir, to have 
See § 154 for the full conjugation of this verb. 
Like avoir: 

ravoir, have again (used only in the infinitive) 

213. Recevoir, to receive 

1. Infinitive, recevoir; fvi. recevrai, etc.; condl. recevrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, recevant; impf. indie, recevais, etc.; pres. sub j. re- 
Qoive, regoives, regoive, recevions, receviez, regoivent. 

3. Past Part, reju; past indef. j'ai regu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, refois, regois, regoit, recevons, recevez, regoivent; 
impve. regois, recevons, recevez. 

5. Past Def. repus, regus, regut, regimes, regAtes, regurent; impf. 
svbj. regusse, regusses, reg<it, regussions, regussiez, regussent. 


Oba.: 1. Stem-vowel becomes oi wherever it bears the stress. 2. Stem 
c [s] is vrritten s [s] before o or a ($ 5, 4). 

Like recevoir: 
apercevoir, perceive d^cevoir, deceive percevoir, collect taxes 

ooncevoir, conceive 

214. Devoir, to owe 

1. Infinitive, devoir; frd. devrai, etc.; condl. devrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, devant; impf. indie, devais, etc.; pres. subj. doive^ 
doives, doive, devions, deviez, doivent. 

3. Past Part, dii (f. due, pi. du(e)s); past indef. j'ai dO, etc. 

: 4. Pres. Indie, dois, dois, doit, devons, devez, doivent; impve. . 

5. Past Def. dus, dus, dut, d^imes, dOtes, durent; impf. subj. duase, 
duaees, dQt, dussions, dussiez, dussent. 

Note. — DeToir follows the recevoir model, but, as its forma present 
some difficulty, they have been given in full. 

Like devoir: 
redevoir, atxU owe 

215. Asseoir, to seat 

1. Infinitive, asseoir; fut. assidrai, etc., or aaseyerai, etc., or aaacHrai, 
etc.; condl. assi^rais, etc., or aaseyeraia, etc., or assoirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, asseyant or assoyant; impf. indie, asseyais, etc., or 
aaaoyais, etc.; pres. subj. asseye, assies, asaeye, aaaeyiona, aaaeyiez, 
aaaeyent, or aasoie, aasoiea, assoie, aasoyiona, assoyiez, assoient. 

3. Past Part, assis; past indef. j'ai aasia, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, assieds, aaaieda, assied, aaaeyona, asseyez, aaaeyent, 
or assois, aasois, aasoit, aaaoyona, aaaoyez, aasoient; impve. aaaieda, 
aaaeyona, aaaeyez, or aaaois, aaaoyona, aasoyez. 

5. Past Def. assis, aasia, aasit, aaetmea, aasltes, aaairent; impf. svbj. 
assLsae, aasisaea, aaait, aasiaBiinis, assiasiez, aasiaaent. 

Like asseoir: 
s' asseoir, sit down ee rasseoir, sit down again * messeoir, fit badly 
rasseoir, reseat, calm * seoir, he becoming t surseoir, suspend, reprieve 

* Used in third person of the following: Pres. indie, sied, sifeent (mes- 
aied, messifeent); impf. indie, seyait, seyaient (messeyait, messeyaient) ; 
pres. subj. siSe, silent (messi^e, messifeent); fut. si^ra, siferont (messi^ra, 
measi^ront); coruU. si^rait, si6raient (messi^rait, messi^raient). 

t Like the forms in oi (oy) of asseoir, but fut. and condl. surseoirai(8). 

28 THE VERB §§216-219 

216. Dechoir, to decline, etc. 

1. Infinitive, dechoir; fiU. decherrai, etc.; condl. d^cherrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part. ; impf. indie. ; pres. svbj. dechoie, dechoies, 

d^choie, d^choyions, d6choyiez, dechoient. 

3. Past Part, dechu; past indef. j'ai dechu or je suis d6chu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, dechois, d6chois, dechoit, d6choyons, d^choyez, 
dechoient; impve. dechois, dechoyons, dechoyez. 

5. Past Def. dechus, d6chiis, d^chut, dechtimes, d6chAtes, d^chu- 
rent; impf. subj. d^chusse, d^chusses, d^chM, d6chussions, d^chussiez, 

Like d6choir: 
• choir, fall * rechoir, fall again 

* Hardly used beyond the infin. and comp. tenses. 

217. fichoir, to fall due, etc. 

1. Infinitive, echoir; ftit. 11 echerra; * condl. il 6cherrait.* 

2. Pres. Part, echeant; impf. indie, il 6choyait; pres. subj. il 6choie. 

3. Past Part, echu; past indef. je suis echu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie. , , 6choit or 6chet, , , 6choient or 

6ch6ent; impve. . 

5. Past Def. , , il echut; , , ils 6churent; impf. 

subj. il 6ch<it. 

* Or regular: il echoira(it). 

218. Falloir, must, etc. (impers.) 

1. Infinitive, falloir; fut. il faudra; condl. il faudrait. 

2. Pres. Part. ; impf. indie, il fallait; pres. svbj. il faille. 

3. Past Part, fallu; past indef. il a fallu. 

4. Pres. Indie, il faut; impve. . 

5. Past Def. U fallut; impf. subj. il fallAt. 

219. Mouvoir, to move, drive 

1. Infinitive, mouvoir; fut. mouvrai, etc.; condl. mouvrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, mouvant; impf. indie, mouvais, etc.; pres. subj. 
meuve, meuves, meuve, mouvions, mouviez, meuvent. 

3. Past Part. m(i (f. mue, pi. mu(e)s); past indef. j'ai md, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, meus, meus, meut, mouvons, mouvez, meuvent; 
impve meus, mouvons, mouvez. 

§§ 220-223 mREGULAR VERBS IN -OIB 29 

5. Past Def. mus, mus, mut, mtlmes, mfltes, murent; impf. nibj. 
musse, musses, mut, mussions, mussiez, mussent. 

Obs.: Stem-vowel becomes euwherever streesed. 

Like mouvoir: 
♦ femouvoir, arouse * promouvoir, promote 

* Past participle has no circumflex accent. 

220. Pleuvoir, to rain (impers.) 

1. Infinitive, pleuvoir; f%U. 11 pleuvra; condl. il pleuvrait. 

2. Pres. Part, pleuvant; impf. indie, il plcuvait; pres. subj. il pleuve. 

3. Pa»t Part, plu; past indef. il a plu. 

4. Pres. Indie, il pleut; impve. . 

5. Past Def. il plat; impf. svJbj. il pldt. 

221. Pouvoir, to he able, etc. 

1. Infinitive, pouvoir; fut. pourrai, etc.; condl. pouirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, pouvant; impf. indie, pouvais, etc.; pres. subj. puiase, 
pmsscs, puisse, puissions, puissiez, puissent. 

3. Past Part, pu; past indcf. j'ai pu. 

4. Pres. Indie, puis or peux, pcux, peut, pouvons, pouvez, peuvent; 
impve. . 

5. Past Def. pus, pus, put, primes, p(itc8, purent; impf. subj. pusse, 
pusses, pOt, pussions, pussicz, pussent. 

Oba.: The first sing. pres. indie, in negation is usually je ne penz pas or 
je ne pais ; in questions, only pnis-je ? otherwise pais or penz. 

222. Savoir, to know, etc. 

1. Infinitive, savoir; fut. saurai, etc.; condl. saurais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, sachant; impf. indie, savais, etc.; pres. subj. sache, 
Baches, sache, sachions, sachiez, sachent. 

3. Past Part, su; past indef. j'ai su, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, sals [se^, sais, sait, savons, saves, savent; impve. 
sache, sachons, sachez. 

5. Past Def. sus, sus, sut, sdmes, sAtes, surent; impf. subj. suase, 
stisscs, silt, sussions, sussiez, sussent. 

223. Valoir, to he worth 

1. Infinitive, valoir; fut. vaudrai, etc.; condl. vaudrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, valant; impf. indie, valais, etc.; pres. subj. vaille, 
vailles, vaille, valions, valiez, vaillent. 

30 THE VERB §§ 224-225 

3. Past Part, valu; past indef. j'ai valu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, vaux, vaux, vaut, valons, valez, valent; impve. vaux, 
valons, valez. 

5. Past Def. valus, valus, valut, vaKimes, valtites, valurent; impf. 
svbj. valusse, valusses, valtit, valussions, valussiez, valussent. 

Like valoir: 
6quivaloir, be equivalent * pr6valoir, prevail f chaloir 

revaloir, pay back, return 

like for like 

* Pres. subj. prevale, etc. 

t Hardly used beyond, II ne me chaut de, I care not for. 

224. Voir, to see 

1. Infinitive, voir; ftU. verrai, etc.; condl. verrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, voyant; impf. indie, voyais, etc.; pres. subj. voi^ 
voies, voie, voyions, voyiez, voient. 

3. Past Part, vii; past indef. j'ai vu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, vols, vols, voit, voyons, voyez, voient; impve. vols, 
voyons, voyez. 

5. Past Def. vis, vis, vit, vimes, vltes, virent; impf. subj. visse, 
visses, vtt, vissions, vissiez, vissent. 

Like voir: 
entrevoir, catch sight of * pourvoir, provide t prfevoir, foresee 

revoir, see again * d^pourvoir, strip, leave destitute 

* Past def. -vus, etc.; impf. subj. -vusse, etc.; fut. and condl. -voirai(s), 

t Fut. and condl. -voirai(s), etc., regular. 

226. Vouloir, to mil, etc. 

1. Infinitive, vouloir; fut. voudrai, etc.; condl. voudrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, voulant; impf. indie, voiilais, etc.; pres. subj. veuille, 
veuilles, veuille, voulions, vouliez, veuillent. 

3. Past Part, voulu; paM indef. j'ai voulu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, veux, veux, veut, voulons, voulez, veulent; impve. 
veux, voulons, voulez. 

5. Past Def. voulus, voulus, voulut, voulAmes, voulAtes, voulu- 
rent; impf. suhj. voulusse, voulusses, voulAt, voulussions, voulussiez, 

Obs.: Stem- vowel becomes eu whenever it is stressed. 
Note. — The regular impve. veux, voulons, voulez is rare; veuillez = 
have the kiridness to generally serves as second plural imperative. 





Reference List of Irregular Verbs 

Note. — Each verb in the hat is referred to the section in which 
its irregularity is explained. For verbs in -cer, -ger, see § 156 ; for 
verbs in -yer, § 157 ; for verbs with stem-v'owel e or 6, $ 158; for 
verbs in -andre, -endre, -erdre, -ondre, -ordre, 5 210. 


abattre §180 

absoudre 203 

abstenir 177 

abstraire 208 

accourir 164 

accroire 191 

aocueillir 165 

acqudrir 162 

adjoindre 190 

admettre 198 

advenir 178 

aller 160 

apercevoir 213 

app>ara!tre 188 

apparoir 188 

appartenir 177 

apprendre 202 

assaillir 165 

asseoir 215 

astreindre 190 

atteindre 190 

attraire 208 

avenir 178 

avoir 154 


battre 180 

b6nir 163 

boire 181 

bouillir 166 

braire 208 

bruire 182 


ceindre §190 

chaloir 223 

choir 216 

cirooncire 187 

circonscrire 194 

circonvenir 178 

clore 183 

combattre 180 

commettre 198 

comparaftre 188 

comparoir 188 

complaire 201 

comprendre 202 

oompromettre. . . 198 

ooncevoir.t 213 

oonclure 184 

concourir 164 

conduire 185 

confire 187 

conjoindre 190 

connaitre 188 

conqu^rir 162 

oonsentir 166 

oonstruire 185 

contenir 177 

contraindre 190 

contredire 193 

contrefaire 195 

contrevenir 178 

convaincre 209 

convenir 178 

coudre 189 

courir § 164 

oourre 164 

couvrir 176 

crai."^dre 190 

croire 191 

crottre 192 

cueillir 165 

cuire 185 


d^battre 180 

d^cevoir 213 

d6choir 216 

ddclore 183 

d6confire 187 

d^construire .... 185 

d^coudre 189 

d<5couvrir 176 

d^crire 194 

d6croire 191 

d<5dire 193 

d^uire 185 

d^faUhr 167 

ddfaire 195 * 

d^joindre 190 

d^mentir 166 

d^mettre 198 

d^partir 166 

d^peindre 190 

d^plaire 201 

d^px)urvoir 224 

d6prendre 202 

d^sapprendre. . . 202 


desservir § 166 

d^teindre 190 

d^tenir 177 

d6truire 185 

devenir 178 

d^vetir 179 

devoir 214 

dire 193 

disconvenir 178 

discourir 164 

disjoindre 190 

disparattre 188 

dissoudre 203 

distraire 208 

dormir 166 


6bouillir 166 

6choir 217 

eclore 183 

6conduire 185 

dcrire 194 

mre 197 

emboire 181 

6mettre 198 

6moudre 199 

6mouvoir 219 

empreindre 190 

enceindre 190 

enclore 183 

enconrir 164 

endormir 166 

enduire 185 

enfreindre 190 

enfuir 170 

enjoindre 190 

enquerir 162 

ensmvre 206 

entremettre 198 

entreprendre. . . . 202 

entretenir 177 

entrevoir 224 


entr'ouvrir § 176 

envoyer 161 

6preindre. ...... 190 

^prendre 202 

6quivaloir 223 

6teindre 190 

etre 154 

^treindre , 190 

exclure 184 

extraire 208 


faillir 167 

faire 195 

falloir 218 

feindre 190 

ferir 168 

fleurir 169 

forclore 183 

forfaire 195 

frire 196 

fuir 170 


geindre 190 

gesir •. 171 

hair 172 


imboire 181 

inclure 184 

induire 185 

inscrire 194 

instruire 185 

interdire 193 

intervenir 178 

introdxiire 185 

issir 173 


joindre 190 


lire 197 

luire 185 



maintenir § 177 

maudire 193 

meconnaitre .... 188 

medire 193 

mefaire 195 

mentir 166 

meprendre 202 

messeoir 215 

mettre 198 

moudre 199 

mourir 174 

mouvoir 219 


nattre 200 

nuire 185 


obtenir 177 

offrir 176 

oindre 190 

omettre 198 

ouir 175 

ouvrir 176 


paitre 188 

paraitre 188 

parcourir 164 

parfatre ........ 195 

partir 166 

parvenir 178 

peindre 190 

percevoir 213 

permettre 198 

plaindre 190 

plaire 201 

pleuvoir 220 

poindre 190 

poursui\Te 206 

pourvoir 224 

pouvoir 221 

predire 193 




prendre §202 

prescrire 194 

pressentir 166 

pr^valoir 223 

pr^venir 178 

prdvoir 224 

produire 185 

promettre 198 

promouvoir 219 

proscrire 194 

provenir 178 



rabattre 180 

rapprendre 202 

rasseoir 215 

ratteindre 190 

ravoir 212 

reboire 181 

rebouillir 166 

recevoir 213 

rechoir 216 

reclure 184 

reconduire 185 

reconnaltre 188 

reconqu6rir 162 

reoonstruire 185 

recoudrc 189 

recourir 16t 

recouvrir 176 

r^rire 19t 

recueillir 165 

recuire 185 

red^faire 195 

redevenir 178 

redevoir 214 

redire 193 

redormir 166 

r^duire 185 

r661ire § 197 

refaire 195 

rejoindre 190 

reiire 197 

reluire 185 

remettre 198 

remoudre 199 

remoudre 199 

reiu^tre 200 

rendormir 166 

rentraire 208 

renvoyer 161 

repaltre 188 

rcparaitre 188 

repartir 166 

repeindre 190 

rep>entir 166 

reprendre 202 

reproduire 185 

repromettre 198 

requ^rir 162 

rdsoudre 203 

rcsscntir 166 

ressortir 166 

rcssouvenir 178 

restreindre 190 

reteindre 190 

retcnir 177 

retrairc 203 

revaloir 223 

revenir 178 

revetir 179 

revivre 211 

revoir 224 

lire 204 

rouvrir 176 

saillir 165 

satisfaire 195 

savoir 222 

secourir 164 

86duire § 185 

sentir 166 

seoir 215 

servir 166 

Bortir 166 

souffrir 176 

soumettre 198 

Bourdre 205 

sourire 204 

souscrire 194 

Boustraire 208 

soutenir 177 

souvenir 178 

subvenir 178 

suffire 187 

8ui\Te 206 

surfaire 195 

surprendre 202 

surseoir 215 

8ur\'enir 178 

sun-ivTe 211 

taire 201 

tdndre 190 

tcnir 177 

tistre 207 

traduire 185 

traire 208 

transcrire 194 

transme'.tre 198 

tressaillir 165 

vaincre 209 

valoir 223 

vendre 210 

venir 178 

vetir 179 

vivre 211 

voir 224 

vouloir 225 



§§ 227-229 


227. Avoir + the past participle forms the compound 
tenses of all transitive and of most intransitive verbs (cf. 

228. fetre + the past participle forms the compound 
tenses of all reflexive verbs (§ 242), and of the following in- 
transitives denoting motion or change of condition (cf. § 155); 

aller, go 
arriver, arrive 
d6c6der, die 
descendre, descend 
fichoir, fall due 
6clore, hatch out 

entrer, enter, go {come) in 
monter, go up 
mourir, die 
naltre, be born 
partir, set out 
remonter, go up again 

So also, the following compounds of venir: 

devenir, become 
redevenir, become again 
intervenir, intervene 

parvenir, attain 
provenir, proceed 
revenir, come back 

ientrer, go in again 
Tester, remain 
retourner, go back 
sortir, go out 
tomber, fall 
venir, come 

survemr, supervene 

229. 1. Avoir or etre + the past participle forms the com- 
pound tenses of a number of intransitive verbs, the general 
distinction being that avoir, when so used, denotes action, 
while etre denotes state or condition resulting from action: 

n a passe par Lyon. 
Cest passe de mode. 
EUe a grandi bien vite. 
Elle est grandie. 

He went by way of Lyons. 
It is out of fashion. 
She grew up very fast. 
She is grown up. 

2. Reference list of verbs with avoir or etre: 

aborder, land 
accourir, run to 
apparaltre, appear 
baisser, fall, decline 
cesser, cease 
changer, change 
croltre, grow 
d6border, overflow 

dfichoir, decay 
dScroltre, decrease 
d6g6n6rer, degenerate 
demeurer, remain 
disparattre, disappear 
6chapper, escape 
Schouer, be stranded, fail 
embellir, grow handsomer 

empirer, grow worse 
expirer, expire 
grandir, grow up 
passer, pass 
r6chapper, escape again 
repasser, pass again 
sonner, strike, toU 
vieillir, grow old 


a. Any verb in the list, used transitively, must, of course, take 
avoir (§227): 

D m*a passe la pliune. He handed me the pen. 

ilvez-vous rentre votre ble ? Have you taken in your wheat? 

Us ont descendu le tableau. They have taken down the picture. 

6. The meaning also determines the auxihary in a few other cases: 

Avoir £tre 

convenir, suit, become oonvenir, agree 

disoonvcnir, not to suit, be du- disconvenir, deny 


repartir, repiy repartir, go atcay aoain 

Nous sommes convenus du prix. We arc (have) agreed on the price. 

Le priz ne m'a pas convenu. The price did not suit me. 


230. Auxiliary Function. Several verbs, when followed 
by an infinitive, have a sort of auxiliary function, and serve 
to form verb phrases of various values, modal, temporal, etc.: 

1 . Vouloir = will, wish to, tDant to, desire to, etc. : 
Je ne veux pas rester. I will not remain. 

D voudrait (bien) le savoir. He would like to know it. 

Elle n'a pas voulu m'ecouter. She would not listen to me. 

D aurait voulu le faire. He would have liked to do sa 

Veuillez le faire. Be so good as to do so. 

a. Distinguish from 'will' of simple futurity: 
Elle vous 6coutera. She will listen to you. 

2. Devoir = ought, should, must, be to, have to, be obliged to, intend 
to, etc., varies in force in different tenses: 

Present: je dais rester. I am to (have to, intend to, must) 

Imperfect: je devais parler. I was to (had to, etc.) speak. 

Future: je devrai revenir. I shall have to (be obUged to) come 

Conditional: je devrais ^crire. I ought to (should) write. 

Past Indefinite: j'ai du m'arreter. I have had to (been obUged to) 

stop, must have stopped. 

36 THE VERB §230 

Past Definite: je dus revenir. I had to come back. 

Conditional Anterior: j'aurais du I ought to have (should have) 
savoir. known. 

3. Pouvoir = can, be able to, be permitted to, may, etc. : 

H ne pouvait pas porter le sac. He could not carry the sack. 

Pms-je aller a la villa? May I go to town? 

lis auraient pu le faire. They could (might) have done it. 

Je pourrais le faire, si je voulais. I could do it if I would. 

Pouvaient-ils en trouver? Could they find any? 

Poiurais-je vous demander? Might I ask you? 

4. Savoir = know how to, can, etc. : 

Elle salt chanter et danser. She can sing and dance, 

n ne salt pas lire. He can't read. 

a. Distinguish savoir in this sense from pouvoir: 

Elle est enrouee et ne peut pas She is hoarse and cannot sing this 
chanter ce soir. evening. 

b. The conditional with ne has peculiar idiomatic force: 
Je ne saurais le croire. I cannot believe it. 

5. Oser = dare : 

Je n'ose pas le lui dire. I dare not tell him so. 

Note. — The above five verbs are sometimes called ' Modal Auxiliaries. 

6. Faire = make, cause to, cause to be, have, order, order to be, etc. : 
J'ai fait etudier les enfants. I have made the children study. 

11 les fera ecouter. He will make them hsten. 

II s'est fait faire im habit. He had a coat made for himself. 

a. A governed substantive follows the infinitive, but a governed con- 
junctive personal pronoun (not reflexive) goes with faire: 

Faites venir le domestique. Have the servant come. 

Faites-Ze venir. Have him come. 

6. If the infinitive with faire have a direct object, the personal 
object of faire must be indirect (cf . § 293, 2, a) : 

Je fis ecrire mon fits. I had my son write. 

Je fis ecrire un devoir a mon fils. I made my son write an exercise. 

Faites-le-fui ecrire. Make him write it. 

Je le leur fis voir. I showed them it. 


c. Possible ambiguity is sometimes avoided by par: 

D fit porter le sac par le guide. He had the sack carried by the guide. 

d. Note the (seeming) passive force of a transitive infinitive after 

Je feral ecrire une lettre. I shall have a letter written. 

7. Laisser = let, is in construction somewhat like faire : 
Laissez ecrire les enfants. Let the children write. 
Laissez-/eur (jor -les) 6crire un Let them write an exercise. 


8. The present and imperfect of aller + an infinitive give a kind 
of immediate future, as also in English: 

D va I'acheter. He ia going to (is about to) buy it 

Nous alllons nous arreter. We were about to stop. 

D allait se noyer. He was on the point of drowning. 

9. Similarly the present and imperfect of venir de + an infinitive 
give a kind of immediate past: 

Je viens de le voir. I have just soen him. 

n venait de 1' entendre. He had just heard it. 


231 General Rule. The verb agrees with its subject in 
number and person: 

Les homines sont mortels. Men are mortal. 

Tout le monde est ici. Everybody is here. 

Toi et moi (nous) ne faisons qu'un. You and I are but one. 

232. Simple Subject. Special rules for the agreement 
of a verb with one subject are: 

1. A collective subject singular, when not followed by de, 
or when followed by de + the singular, has regularly a singu- 
lar verb: 

Le peuple frangais est brave. The French people are brave. 

Le senat I'a decide. The senate has (or have) decided it. 

La plupart du monde le croit. Most people believe it. 

2. A collective subject singular + de + a plural takes a 
plural verb, unless the sense of the collective be dominant: 




Une nuee de sauvages I'attaque- 

Une nuee de traits Pobsctxrcit. 
Une partie des soldats restent. 
Une partie des bourgeois protesta. 
Cette sorte de poires est chere. 

A host of savages attacked him. 

A cloud of arrows hid him. 
A part of the soldiers remain. 
A part of the citizens protested. 
This sort of pears is dear. 

a. When so used, adverbs of quantity, e.g., beaucoup, peu, etc., the 
nouns nombre, quantite, without article, and la plupart, are regularly 
plural in sense; so also, force: 

Beaucoup de gens pensent ainsi. 
Peu de gens le savent. 
Que d'ennemis m'attaquenti 
Nombre d'Atheniens avaient fui. 
La plupart des soldats perirent. 
Force sots le tenteront. 

Many people think so. 

Few people know it. 

How many enemies attack me I 

Many Athenians had fled. 

Most of the soldiers perished. ^ 

Many a fool will try it. 

6. Beaucoup, peu, combien, used absolutely, are singular or plural 
according to the sense of the de clause imphed; la plupart when so 
used is generally plural: 

Beaucoup {sc. de gens) le croient. Many {sc. people) believe it. 
Peu {sc. de ceci) me suffira. Little (sc. of this) will suffice me. 

La plupart voterent centre. The majority voted nay. 

c. Plus d'un is singular, imless reciprocal or repeated, and moins de 
deux is plural: 

Plus d'lm temoin a depose. 

Moins de deux ne valent rien. 

Plus d'un fripon se dupent I'tm 
1' autre. 

Plus d'un officier, plus d'un ge- 
neral furent tues. 

More than one witness has sworn. 

Less than two is no use. 

More rogues than one cheat each 

More than one officer, more than 

one general was killed. 

3. Ce requires a plural verb only when the predicate is a 
plural noun, a plural pronoun of the third person, or when 
ce refers to a preceding plural: 

Sont-ce vos amis? — Ce sont emc. Is it your friends? It is they. 
Ce doivent etre les siens. Those must be his. 

Ce sont nos semblables. They are our fellow-creatures. 

Ses desirs, ce sont sa loi. His desires are his law. 

But: C'estmoi; c'esttoi; c'estlui; c'esf nous; c' csf vous. 

a. The third singular is often used for the third plural in this 
construction, more especially in famiUar language or to avoid harsh 


Est-ce les Anglais que je crains? Is it the English that I fear? 

C'est eux qui I'ont fait. It is they who did it. 

C'est des betises. That is stupidity. 

Ne fftt-ce que quelques lignes. If it were only a few lines. 

6. The verb with ce is singular when the predicate is a numeral 
+ a noun of collective force: 
C'est dlx heures qui sonnent. It is ten o'clock that is striking. 

c. Si ce n'est is always singular: 
Qui, si ce n'est nos parents? Who, if it is not our parents? 

4. n (impers.) always has a singular verb, whatever be 
the logical subject: 

D est arrive bien des chosesL There have happened many thinga 

n en reste trois livres. There remain three pounds of it. 

a. Importer is construed personally or impersonally: 
Qu'importe (importent) les depens? What matters the cost? 

233. Composite Subject A verb common to two or 
more subjects is regularly plural; when the subjects differ in 
person, the verb agrees with the first person, if one subject 
is of the first person, otherwise with the second: 

Toi et moi nous ne faisons qu'un. You and I are but one. 
Sa soeur et lui sent li. His sister and he are there. 

a. With subjects of different person, pleonastic nous, Tous is gen- 
erally used: 

Vous et lui vous I'avez vu. You and he have seen it. 

6. With ou = or, ni ... ni = neither . . . nor, the verb is singular if 
the sense is clearly alternative, i.e., the one subject excluding the other, 
otherwise generally plural; Pun ou I'autre is always singular: 

Sa vie ou sa mort en depend. His life or death depends on it. 

Ni lui ni votre frere n'aura ce Neither he nor your brother will 

poste. have that post. 

Ni Tun ni I'autre ne sont bons. Neither is good. 

L'une ou I'autre viendra. The one or the other will come. 

L'un ou I'autre jour me convient. Either day suits me. 

c. If the subjects (generally without et) are synonymous, or nearly 
80, or form a cUmax, the verb may be singular: 

40 THE VERB §§234-236 

Sa dignite, sa noblesse frappa His dignity, his nobility struck 

tout le monde. everybody. 

L'heure, le lieu, le bras se choisit The hour, the place, the arm are 

aujoiu-d'hui. chosen to-day. 

Una excuse, un mot le desarme. An excuse, a word disarms him. 

d. When the subjects are recapitulated by a word in the singular, 
^e.g., tout, rien, etc., the verb is singular agreeing with it: 

Remords, crainte, perils, rien ne Remorse, fear, dangers, nothing de- 
m'a retenue. terred me. 

e. With an intervening clause, e.g., ainsi que, plus que, etc., the 
subject is. usually only apparently composite: 

La vertu, plus que le savoir, eleve Virtue, more than knowledge, 
I'homme. elevates man. 

/. Even with et the sense is occasionally singular, or distributive, or 
alternative, and a singular verb is required: 
Le bien et le mal est en ta main. Good and ill are in thy hand. 
L'ete est revenu et le soleil. Summer has returned and the sun. 

Tombe Argos et ses murs. Let Argos and its walls fall. 

234. Relative Subject. The verb agrees with the rela- 
tive pronoun subject, which is itself of the number and 
person of the antecedent (see also Relative Pronoun, § 396) : 

C'est nous qui I'avons fait. It is we who have done it. 

Dieuz (vous) qui m'exaucez I (Ye) Gods who hear me I 


235. General Rule. The subject usually precedes the 
verb. Exceptions to this rule are noted in the following 

236. Interrogative Word Order. Direct interrogation is 
expressed as follows: 

1. A personal pronoun subject (also ce or on) follows the 
verb, and is joined to it by a hyphen: 

Parlez-uous franpais? Do you speak French? 

Est-cc lui? Is it he? 


a. The letter -t- is inserted after a third singiilar with final vowel 
before a pronoun with initial vowel: 

Parla-/-elle? Parle-Z-on? Did she speak? Do they speak? 

b. A final e of the first fdngrilar takes acute accent, but with the 
sound of [ej: 

Donne- je? [done 13] Do I give? 

2. A noun subject precedes the verb, and is repeated after 
it by a pleonastic pronoun; so also, possessive, demonstra- 
tive, and indefinite pronouns: 

Cet homme parle-t-i7 anglais? Does that man speak English? 

Cela est-i7 vrai? Is that true? 

Les miens ne sont-ils pas bons? Are mine not good? 

3. Questions are also asked by intenx^tive words (adjec- 
tives, pronouns, adverbs): 

Quel podte a 6crit cela? What poet wrote that? 

A quelle heure partira son ami? At what time will his friend go? 

Qui est 14? Qu'ya-t-il? Who is there? What is the matter? 

Lequel des deux est parti? Which of the two has gone? 

Combien coAte ceU? > g^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^, 
Combien cela coflte-t-u? > 

a. The word order of either of the last two examples is commonly 
permissible for noun subject under this rule. 

h. The word order of the last example is obligatory when the verb 
has a direct object (not reflexive), or a prepositional complement, or 
when ambiguity might arise; this arrangement is preferable with 
pourquoi? or when a compound tense is used: 

Ott le roi tient-il sa cour? Where does the king hold his court? 

De quoi le roi parle-t-U? Of what is the king speaking? 

Quel prix le roi paya-t-il? What price did the king pay? 

Jean qui aime-t-il? Whom does John love? 

Pourquoi mon ami part-il? Why does my friend go? 

Quand ce roi a-t-il et6 decapite? When was this king beheaded? 

4. By prefixing est-ce que? a statement becomes a ques- 
tion without change in its word order: 

Est-ce que vous partei? Are you going away? 

Quand est-ce que vous partez? When are you going away? 

42 THE VERB 8 237 

0. The use of est-ce que? is permissible with all forms of the verb, 
but is obligatory with a monosyllabic first singular (except ai-je? 
suis-je? dis-je? dois-je? fais-je? puis-je? sais-je? vais-je? vois-je?), 
and is preferable to avoid forms like doime-je?: 

Est-ce que je sers, moi? Do I serve? 

Est-ce que je parle de lui? Do I speak of him? 

5. Interrogation is also expressed by mere inflection of 
the voice, without change in word order: 
Vous partez dejk? You are going already? 

237. Rhetorical Inversions. Owing to rhetorical consider- 
ations, the noun subject not uncommonly follows the verb, 
or the sentence assumes interrogative form, though not 
interrogative, as follows: 

1. In interjected remarks explanatory of direct quotation, 
as in English: 

Fais comme tu voudras, dit-il. Do as you please, said he. 

Que veux-tu? demanda la mere. What do you wish? asked the 


2. In optative clauses when que is omitted, and also after 
the rare omission of si, if: 

Vive le roi ! Perisse le tyran ! (Long) hve the king ! Perish the 

Voulait-il de I'argent, son pere If he wished money, his father al- 

lui en donnait toujours. ways gave him some. 

Ne ftit-ce que pour cela. If it were only for that. 

3. Very commonly after certain adverbs and adverbial 

Du moins devrait-il attendre. He should at least wait. 

A peine le jour fut-il arrive. Hardly had the day arrived. 

Such are: 

k peine, hardly * peut-6tre, perhaps toutefois, however 

aussi, hence encore, besides en vain, in vain 

aussi bien, moreover toujours, however rarement, rarely 

au moins, at least tout au plus, at most probablement.probafcZj/ 

du moins, at least d'autant plus, the more etc. 

* Peut-etre que does not cause inversion: Peut-ltre qu'il le fera, Per- 
hapt he will do so. 


4. Sometimes in exclamatory sentences: 
Avons-nous crie t Didn't we shout I 

5. When a predicate adjective heads the phrase: 

Telle fut la fin de Carthage. Such was the end of Carthage. 

Quelque riche que soit cet honuae. However rich that man is. 

Note. — All the above inversions, except the last given, may take place 
whatever be the nature of the subject, but the following rules do not usually 
hold good for a personal pronoun subject. 

6. Very commonly in a relative clause, especially when a 
second relative clause qualifies its subject: 

n fera ce que peut faire un He will do what a man can who 

homme qui se respecte. respects himself. 

Dites-moi ce qu'a fait votre ami Tell me what your friend did. 

Dis-moi oft est ton amL Tell me where your friend is. 

Note. — The relative is unstressed (procUtic), and naturally stands next 
the verb which governs it. 

7. Commonly after c*est que, and in the second member 
of a comparative sentence: 

C'est en vous qu'espdrent tons. It is in you that all hope. 

Pen ai plus que n'en a mon ami. I have more of it than my {ri&ad 


8. Commonly when an adverb, other than those men- 
tioned in (3) above, e.g., ainsi, bientot, ici, lit, etc., or an ad- 
verbial phrase heads the sentence: 

Ainsi va le monde. So goes the world. 

Bientdt viendra le printemps. Spring will soon come. 

A la tete de I'armee fut porte At the head of the army was carried 

I'etendard sacre. the sacred standard. 

9. Quite exceptionally, when the verb comes first: 

Viendra im autre. (Along) will come another. 

Note. — No inversion of noun subject usually occurs if the verb has a 
direct object or a prepositional complement. 

238. Indirect Interrogation. It has no special rules of 
word order apart from those of the clause in which it occurs: 
Dis-moi ce qu'il a dit. Tell me what he said. 

44 THE VERB §§239-241 


239. Formation. The passive voice of a transitive verb is 
formed from the auxiliary etre + the past participle, which 
agrees with the subject of the verb in gender and number: 

Pres. Infin. Etre lou6(e) or Ioue(e)s, to be praised 

Perf. Infin. Avoir et6 lou6(e) or loue(e)s, to have been praised 

Pres. Part. Etant lou6(e) or loue(e)s, being praised 

Perf. Part. Ayant 6t6 lou6(e) or loue(e)s, having been praised 

Present Indicative Past Indefinite Indicative 

/ am (/ am being) praised, etc. I have been (/ was) praised, etc. 

je suis 1 j'ai 6t6 1 

tu es > lou6(e) tu as 6tA > lou6{e) 

il (elle) est J 11 (elle) a 6ie J 

nous sommes ] nous avons ete | 

vous etes [ lou6(e)8 vous avez 6te > lou6(e)8 

ils (elles) sont J ils (elles) ont 6t6 J etc., etc. 

Obs.: 1. The past participle ete is always invariable. 2. The past 
participle after vous agrees with the sense: Madame, vous serez meprisee 
de tous, Madam, you will be despised by all. 

240. The Agent. The person by whom the action is done 
is usually denoted by par, when a specific intention or defi- 
nite volition is implied, and by de when the action is habitual, 
usual, or indefinite, a condition rather than a definite action: 

Elle fut saisie par le voleur. She was seized by the thief. 

Le general fut suivi de pres par The general was closely followed by 

I'ennemi. the enemy. 

La reine etait suivie de ses dames. The queen was followed by her 

lis sent aimes de tous. They are loved by everybody. 

241. Remarks. 1. Only transitive verbs regularly have 
the passive voice, but the intransitive obeir, desobeir, par- 
donner (§ 296, 2) may also be made passive: 

Vous etes pardonnes tous. You are all pardoned. 

Elle est toujours obeie. She is always obeyed. 

2. The passive is less used than in English, especially if 
the agent be not specified, or if the corresponding French 




verb is intransitive, or if an indirect object be present. 
Substitutes are: 

a. A verb with the indefinite pronoun on: 

On m'a trompe. 

On me soup$onne. 

On a repondu k ma question. 

On lui a rendu I'argent. 

6. A reflexive construction: 
Ce livre se publie & Paris. 
La guerre se prolongea. 
Voild ce qui se dit. 

3. A transitive infinitive in French sometimes equals a 
passive in English, after verbs of 'perceiving,' (voir, etc.), 
after faire, laisser, and when i + an infinitive is used 
adjectivally (cf. §284). 

Le ferez-vous vendre? Will you have it sold? 

On entend dire cela. You hear that said. 

Une faute & eviter. A mistake to be avoided. 

I have been deceived. 
I am suspected. 

My question has been answered. 
The money has been given back to 

Thb book is published in Paris. 

The war was prolonged. 

This (or that) is what is being said. 


242. Compound Tenses. The auxiliary etre + the past 
participle forms the compound tenses of all reflexive verbs, 
as follows: 

Pres. Infin. Se flatter, to flatter onesdf 

Perf. Infin. S'Stre flatt6(e) or flatte(e)s, to have flattered oneself 

Pres. Part. Se flattant, flnttering onesdf 

Perf. Part. S'etant flatt^(e) or flatt^(e)s, having flattered onesdf 


Past iNDEFiNrrE 

/ (have) flattered mysdf, etc. 
je me suis 
tu t'es • flatt6(e) 
fl (elle) s'est J 
nous nous sommes | 
vous vous etes [ flatt^C6)8 

ils (elles) se sont J etc., etc. 

/ flatter mysdf, etc. 
je me flatte 
tu te flattee 
il(elle) se flatte 
nous nous flattons 
vous vous flaMez 
ils (elles) se flattent 

46 THE VERB §§243-245 


FlcMer thyself, etc. Do not flatter thyself, etc. 

flatte-toi ne te flatte pas 

(qu'il se flatte) (qu'il ne se flatte pas) 

flattons-nous ne nous flattens paa 

flattez-vous ne vous flattez pas 

(qu'ils se flattent) (qu'ils ne se flattent pas) 

Notes. — 1. Se flatter, se flattant, etc., are the infinitive and participial 
forms found in dictionaries, but se must be replaced by me, te, etc., accord- 
ing to the sense. 

2. Except in the use of etre as auxiliary, reflexive verbs have no pecu- 
liarities of conjugation on account of being reflexive. 

243. Reflexive or Reciprocal. A reflexive verb often 
has reciprocal force, especially in the plural. Ambiguity is 
generally avoided by some modifying expression: 

vu ft ft t / '^^^y flatter themselves. 

\ They flatter each other. 
Elles se flattent I'une V autre. They flatter one another. 

On se dupe muiueUement. They cheat each other, 

244. Agreement of Past Participle. 1. In compound 
tenses, the past participle of a reflexive agrees in gender 
and number with the direct object, as in the case of verbs 
compounded with avoir: 

Elle s'est ecriee. She cried out. 

Elle s'est dit k elle-m6me. She said to herself. 

Ds se sont ecrit. They wrote to each other. 

Elles se sont achete des robes. They bought themselves dresses. 

2. Besides the reflexive object, a direct object may pre- 
cede the verb, and with this object the participle agrees: 

Les plumes qu'ils se sont achetees. The pens they bought themselves. 

Notes. — 1. The auxiliary etre is considered as replacing avoir, and the 
above agreements are explained by the general principle (§291). 

2. The agreement with vous is according to the sense: Vous vous fetes 
trompee, madame. You were mistaken, madam. 

245. Omission of Reflexive Object. 1. It is always 
omitted with the past participle used as attributive adjective: 
Le temps ecoule. The time past. 

§§ 246-247 THE REFLEXIVE VERB 47 

2. The infinitives of certain verbs, such as s'asseoir, se 
souvenir, se taire, regularly omit se when preceded by 
faire ; but modem French has many exceptions. 

Faites asseoir vos amis. Make your friends sit down. 

Je vous en ferai souvenir. I shall remind you of it. 

But also : II la fit se souvenir de . . . He reminded her of . . . 

a. A similar omission of se sometimes occurs after laisser, entendre, 
▼oir, etc. 

246. Remarks. The reflexive construction is much com- 
moner in French than in English: 

1. It often translates the English passive, especially when 
the agent is not specified: 

La bourse s'est retrouv6«. The purse has been recovered. 

Cela se raconte partout. That is being told everjrwhere. 

2. Or it is expressed by an English non-reflexive verb, 
generally intransitive: 

S'arreter; s' Verier; se porter. Stop; exclaim; be (of health). 

S'asseoir; seh&ter; se tromper. Sit down; hasten; be mistaken. 

3. Or the French reflexive -|- a preposition has the value 
of an English transitive: 

S'approcher de; se douter de. Approach; suspect. 

S'attendre a ; se fier a. Elxpect; trust. 

Se passer de; se souvenir de. Do without; recollect. 

247. S'en Aller. The conjugation of s*en aller, to go 
away, presents special difficulty: 

Present Indicative Past Indefinite Indicative 

/ go away, etc. I have gone (/ went) away, etc. 

je m'en vais je m'en suis 1 

tu t'en vas tu t'en es \ all^(e) 

il s'en va il (elle) s'en est J 

nous nous en aliens nous nous en sommes ] 

vous vous en allez vous vous en ^tes [ all6(e)8 

ils s'en vont ils (elles) s'en sont 1 

48 THE VERB §§ 24S-249 

Imperative Imperative Negative 

Go away, etc. Do not go away, etc. 

va-t'en ne t'en va pas 

(qu'il s'en aille) (qu'il ne s'en aille pas) 

allons-nous-en ne nous en allons pas 

allez-vous-en ne vous en allez pas 

(qu'ils s'en aillent) (qu'ils ne s'en aillent pas) 

Further examples: 
Est-ce que je m'en vais? lis ne s'en sont pas alles. 
Vous en allez-vous? Ne nous en sommes-nous pas El- 
s' en sont-elles allees? le(e)s? 


248. Conjugation. An impersonal verb, or a verb used 
as such, is one conjugated, in the third singular only, with 
the subject il = it, there, used indefinitely and absolutely, 
e.g., tenner, to thunder: 


Pres. II tonne, it thunders Past Indf. II a tonn6, it has thundered 

Impf. II tonnait, it thundered Plupf. II avait tonne, it had thundered 

Past Dep. II tonna, it thundered Past Ant. II eut tonn6, it had thundered 

etc., etc., like the third singular of donner 

Note. — Apart from being limited to the third singular, their conjuga- 
tion does not differ from that of ordinary verbs. Some are regular, others 

249. Use of Impersonals. 1. Verbs denoting natural 
phenomena and time are impersonal, as in English: 

n tonne; il a plu; il pleuvra. It thunders; it rained; it will rain. 

II a gele hier; il degele. It froze yesterday; it is thawing. 

II est une heure; il est tard. It is one o'clock; it is late. 

Such verbs are: 
pleuvoir, rain grfeler, hail geler, freeze 

neiger, snow Sclairer, lighten degeler, thaw 

2. Faire = make, is also much used impersonally to de- 
scribe weather, temperature, etc.: 

§§250-251 IMPERSONAL VERBS 49 

Quel temps fait-il? What kind of weather is it? 

U fait beau (temps) ce matin. It is fine (weather) this morning. 

D a fait bien froid hier. It was very cold yesterday. 

n faisait du vent aussi. It was windy too. 

Est-ce qu'il fera obscur ce soir? Will it be dark this evening? 

D fait des eclairs. It is hghtning. 

06s.; Diijtinguish theae from constructions with a personal subject: 
Le temps est beau. The weather ia fine; L'eau est froide, The uxUer w cold. 

250. Impersonal avoir and etre. 1. The verb avoir, 
preceded by y, used impersonally = there is, there are, there 
was, there were, etc.: 

D y a. D y a eu. Y a-t-il? There is. There has been. Is there? 

D n'y a pas. II n'y a pas eu. There is not. There has not been. 

Y a-t-il eu? N'y a-t-il pas eu? Has there been? Has there not 


Y aura-t-il? II peut y avoir. Will there be? There may be. 

2. n est is sometimes used for 11 y a in this sense: 

n est des hommes qui le croient. There are men who think so. 

3. n y a = there is, there are, is distinguished from voUk 
= there is, there are. Voili answers the question 'where is?' 
'where are?* and makes a specific statement about an 
object to which attention is directed by pointing or the 
like, while il y a does not answer the question 'where is?' 
'where are?' and makes a general statement. 

n y a des plumes sur la table. There are pens on the table. 

Voilft les plumes sur la table. There are the pens on the table. 

4. Y avoir also forms idiomatic expressions of time, 
reckoned backwards, and of distance: 

lis sont arrives il y a trois jours. They came three days ago. 

D y avait trois jours que j'etais UL I had been there three daj's. 

Combien y a-t-il d'ici k la villa? How far is it to the city? 

n y a dix milles d'ici k la ville. It is ten miles from here to the city. 

261. Falloir = he necessary, expresses the various mean- 
ings of rrnist, be obliged to, have to, need, as follows: 

1. Must -h infinitive = falloir -}- que and subjunctive: 

50 THE VERB §252 

D faut que je parte. I must go. 

D faudra que vous restiez. You will have to (be obliged to) 


2. Or the subject of must, etc., if a personal pronoun, may 
become indirect object of falloir + an infinitive: 

D me faudrait tester. I should be obhged to remain. 

D leur faut faire cela. They must do that. 

D lui a fallu parler. He was forced (obhged) to speak. 

3. The infinitive construction without indirect object is 
used in general or indefinite statement: 

D faut faire son devoir. One must do one's duty. 

n ne faut pas voler. We must not steal. 

4. Falloir + an indirect object and a substantive signifies 
lack, need: 

n faut une ardoise k Jean. John needs a slate. 

n leur faudra cent francs. They will need a hundred francs. 

5. S'en falloir = lack: 

U s'en faujt de beaucoup que I'un The one is not nearly so good as the 
vaille I'autre. other. 

252. Other Impersonals. 1. Besides faire and avoir, 

already noted, many other verbs take a special meaning as 
impersonals : 

De quoi s'agit-il? What is the matter? 

H est souvent arrive que, etc. It has often happened that, etc. 

II vaudra mieux ne rien dire. It will be better to say nothing. 

n y va de ses joiu"s. His life is at stake. 

II se peut que je me trompe. It may be that I am mistaken. 

06s.: Compare the literal meanings: agir, act, arriver, arrive, valoir, be 
XDorth, alter, go, pouvoir, he able. 

2. Many verbs may stand in the third singular with im- 
personal 11 representing a logical subject, singular or plural, 
following the verb: 

n viendra un meilleur temps. There will come a happier time. 

H en reste trois livres. There remain three pounds of it. 

H est arrive des messagers. Messengers have arrived. 


253. Omission of il. U is understood in certain phrases, 
such as: 

Reste k savoir. It remains to be seen. 

N'importe. No matter (it matters not). 

Mleuz vaut tard que jamais. Better late than never. 


264. Use of Indicative. The indicative is the mood of 
direct or indirect assertion, and of direct or indirect inter- 
rogation. It stands both in principal and in subordinate 
clauses, both affirmative and negative: 

Dieu crea le monde. God created the world. 

Molse dit que Dieu crea le monde. Moses says that God created the 

Ot allez-vous? Where are you going? 

Dites-moi oii vous allez. Tell me where you arc going. 

Je le ferais, si je pouvais. I should do so if I could. 

Notes. — 1. It should be noted especially that the indicative is regu- 
larly the mood of indirect discourse and of 'if clauses. 

2. When the verb of a 8ulx>rdinate clause is subjunctive, the mood is 
determined by the context, and not simply by the fact that the clause is 


265. Periphrastic Forms. Such forms, so common in 
English, are not used in French: 

Je parte. I speak (am speaking, do speak). 

II a ecrit. He has written (has been writing), 

n disait. He was sajdng (used to say, etc.). 

256. Elliptical Forms. Ellipsis of part of a verb form is 
common in English; in French the form is either fully given 
or entirely avoided: 

pirai. — Moi, je n'irai pas. I shall go. — I shall not (go). 

II a promis de venir, Tnaig U n'est He promised to come, but he did 
pas venu. not (come). 

52 THE VERB §§257-258 

n est venu. — Vraiment ! He has come. — Has he ! ( Indeed !) 

Vous viendrez, n'est-ce pas? You will come, will you not? 

11 etait sorti, n'est-ce pas? He had gone out, had he not? 

257. Present Indicative. The present tense is used: 

1. To denote what is happening, including the habitual 
and the universally true: 

Je crois qu'il pleut. I think it is raining. 

II se leve toujours de bon matin. He always rises early. 

L'homme propose et Dieu dispose. Man proposes and God disposes. 

2. To denote what has happened and still continues, after 
11 y a . . . que, void (voila) . . . que, depuis, depuis quand? 
depuis . . . que : 

Depuis quand attendez-yous? How long have you been waiting? 

II y a (or voici, voil^) trois jours I have waited (I have been wait- 

que y attends, or ^attends de- ing) for three days. 

puis trois jours. 

3. Instead of a past tense in animated narrative: 

La nuit approche, I'instant arrive, Night draws on, the moment comes, 
Cesar se presente, etc. Caesar appears, etc. 

a. This use. is much commoner than in EngUsh, especially side by 
side with past tenses. It is called the 'Historical Present.' 

b. C'est . . . que + a past tense = was . . . that : 

C^est \k que je I'ai vu. It was there that I saw him. 

4. Instead of a future in familiar style: 

Nous partons demain matin. We go to-morrow morning. 

5. As a virtual future after si = if: 

Je serai content, si vous venez. I shall be glad if you (will) come. 

258. Imperfect Indicative. The action or state denoted 
by the imperfect is in general viewed as being in progress, 
i.e., as contemporaneous, customary, continued, etc., and 
it is employed as follows: 

1. To denote what was happening, when something else 
happened or was happening: 


B etait nuit, qtiand je sortis. It was night when I went out. 

n parlait, pendant que je chantais. He was talking while I sang. 

2. To denote what used to happen: 

n se levait de bon matin. He used to rise early. 

Je parlais souvent de cela. I often spoke (used to speak, would 

sp>eak) of that. 
Les Romains br(ilaient leurs morts. The Romans were accustomed to 

bum their dead. 

3. To denote what continued to happen: 

Son pdre etait negodant et de- Ilis father was a merchant and 
meiirait dans cette rue. lived in tiiis street. 

4. To denote what had happened and still continued, 
after il y a . . . que, void (voilA) . . . que, depuis, depuis 
quand? depuis . . . que (cf . § 257, 2) : 

Je le disais depuis longtemps. I had long been sajring so. 

VoiUl im an que je le disais. I had been sa>ing so for a year. 

5. In indirect discourse, after a past tense, instead of the 


Je croyals qu'il revenait I thought he was coming back. 

Je demandai oH 11 etait. I asked where he was. 

But: Oft est-H? demandai- je. "Where is he?" I asked. 

6. Regularly in an 'if* clause when the 'result' clause 
is conditional: 

S'il venait, je serais content. If he came, I should be ^ad. 

7. Occasionally, instead of the conditional anterior in 
conditional sentences: 

Si je ne Pavais pas arrete, il torn- Had I not stopped him he would 
bait (= serait tombe) du train. have fallen from the train. 

8. Sometimes instead of the past definite (§ 260) : 

Un moment apr^s, le pSre Alphee A moment afterwards, Father AI- 
se dressait, marchait k grands pheus rose, walked about with 

pas, voili, s'ecriait-il, etc. great strides, "There," cried he, 


269. Past Indefinite. The past indefinite is used: 

54 THE VERB §260 

1. To denote what has happened or has been happening, 
equivalent to an English tense with 'have/ reference to the 
present being implied: 

J'ai fini mon ouvrage. I have finished my work. 

L'avez-vous vu demierement? Have you seen him lately? 

Je I'ai souvent rencontre. I have often met him. 

J'ai chante toute la matinee. I have been singing all morning. 

2. In familiar style, spoken or written, to denote a past 
event, without implied reference to the present, or a succes- 
sion of such past events as mark the progress of a narrative, 
answering the question 'What happened?' or 'What hap- 
pened next?' For narrative in the literary style, see § 260: 
lis sent arrives ce soir. They arrived this evening. 

Je I'ai vu il y a dix ans. I saw him ten years ago. 

De quoi est-il mort? What did he die of? 

J'ai qmtte Rome le dix. Puis je I left Rome on the tenth. Then 

suis alle voir des amis k Lyon, I visited some friends at Lyons, 

j'ai passe quelques jours k I spent some days in Paris, and I 

Paris, et je suis revenu k Lon- came back to London yesterday. 
dres hier. 

3. Occasionally instead of a future anterior: 
Attendez, j'ai bientdt fini. Wait, I shall have finished soon. 

260. Past Definite. The past definite denotes a past 
event, or a succession of such past events as mark the 
progress of the narrative, answering the question 'What 
happened?' or 'What happened next?' Its use is largely 
confined to literary or "book" French, and formal public 
address. It is not much used in conversation or in easy 

Dieu area le monde. God created the world. 

La guerre dura sept ans. The war lasted seven years. 

On forca le palais, les sc61erats They broke into the palace, the 
n^oserent pas resister long- villains did not dare to resist 

temps et ne songerent qu'a long, and only thought of fleeing. 

fuir. Astarbe voulut se sauver Astarb6 tried to escape in the 

dans la foiJe, mais un soldat crowd, but a soldier recognized 

la reconnut; elle fut prise. her; she was captured. 


a. Some verbs have a special force in the past definite: 
£tre: je fus. To be: I became. 

Avoir: j'eus. To have: I received. 

Savoir: je sus. To know: I found out (learned). 

Connaltre: je connus. To know: I reaUzed. 

In this force fus and sus are common, the other two less so. 

261. Examples of Narrative. 1. The following exam- 
ples illustrate the principal uses of the past definite, 
imperfect, past indefinite, and historical present, in the 
literary narrative style: 

Les Turcs, qui cependant entouralent cette maison tout embrasde, 
voyaient avec une admiration mel^e d'^pouvante que les Su6dois n'en 
sortaient point; mais leur dtonnement fut encore plus grand lorsqu'ils 
▼irent ouvrir les portes, et le roi et les siens fondre sur eux en d^ses- 
p6t6b. Charles et sea principaux officiers £taient armds d'^p^es et de 
pistolcts: chacun tira deux coups k la fois k Tinstant que la porte 
s'ouvrit; et dans le mSme clin d'oeil, jetant leurs pistolets et s'armant 
dc leurs 6p6cs, ils firent reculer les Turcs plus de cinquante pas; mais 
le moment d'apr&s cette petite troupe fut entour^e: le roi, qui 6tait en 
bottes selon sa coutume, s'embarrassa dans ses ^perons, et tomba; 
vingt et un janissaires se jettent aussitdt sur lui: il jette en I'air son 
6p6e pour s'^pargner la douleur de la rendre; les Turcs I'emmSnent 
au quartier du bacha. — Voltaire. 

Stanislas se deroba un jour k dix heures du soir de I'armde suddoise 
qu'il commandait en Pomdranie, et partit avec le baron Sparre, qui a 
6t6 depuis ambassadeur en Angleterre et en France, et avec un autre 
colonel: il prend le nom d'un Fran?ais, nomm6 Ilaran, alors major 
au service de SuMe, et qui est mort depuis commandant de Dantzick. 

— Vollatre. 

2. So nearly identical may be the force of the past definite 
and the past indefinite, as narrative tenses, that they are 
often used interchangeably, as in the following extract, 
taken from a newspaper: 

LoNDRES, 5 aoGt. — Hier soir, k onze heures et demie, un incendie 
a eclate dans I'atelier de composition de la National Press Agency. 
Plusieurs pompes k vapeur arrivdrent immddiatement sur le lieu du 
sinistre, et I'incendie s'etendit avec une telle rapidity, que toute la 
maison a ete completement ddtruite. — Le Matin. 

56 THE VERB §§262-263 

262. Pluperfect and Past Anterior. 1. Both denote 
what 'had happened,' hke the EngUsh pluperfect: 
Lorsque je I'avais (eus) fini. When I had finished it. 

2. The pluperfect is of much commoner occurrence than 
the past anterior, and is used after si = if, in conditional 
clauses, or when custom, continuance, etc., is implied (but 
cf. §§258,275,6): 

Si je I'avais vu, je I'aurais dit. Had I seen it, I should have said so. 

J'avais toujoxxrs fini avant midi. I always had finished before noon. 

3. The past anterior denotes what had happened imme- 
diately before another past event. It is rarely used except 
after conjunctions of time, such as lorsque, quand, apres 
que, aussitot que, ne . . . pas plus tot . . . que, etc. : 

Apres qu'il eut dine, il partit. After he had dined, he set out. 

263. Future. The future is used: 

1. To denote what will happen: 

Ds viendront demain. They will come to-morrow. 

Je les verrai bientSt. I shall see them soon. 

Je ne sais pas s'il viendra. I know not whether he will come. 

a. Distinguish English 'will' of futurity from 'will' of vohtion, and 
from 'will' of habitual action: 

H ne resiera pas. He will not stay. 

H ne veut pas rester. He will not stay. 

Ce chasseur reste souvent dans That hunter will often remain 

les bois pendant des mois whole months in the woods. 


b. Observe the following commonly occurring forms: 
Ne voulez-vous pas rester? Will you not stay? 
Voulez-vous que je reste? Shall I stay? 

Je ne resterai pas. I shall not stay, 

2. Regularly in a subordinate clause of implied futurity: 
Payez-le quand il viendra. Pay him when he comes. 

Faites comme vous voudrez. Do as you please. 

Tant que je vivrai. As long as I live. 

3. To denote probability, conjecture, or possibiHty, etc.: 


La nef appartient au Xn® siecle, The nave belongs to the 12th cen- 
mais le choeur sera du XV®. tury, but the choir is probably 

of the 15th. 

4. Sometimes with imperative force: 

Tu ne tueras point. Thou shalt not kill. 

Vous voudrez bien m'ecouter. Be good enough to hear me. 

a. This use is common in official style (edicts, etc.). 

264. Future Anterior. The future anterior is used: 

1. To denote what will have happened: 

n aura bientdt finL He will soon have done. 

2. To denote implied futurity (cf. § 263, 2), probability, 
conjecture, or possibility, etc. (cf. § 263, 3) : 

Quand vous serez rentr€ je When you have come home, I 

sortiral. shall go out. 

Je me serai trompe. I must have made a mistake. 

265. Conditional. 1. The main use of the conditional is 
to denote result dependent on condition, i.e., what would 
happen in case something else were to happen: 

Je serais content, s'il venait. I should be glad if he came. 

a. The condition on which the result would depend is often merely 
implied, but not formally stated: 

Heslter serait ime faiblesse. To hesitate would be weakness. 

6. Distinguish English 'should' of duty, etc., 'would' of volition, 
and 'would' of past habit, from conditional 'should' and 'would': 
Je devrais partir. I should (ought to) set out. 

D ne voulait pas ecouter. He would not listen. 

yallais souvent le voir. I would often go to see him. 

2. It corresponds to an English past in a subordinate 
clause of implied futurity (cf . § 263, 2) : 

Je prendrais ce qui resterait. I should take what remained. 

3. In indirect discourse, it denotes what was once future 
and is now regarded as past, i.e., the original future of the 

58 THE VERB §§266-267 

assertion or question becomes a conditional when in a clause 
subordinate to a verb in a past tense: 

Je croyais qu'il pleuvrait. I thought it would rain. 

A-t-U dit s'il le ferait? Did he say whether he would do so? 

But: Je le ferai, dit-il. "I shall do so," said he. 

4. It is used in statement or request expressed with defer- 
ence or reserve: 

Je le croirais au moins. I should think so, at least. 

Auriez-vous la bonte d'y aller? Would you have the kindness to go? 

Cela ne serait jamais vrai. That never could (can) be true 

Je ne saurais vous le dire. I cannot tell you. 

Je voudrais qu'U fiit (soit) ici. I wish he were here. 

5. It sometimes denotes probability, conjecture, or possi- 
bility, etc., in exclamations and questions (cf. §263, 3): 

Serait-il vrai qu'il I'ait dit? Can it be true that he said so? 

Serait-il possible? Can (could) it be possible? 

6. It sometimes denotes concession after quand, quand 
meme, or with que: 

Quand (meme) il me tuerait, etc. Even if he should kiU me, etc. 
Vous me le jiireriez que je ne Even if you swore it to me, I 
vous croirais pas. should not believe you. 

7. It is used to give the substance of hearsay information: 
A ce qu'on dit, le roi serait malade. By what they say, the king is ill. 

266. Conditional Anterior. Its uses are precisely parallel 
with those of the conditional (§ 265) ; it denotes what would 
have happened, etc., etc.: 

Je serais parti, s'il etait venu. I should have gone had he come. 

Selon les joumaux, la guerre se According to the newspapers, war 
serait declaree hier soir. was declared last evening. 

267. Imperative Mood. It is used in general as in 

Lisez-le. Ne le lisez pas. Read it. Do not read it. 

Allons-nous-en a present. Let us go away now. 

Veuillez m'ecouter. Be good enough to hear me. 


a. The first plural sometimes serves instead of the lacking first 

Soyons digne de ma naissance. Let me be worthy of my birth. 
Pensons im moment. Let me think a moment. 

b. The imperatives va, aliens, allez, voyons, often have special 
idiomatic force: 

Allons done! Allons, du courage ! Nonsense ! Come, courage ! 

J^en suis content, allez! I am glad of it, I can assure you I 

Voyons, que pensez-vous? Come now, what do you think? 

c. An imperative perfect is rare: 

Ayez fini votre tAche ce soir. Have your task done to-night. 


268. General Function. The subjunctive denotes, in 
general, what is viewed as being desirable or undesir able^ 
uncertain, contingent, or the like, and usually stands in a 
subordinate clause. 

269. Subjunctive in Noun Clause. The subjunctive is 
used in a clause introduced by que and serving as logical 
subject or as object of a verb: 

1. After expressions of desiring (including willing, wish- 
ing, preferring) and avoiding: 

Je desire (veux) qu'il parte. I desire (wish) him to go. 

Voulez-vous que je reste? Do you wish me to (shall I) stay? 

Je souhaite qu'il ait du succ^s. I wish that he may have success, 

n prefere que vous restiez. He prefers that you should stay, 

fivitez qu'il (ne) vous voie. Avoid his seeing you. 

Such are: 

aimer, like feateH^owna -•*^ souhaiter, wish 

aimer mieux, prefer prtf^rer, prefer il me tarde, / long 

avoir cnvie, be desirous prendre garde , take vouloir, vrill, wish, 

dfeirer, desire, wish care (lest!)-*^ etc. 

a. Prendre garde requires ne in the subjunctive clause; so also, 
4viter generally. 
Prends garde que cela ne se fasse. Take care lest that happen. 




2. After expressions of commanding (including request- 
ing, exhorting), forbidding, consenting: 

You order me to go. 

I ask that you should pay me. 

Tell them to be ready. 

The doctor forbids me to go out. 

I consent that that be done. 

Vous ordonnez que je m'en aille. 
Je demande que vous me payiez. 
Dis-leur qu'ils soient prets. 
Le medecin defend que je sorte. 
Je consens que cela se fasse. 

Such are: 
admettre, admit 
agreer, permit 
avoir soin, fake care 
conjurer, implore 
consentir, consent 
convenir, agree 
defendre, forbid 

demander, ask pennettre, permit 

empecher, hinder ^JL prier, heg, ask 

exhorter, exhort souffrir, suffer 

exiger, exact supplier, beg, pray 

laisser, allow trouver nature!, find natural 

s'opposer, oppose veiller, take care 

ordonner, order etc. 

So also, dire, tell, ecrire, write, entendre, mean, pretendre, intend, when 
denoting command. 

a. The future or conditional often stands after arreter, commander, 
decider, decreter, etc., especially when the subject is a word denoting 
final authority, such as cour, roi, etc. : 

Le roi decrete qu'il sera pendu. The king decrees that he shall be 


6. The subjunctive after empecher usually has ne: 
Empechez qu'il ne sorte. Prevent his going out. 

3. After expressions of judgment or opinion involving 
approval or disapproval: 

J'approuve qu'il revienne. 

n merite qu'on le craigne. 

H vaut mieux que vous restiez. 

Je tiens beaucoup a ce qu'il y soit. 

I approve of his coming back. 
He deserves to be feared. 
It is better for you to stay. 
I am very anxious that he should 
be there. 

Such are: 
approuver, approve 
bia.mer, blame 
d^sapprouver, disapprove 
6tre digne, be worthy 
fetre indigne, 6c unworthy 
juger h propos, think fit 

louer, praise 
m6riter, deserve 
tenir (h ce que), insist 
trouver bon, approve 
trouver mauvais, dis- 

trouver juste, think just 
trouver in juste, think 

valoir, be worthy 

So also, a large nvmiber of impersonals of like force; 




U convient, it ia fitting 
il est, it is ... . 
+ k propos, proper 
-\- bien, well 
-\- bon, good 
+ convenable, fitting 
-(- essentiel, essential 
+ & d^sirer, to be desired 
+ facile, easy 

+ important, important 
-f- indispensable, indis- 
+ juste, just 
+ naturel, natural 
+ n^ceesaire, n«ce««ary 
+ k souhaiter, to be 

+ temps, time 

u necessary, 

il faut, it 

il importe, it is important 
il peut se faire, t^ may be 
il suffit, it suffices 
il vaut mieux, it is better 

etc., and their oppo- 


4. After expressions of emotion or sentiment, such as joy, 
sorrow, anger, shame, wonder, fear: 
fites-vous content qu'il soit ici? Are you glad he is here? 

Je regrette qu'il soit parti. 
II est fiche que vous le bl&miez. 
II a honte que vous le sachiez. 
Je m'etonne qu'il n'ait pas honte. 
J'ai peur qu'il n'ait trop dit. 

Such are: 
admirer, be astonished 
s'affliger, grieve 
avoir honte, be ashamed 
avoir crainte, fear 
avoir peur, fear 
craindre, fear 
d6plorer, deplore 
c'est, it is ... . 
+ un bonheur, fortunate 
+ dommage, a pity 
4- une honte, a shame 
+ honteux, a shame 
+ piti6, a pity 
U est, it is ... . 
+ curieux, strange 

I regret that he has gone. 
He is angry at your blaming him. 
He is ashamed that you know it. 
I wonder he is not ashamed. 
I fear he has said too much. 

+ 6tonnant, astonishing -\- joyeux, glad 

•\- f&cheux, annoying 
+ heureux, fortunate 
enrager, be enraged 
8'6tonncr, be astonished 
fetre, be ... . 
+ afflig6, grieved 
+ bien aise, very glad 
-\- charm6, delighted 
-\- content, glad 
-\- d68ol6, very sorry 
+ 6tonn6, astonished 
+ f&ch6, sorry, angry 
+ heureux, happy 

+ m^content, displeased 
-\- satisfait, satisfied 
+ surpris, surprised 
+ trist€, sad 
86 f&cher, be sorry, angry 
se plaindre, complain 
redouter, fear 
regretter, regret 
se r^jouir, rejoice 
se rcpentir, repent 
Boupirer, sigh 
trembler, tremble 

+ indign6, indignant 

a. When it is feared something will happen the subjunctive has ne; 
when it is feared something will not happen the subjunctive has ne . . . 
pas; when the expression of fearing is negative, or interrogative, or 
conditional, ne is usually omitted; with double negation ne . . . pas 
stands in both (see also § 419 and Appendix referring to § 419) : 
Je crains qu'il ne vienne. I fear he will come. 

Je crains qu'il ne vienne pas. I fear he will not come. 

Je ne crains pas qu'il vienne. I do not fear he will come. 

Craignez-vous qu'il vienne? Do you fear he will come? 

62 THE VERB §269 

Ne craignez-vous pas qu'il ne vienne? Do you not fear he will come? 
Si je craignais qu'il vint. If I feared he would come. 

Je ne crains pas qu'il ne vienne pas, I do not fear he will not come. 

h. After expressions of emotion or sentiment (except fear), which 
admit de after them, de ce que + indicative may be used: 
J'ai honte de ce qu'U. a echoue. I am ashamed that he failed. 

5. After expressions of doubt, denial, despair, ignorance, 

or very slight probability: 

n doute que je sois loyal. He doubts that (whether) I am honest. 

Je nie que cela soit vrai. I deny that that is true. 

H est rare que vous ayez tort. You are rarely in the wrong. 

Such are: 

contester, dispute + faux, false de (k) quel sert-il? of 

d6sesp6rer, despair + impossible, impossible what use is it f 

disoonvenir, deny + possible, possible il ne sert de (k) rien, 

diasimuler, not confess + rare, rare it is of no vse 

se dissimuler, be hidden il s'en faut, there is want- il se peut, it may be 

douter, doubt ing il ne se peut pas, it 

il est, it is . . . ignorer, not know cannot be 

+ douteux, doubtful nier, deny ' il semble, it seems, etc. 

o. Douter si ( = if, whether) requires the indicative: 
H doute si je suis loyal. He doubts if (whether) I am honest. 

h. H semble regularly has the subjunctive, since it indicates shght 
probabiUty as distinguished from il parait = it appears, is evident, 
and il me semble = it appears to me (personal conviction; but cf. 6, c): 
n semble que vous me craigniez. It seems that you fear me. 
n me semble (il parait) que vous It seems to me (it appears) that you 

me craignez. fear me. 

c. Verbs of doubt and denial used negatively or interrogatively regu- 
larly require ne in the subjunctive clause: 

Je ne nie pas que je ne le sois. I do not deny that I am such. 

d. Ignorer + negative = know well, and hence takes indicative: 

Je n'ignore pas qu'il a menti. I know well he has lied. 

Note. — Peut-gtre que, perhaps, and sans doute que, doubtless, require 
the indicative. 

6. After expressions of perceiving, thinking, knowing, 
declaring, resulting, but only when uncertainty or doubt is 




implied by negation, interrogation, or condition; otherwise 
the indicative: 

Will they see that I have wept? 

I do not think that that is he. 

Do you hope he will succeed? 

I am not sure he will come. 

If I claimed that he was wrong. 

I think it is he. 

I hope he will succeed. 

Verra-t-on que j'aie pleure? 
Je ne crois pas que ce soit lui. 
Esperez-vous qu'il reussisse? 
Je ne suis pas sdr qu'il vienne. 
Si je pretendais qu'il ett tort. 
But: Je crois que c*est lui. 
J'espdre qu'il reussira. 

Such are: 
ftflSnner, affirm 
s'apercevoir, perceive 
apprendre, learn, hear 
assurer, assure 
s'attendre, expect 
avertir, «wm 
avoucr, declare 
coDclure, conclude 
connattre, recognize 
croire, believe, think 
d6clarjr, declare 
deviner, guess 
dire, say, tell 
se douter, suspect 
6crire, write 
entendre dire, fiear said 

esp^rer, hope prgvoir, foresee 

6tre certain, be certain promettre, promise 

6tre persuade, be persuaded se rappeler, recollect 

reconnaltre, achruneledot 
remarquer, remark 
r^p^ter, repeat 
r^pondre, ansxcer 
savoir, know 
sentir, feil, notice 
soutenir, maintain 
se souvenir, recollect 
supposer, suppose 
trouver, find, think 
voir, see 

6tre s<lr, be sure 
se figurer, imagine 
se flatter, flatter onesdf 
imaginer, imagine 
s'imaginer, imagine 
juger, judge, think 
jurer, declare 
oublier, forget 
penaer, think 
persuader, persuade 
pressentir, fordtode 
pr6tendre, assert, claim 
pr6venir, forewarn 

So also, a number of impersonals of like force: 
il s'ensuit, it follows + Evident, evident -\- ^a, sure 

+ dfemontrfe, demonstrated + vraisemblable, prchabiU 
+ incontestable, indisput- il r&ulte, it follows 

able il me semble, it seems to 

+ probaMe, probable me 

a. N^ative question usually implies affirmation; hence the indica- 
Ne trouves-tu pas qu'il est beau? Don't you think he is handsome? 

6. When what the speaker regards as fact follows the negative or 
conditional clause, or when a person is questioned as to his knowledge 
of what is regarded as fact, the indicative stands: 
D ne croit pas que je suis ici. He does not beUeve I am here. 

S'il savait que tu es ici. If he knew you were here. 

Savez-vous qu'il est arrive? Do you know that he has come? 

il est &\&t€, it is stated 
il est, it is . . . 
+ certain, certain 
+ clair, clear 

64 THE VERB § 270 

c. H ne me semble pas is followed by the subjunctive, but in nega- 
tive interrogation by the indicative (cf. also 5 b): 

H ne me semble pas qu'il soit fou. It does not seem to me he is mad. 
Ne vous semble-t-il pas qu'il est fou? Does it not seem to you he is mad? 

d. A preceding dependent clause with this class of verbs always has 
the subjunctive: 

Qu'il ail echoue, je le sais. That he has failed, I know. 

Note. — For the choice between que clause and infinitive see § 283. 

270. Subjunctive in Adjectival Clause. The subjunc- 
tive is used as follows in clauses introduced by a relative 

1. When purpose regarding the antecedent, or unattained 
result is implied: 

Montrez-moi im chemin qui con- Show me a way which leads to 

dulse a la science. knowledge. 

Je cherche un endroit oil je sois I seek a place where I may be in 

en paix. peace. 

a. The indicative, however, is used to express what is regarded aa 
fact or certain result: 

Montrez-moi le chemin qui con- Show me the road which leads to 

duit a la ville. the town. 

J'irai oft je serai libre. I shall go where I shall be free.^ 

2. When the principal clause contains general negation, 
interrogation implying negative answer, or condition (all of 
which imply non-existence of the antecedent): 

H n'a pas de raison qui vaille. He has no reason worth anything. 

As-tu im seul ami qui soit fidele? Have you one friend who is true? 

Si j'ai im ami qui soit fidele c'est If I have one friend who is true, it 

lui. is he. 

a. General negation is sometimes merely implied: 

n y a peu de gens qui le sachent. There are few people who know it. 

b. When the negation is not general, or when the interrogation does 
not imply negative answer, the indicative stands: 

Ce n'est pas vous que je crains. It is not you that I fear. 
N'est-ce point un songe que je vois I Is it not a dream that I see 1 


c. In a n^ative relative clause ne, not ne . . . pas, is used when the 
principal clause is n(^ative or implies negation: 
En est-il un seal qui ne tremble? Is there one who does not tremble? 

3. When the antecedent is qualified by a superlative, or by 
seul, unique, premier, dernier (all with superlative force) : 

C'est le meilleur ami que j'aie. He is the best friend that I have. 
C'est le seul ami que j'aie. He is the only friend I have. 

a. What is stated unreservedly as fact requires the indicative: 

C'est la seule chose qu'il a dite. It is the only thing he said. 

4. With concessive force in compound relative and in- 
definite clauses (= 'whoever/ 'whatever,' etc.): 

Quoi que vous fassiez. Whatever you do. 

Qui qu'on y puisse 6Iire. Whosoever may be elected to it. 

Qui que tu sois, parle ! Whoever you are, speak ! 

Quelles que soient vos raisons. Whatever be your reasons. 

271. Subjunctive in Adverbial Clause. The subjunctive 
is used in clauses of adverbial force, as follows: 

1. After conjunctions of time before which or up to which 
(avant que, en attendant que, jusqu'i ce que): 

Dis-Ie-lui, avant qu'il parte. Tell it to him before he goes. 

Asseyez-vous, en attendant qu'il Sit down until he comes back. 

Perseverez jusqu'4 ce que vous Persevere till you have succeeded. 

ayez reussi. 

a. Jusqu'i ce que may have the indicative* when referring to com- 
pleted past event: 

n y resta jusqu'i ce que je revins. He remained till I came back. 

2. After conjunctions of purpose or result (afin que, pour 
que, de crainte que, de peur que) : 

.Pecris ceci afin que (pour que) I write this in order that you may 

vous sachiez la verite. know the truth. 

Je le tins de crainte qu'il ne torn- I held him for fear he should falL 
. bit. 

66 THE VERB §271 

a. So also, de sorte que, en sorte que, de telle sorte que, de fagon 
que, de maniere que, tel . . . que, tellement . . . que, when denoting pur- 
pose, but not result: 

Agis de sorte que tu reussisses. Act in such a way as to succeed. 
But: J'al agi de sorte que j'ai reussi. I acted so that I succeeded. 

3. After conjunctions of condition (en cas que, au cas 
que, a moins que . . . ne, pourvu que, suppose que, en 
supposant que): 

Je viendrai au cas que je sois I shall come in case I am free to- 
libre demain, ou k moins que morrow, or unless I am detained. 

je ne sois retenu. 

a. After si = if, the pluperfect subjunctive stands exceptionally 

6. The present subjunctive sometimes expresses condition: 
Vienne I'ennemi, 11 s'enfuit. If the enemy comes, he flees. 

c. A (la) condition que takes indicative, conditional, or subjunctive: 
Je lui donne I'argent & (la) condi- I give him the money on condition 

tion qu'il partira (or parte), that he will go. 

Note. — Dans le cas oH, au cas ofi usually have conditional: Au cas ofi 
cela serait vrai, In case that should be true. 

4. After conjunctions of concession (quoique, bien que, 
encore que, nonobstant que, soit que . . . soit que or ou 
que, pour (si) peu que, si tant est que, malgre que) : 

Bien qu'il soit malade, il sortira. Although he is ill, he wiU go out. 
Pour peu qu'il fiit malade, il se If he were ever so httle ill, he 
croyait mourant. thought himself dying. 

a. The present subjunctive with que sometimes has concessive force: 
Qu'il perde ou gagne, U partira. Though he lose or win, he will go. 

b. The use of a subjunctive after adverbial quelque (tout, si, etc.) + 
que = however depends on the same principle: 

Quelque grand que vous soyez. However great you may be. 

Si brave qu'il se croie. However brave he thinks himself. 

c. Quand (meme) used concessively sometimes takes the pluperfect 
subjunctive for the conditional anterior (cf . § 265, 6) : 

Quand (meme) il m'efit dit cela. Even if he had told me that. 


5. After conjunctions of negative force (non que, non pas 
que, loin que, sans que) : 

partit sans que je le susse. He went away without my knowing it. 

6. After que replacing any conjunction requiring the sub- 
junctive, and also after que replacing si = if: 

Venez que ( = afin que, pour que) Come, that I may see you. 

je vous voie. 
Si je viens et que je le voie. If I come, and if I see him. 

272. Subjunctive in Principal Clause. The subjunctive 
is sometimes used in principal clauses, as follows: 

1. Either with or without que to denote what is desired, 

Ainsi soit-il I Vive le roi I So be it ! (Long) live the king ! 

Plflt k Dieu qu'il en ffit ainsi 1 Would to God it were so ! 

Qu'il parte tout de suite. Let him go at once. 

(Que) je meure, si je mens I May I die if I am lying! 

Le croie qui voudra ! Let him believe it who will \ 

a. Que followed by the third person present subjunctive regularly 
serves as an imperative; so also, sometimes, the first singular: 
Qu'il parte. Let him go. 

Que je vous entende. Let me hear you. 

Note. — This construction, as also those without que, may be explained 
by ellipsis of some expression of desire, command, etc. (§ 269, 1, 2). 

2. The present subjunctive first singular of savoir is 
sometimes used to denote modified assertion: 

Je ne sache rien de plus beau. I know nothing finer. 

3. The pluperfect subjunctive stands exceptionally for 
conditional anterior in a ' result ' clause (cf . § 275, 6) : 

S'il eflt (or avait) su cela, il ne If he had known that, he would not 
I'eftt {or aurait) pas dit. have said it. 

273. Tense Sequence. The tense of the subjimctive is 
usually determined by the tense of the finite verb in the 
governing clause, as follows: 

68 THE VERB § 273 

la. A present (including present subjunctive and impera- 
tive) or a future, in the governing clause, requires the pres- 
ent subjunctive in the governed clause in order to denote 
incomplete action: 
Je doute 1 I doubt that (whether) he will come. 

Quoique je doute [ ,.. . Though I doubt that he will come. 

Doutez [ * Doubt that he wUl come. 

Je douterai J I shall doubt that he will come. 

1&. But if we wish to denote completed action the perfect 
subjunctive must be used: 
Je doute qu'il soft venu. I doubt that he has come. 

2a. Any other tense than the above (i.e., an imperfect, 
past definite, past indefinite, conditional, etc.) requires the 
imperfect subjunctive in order to denote incomplete action: 

Je doutais 
Quoique je doutasse 

Je doutai 1 

J'ai doute J 
Je douterais 

I doubted whether he would come. 

,., Though I doubted that he would come, 
qu'il ^ 

vint. I doubted that he would come. 

I should doubt that he would come. 

26. But if we wish to denote completed action, the plu- 
perfect subjunctive must be used: 

Je doutais ) qu'il fut I doubted that he had come. 

J'aurais doute j venu. I should have doubted that he had come. 

3. The following exceptional cases depend mainly on the 
sense of the context: 

a. J'ai doute qu'il viemie. I have doubted that he will come. 

&. After verbs of saying, believing, etc., a governing present may 
take a past subjunctive and vice versa: 

Je ne dis pas qu'il fiit k bltmer. I do not say he was to blame. 
D ne croyait pas qu'il y ait xm He did not believe that there is a 

Dieu. God. 

c. In a relative clause a past indefinite may stand for a pluperfect: 
n portait cet habit la seule fois He was wearing that coat the only 
que je Vaie vu* time that I saw him. 


d. The conditional of modified assertion (§ 265, 4), being virtually a 
present, is commonly followed by the present subjunctive: 

Je desirerais que vous veniez. I should like you to come. 

D faudrait qu'il s'en aille. He would have to go. 

e. The imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive, with the force of an 
EInglish conditional, may follow any tense: 

n n'y a pas de rang qu'elle ne There is no rank she could not hold. 

put tenir. 
Je doute qu'il jou&t (eflt joue), I doubt that he would play (would 

s'il avait (avait eu) de Targent. have played) if he had (had had) 



274. Tsrpical Fonn. A conditional sentence consists 
r^ularly of two parts: the condition, introduced by si = if, 
and the result: 

Si j'avais le temps, j'irais i B. If I had time, I should go to B. 

a. The condition may, of course, either precede or follow the result: 

Irez-vous k B, s'il pleut? Will you go to B if it rains? 

S'il ne fait pas beau, je n'irai pas. If it is not fine, I shall not go. 

h. The condition is often di^msed or imphed, or the result under- 

Hlsiter serait une faiblesse. To hesitate would be weakness. 

Je n'irais pas (si petals de lui). I should not go (if I were he). 
Ah I si j'etais k sa place. Ah, if I were in his place I 

275. Mood and Tense. A 'result' clause in the present 
indicative, imperative, or future, regularly requires the *if' 
clause in the present indicative; a 'result' clause in the 
conditional regularly requires the 'if ' clause in the imperfect 

S'il a le temps, il y va. If he has time, he goes there. 

S'il a le temps, ditesAvl de 7eoir. If he has (have, will have, should 

have) time, tell him to come. 

70 THE VERB 5275 

S'il a le temps, il viendra. If he has (have, will have, should 

have) time, he will come. 

S'il avait le temps, il viendrait. If he had (had he, were he to have, 

if he should have, should he 
have) time, he would come. 
068..* The condition is regularly expressed by the indicative present or 

imperfect, whatever be the corresponding English form. 

a. The above rules hold good for compound tenses, the auxiliary 
being considered as the verb: 

S'il Va dit, U le fera. If he has said it, he will do it. 

S'il est venu, faites~le~moi savoir. If he has come, let me know. 

S'il a eu le temps, il sera venu. If he has had time, he will have 

Si yavais eu le temps, je serais If I had had time, I should have 

parti. gone. 

S'il etait brave, il aurait fait cela. If he were brave, he would have 

done that. 

6. Sometimes, in literary style, the pluperfect subjunctive stands in 
the 'if clause, or in the 'result' clause, or in both: 

S'il efit (or avait) su cela, il ne Had he known that, he would not 
I'eftt {or aurait) pas dit. have said so. 

c. Occasionally the imperfect indicative stands in the 'if clause 
instead of the pluperfect, and in the * result ' clause instead of the con- 
ditional anterior: 

Si Stanislas demeurait ( = etait If Stanislas had remained, he would 
demeure), il etait (= aurait have been lost. 

ete) perdu. 

d. Occasionally the condition is expressed by inversion, without si: 

N'etait-ce la crainte de cela. If it were not for fear of that. 

Eftt-il ete moins riche. If he had been poorer. 

e. A virtual condition (concession) is sometimes expressed by various 

Quiconque le fera. Whoever (if any one) does it. 

Quand meme il ne I'aurait pas dit. Even though he had not said so. 

H le dirait que je ne le croirais Even if he said it, I should not 
pas. beUeve it. 


/. The past definite is rare in the 'if' clause. The expression s'il 
en fut, however, ia noteworthy: 

Riche, s'il en fut (jamais), mais Rich, if any one ev&c was, but oor- 
corrompu. nipt. 

g. Si = whether may take the future or conditional: 
Dis-moi si tu iras (irais) chez elle. Tell me whether (if) you will 

(would) go to her house. 


276. Function. The infinitive is a verbal noun. As a verb 
it governs, and as a noun it serves as subject, object, etc.: 
Vous devriez lui parler. You ought to speak to him. 

Voir c'est croire. Seeing is beUeving. 

D lit sans comprendre. He reads without understanding. 

277. Use of Infinitive. The chief difiiculty in the use of 
the infinitive is to determine, (1) when it should stand with- 
out any preposition, (2) when it should be preceded by k, 
(3) when it should be preceded by de. 

278. Infinitive without Preposition. The infinitive with- 
out any preposition is used: 

1. As subject, or in apposition: 

Mentir est honteuz. To lie (lying) is base. 

Trop parler nuit. Too much talk does harm, 

^^vre c'est souflfrir. To hve is to suflFer. 

2. As predicate after a few verbs (see list below) : 
Vous semblez hesiter. You seem to hesitate. 

n est cense ravoir fait. He is supposed to have done it. 

3. As logical subject after a few impersonals (see list below) : 
n yaudrait mieux se taire. It would be better to keep quiet. 
n fait Cher vivre k Paris. Living is dear in Paris. 

4. As object or complement after the so-called modal 
auxiliaries (§ 230), after most verbs of motion and causation 
of motion, after verbs of desiring and preferring, after verbs 
of perceiving, after verbs of thinking and intending, after 




verbs of saying and declaring, and after certain verbs of 
lacking and failing (see list below): 

Voulez-vous diner chez nous? 
Faites-lm apprendre sa lefon. 
Envoyez chercher le medecin. 
Je desirerais lui parler. 
Je les vois venir. 
Quand comptez-vous revenir? 
II pretend avoir raison. 
J'avais beau crier. 

Will you dine with us? 

Make him learn his lesson. 

Send for the doctor. 

I should Uke to speak to him. 

I see them come (coming). 

When do you expect to come back? 

He claims to be in the right. 

It was in vain that I shouted. 

5. Sometimes, in elliptical expressions, as an imperative, 
as a direct or indirect interrogative, or absolutely: 

Voir les affiches. See the posters. 

Que faire? Oft me cacher? What (am I) to do? Wtere hide? 

Je ne sals que faire. I know not what to do. 

Penser qu'il a dit cela I To think that he said that I 

6. Reference list of verbs requiring direct infinitive: 

accourir, hasten envoyer, send se rappeler,* recollect 

affirmer, affirm csperer,* liope reconnaltre, acknowledge 

aimer (condl.), should like fctre, be • regarder, look at 

aimer autant, like as well fetre cens6, be supposed rentrer, go in again 

aimer mieux, prefer 
aller, go 

apercevoir, perceive 
assurer, assure 
avoir beau, be in vain 
avouer, avow 
compter, 1 intend 
confesser, confess 
courir, run 
croire, think 
daigner, deign 
declarer, declare 
deposer, testify 

faillir,2 ^^ q^ the point of retourner, go back' 

i aire, make, cause 
il fait (impers.), it is 
falloir, be necessary 
se figurer, imagine 
s'imaginer, fancy 
juger, consider 

revenir, come back 
savoir, know how to, can 
sembler, seem 
sentir, hear, feel 
souhaiter,* vnsh 
soutenir, maintain 

jurer,^ swear, attest by oath supposer, suppose 

laisser,' * let, allow 
mener, lead, bring 
mettre, set, put at 
monter, go up 
oser, dare 

descendre,' come(go)down ouir, hear 

desirer,! desire, vnsh 
devoir, ought, to be, etc. 
dire,* say 
6couter, listen to 
entendre, hear, intend 
* Sometimes takes de. 

parattre, appear 
I>enser,' intend, be near 
pouvoir, can, may 
pr6ferer, prefer 
pretendre, assert, claim 

^ Sometimes takes k or de. 

6tre supposfe, be supposed 

t^moigner, testify 

se trouver, be 

valoir autant, be as good 

valoir mieux, be better 

venir,' * come 

voir, see 

voler, fly 

vouloir, will, vnsh 

* See also list of 

verbs requiring k (§ 279, 6). * See also list of verbs requiring de (§ 280, 6). 

§ 279 THE INFlNrnVE MOOD 73 

a. Devoir = owe, be indebted, with indirect object takes de: 

Je lui dois d'etre encore en vie. I owe to him that I am still alive. 

b. Faire takes de in ne faire que de: 

n ne fait que de sortLr. He has just gone out. 

c. Ne pas laisser = not to cease, etc., takes de: 

n ne laisse pas (que) de le dire. He is always saying so (says so for 

all that). 

279. Infinitive with the Preposition h. The infinitive 
preceded by a = to, in, at, by, etc., is used: 

1. As direct object of a few transitives (see list below): 
paime d. chanter. I Uke to sing. 

Continuez k lire. Continue to read. 

D m'enseigne k chanter. He teaches me to sing (singing). 

J'ai k etudier demain. I have to study to-morrow. 

D n'y a pas k se plaindre. There is nothing to complain of. 

2. As a complement, after many verbs, to denote the 
object to which the action tends (answering the question 
'to do what?') or the object in, at, on, about which the 
action takes place (answering the question 'in doing what?* 
'at doing what?* etc.): 

D aspire k devenir riche. He aspires to become rich. 

Poussez-Ies k agir. Urge them to act. 

Je les ai invites k venir. 1 have invited them to come. 

Aidez-moi k porter cette malle. Help me to carry this trunk. 

D reussit k me trouver. He succeeded in finding me. 

Je suis k ecrire ime lettre. I am (busy) writing a letter. 

n s'amuse k me taquiner. He amuses himself teasing me. 

J'ai gagne k vendre ma maison. I gained by selling my house. 

U joue k faire le malade. He plays at being ill. 

3. As the complement of certain adjectives (cf. § 280, 2) 
and nouns denoting fitness, tendency, purpose, etc.: 

Ceci est bon k manger. This is good to eat. 

Je suis pret k vous ecouter. I am ready to hear you. 

Quelque chose d'utile k savoir. Something useful to know. 

Cela est facile k faire. That is easy to do. 

74 THE VERB §279 

La tendance a se croire grand. The tendency to think oneself great. 

Une bonne a tout faire. A maid of all work. 

o. So also, le premier, le dernier, le seul: 
n n'est pas le seul a le dire. He is not the only one to say so. 

4. To form adjectival phrases denoting use, fitness, 
quality, etc.: 

Une salle k manger. A dining-room. 

Une chose a voir. A thing worth seeing. 

Des contes a dormir debout. Very tiresome stories. 

Un spectacle a faire peur. A terrible sight. 

De maniere a reussir. In such a way as to succeed. 

Vous etes a plaindre. You are to be pitied. 

C'est k en mourir. It is enough to kill one. 

5. To form adverbial phrases: 

Elle chante k ravir. She sings charmingly. 

Elle pleurait k faire pitie. She wept pitifully. 

A vrai dire, je le plains. To tell the truth, I pity him. 

Elle est laide k faire peur. She is frightfully ugly. 

6. Reference Ust of verbs requiring infinitive with a: 

s'abaisser, sloop s'arrfiter, stop condamner (se) , condemn 

abandonner (s'), give up aspirer, aspire condeacendre, condescend 

aboutir, end (in), tend assujettir (s'). subject conduire, lead 

B'ahuseT, be mistaken (in) astreindre, compel consacrer (se), devote 

s'accorder,* agree (in) s'astreindre, bind o. s. consentir, consent 

6tre d'accord, agree (in) attacher, attach consister, consist (in) 
accoutumer(s'),''accwsto7n s'attacher, be intent (on) conspirer, conspire 

s'acharner, be bent (on) attendre (s'), expect consumer (se), consume (in) 

admettre, admit autoriser, authorize continuer.^ continue 

s'adonner, addict o. s. s'avilir, stoop contraindre, i constrain 

aguerrir (s'), inure avoir, have, must contribuer, contribute 

aider, help avoir (de la) peine, have convier," invite 

aimer,* like difficulty (in) cofiter, cost 

amener, lead balancer, hesitate decider,* induce 

amuser(8'), amiwc (in,hy)se borner, limit o. s. se decider, resolve 

animer (s'), ea^"te chercher, seefc, <ry de^er,^ challenge, incite 

appeler, call tomvaencer,^ begin demander,^ ask 

appliquer (s'), apply se complaire, take pleas- demeurer, remain 

apprendre, learn, teach ure (in) depenser, spend (in) 

apprfiter (s'), ffef reodj/ concourir, cooperate (tre) d6sapprendre, /or(7«f 


descendre,* stoop, abase finir (neg.),* have done porter, induce 
destiner, destine [jo.s. forcer,* force pousser, urge, indie 

d6termuier,» induce gagner, gain (by) prendre garde,* take care 

se determiner, reso/oe habituer,* accustom prendre plaisir, de/i^^U (in) 

dfevouer (se), devote s'habituer, accustom o. s. se prendre, begin 

diffferer,* delay hair, hate preparer (se), prepare 

disposer (se), dispose se hasarder,* venture pr6tendre,< aspire 

divertir (se), amuse hesiter,' hesitate prier,' invite (JormaUy) 

donner, give inciter, incite proc6der, proceed 

dresser, train incliner, incline provoquer, incite 

s'efforcer,' try induire, induce recommencer,'6ct^in aoain 

s'dgayer, divert o. t. (by) instruire, instruct rfeduire, reduce 

employer (b'), employ (in) int£res8er(s'),i7Uere«{(tn) se r6duire, confine o. «. 
s'empresser,* » be eager inviter, inviie refuser,* refuse to give 

encourager, encourage jouer, play (at) se refuser, refuse 

engager (s'),*erHPa0e,admciaisser,' * leave renoncer, renounce 

enhardir,* embolden se lasser,* tire a. «. (in) r^pugner, be reluctant 

s'enhardir,' venture manquer,* be remiss (in) se rdsigner, resign o. a. 

s'ennuyer,* ' tire o. s. (in) mettre, put, set rfsoudre,* induce 

enseigner, teach se mettre, set about se r^soudre, resolve 

s'entendre, know well how montrer, show how rester, remain 

entratner, allure obliger,' » oblige, force r6u8sir, succeed (in) 

essayer,' try s'obiiger,* bind o. s. servir, serve 

s'essayer, try o. s. (in) s'obstiner, persist (in) songer, think (of) 
fttre,* to be occupied (in, occuper (s'),' employ (in) souffrir,* suffer 

at) s'offrir,* offer sufi^e, suffice 

6tre k,* be one's turn s'opiniatrer, persist (in) surprendre, discover 

s'6tudier, apply o. s. parvenir, succeed (in) tarder,' be long, delay (in) 

s'6vertuer, exert o. »., try passer, spend (in) tendre, tend 

exceller, excel (in) pencher, incline tenir, be anxious 

exciter (s'), excite penser,* think (of) travailler, work 

exercer (s'), exercise (in) perdre, lose (in, by) trembler,* tremble (at, on) 

exhorter, exhort pers^vfirer, persevere (in) trouver, find 

exTposer (s') , expose persister, pcr»i«/ (in) venir ,*< Aappen 

se fatiguer,' tire o. s. (in, se plaire, delight (in) viser, aim 

at) se plier, stibmit vouer (se), devote 

> Or de. * Sometimes takes de. » See also list of verbs requiring de 
(5 280, 6). * See also list of verbs requiring direct infinitive (5 278, 6). 

a. Suflire sometimes takes pour: 

Cela suflfira potir I'amuser. That will suflice to amuse him. 

b. The infinitive after #tre k often has passive force: 

Cet ouvrage est k refaire. That work has to be done again. 

c. Hair may take de when negative: 

n ne hait pas k (d') etre endette. He does not dislike being in debt. 

76 THE VERB §280 

280. Infinitive with the Preposition de. The infinitive 
preceded by de = to, of, from, for, at, etc., is used: 

1. As logical subject of an impersonal verb (for rare 
exceptions see § 278, 3) 

II est facUe de faire cela. It is easy to do that. 

D importe d'arriver a temps. It is important to arrive in time. 

Bien vous sied de vous taire. It well becomes you to be silent. 

a. Similarly as subject in inverted sentences: 
Cast ime folie (que) d'aller Ik. It is madness to go there. 

2. As complement of most adjectives and nouns (cf. 

Le desir de partir. The desire of going. 

La necessite de rester. The necessity of remaining. 

II n'est pas digne de vivre. He is not worthy to Hve. 

J'ai envie de pleurer. I feel like crying. 

a. So also, many expressions, like the last example, made from verb 
+ noun, e.g., avoir besoin (honte, peur, raison, soin, tort, etc.), faire 
envie (plaisir, semblant, etc.), courir risque, etc., etc. 

3. After verbs as object or complement, usually to de- 
note the source or occasion of action (answering 'whence?' 
* concerning what?'), or to denote separation or cessation 
from (answering 'from what?'). See fist below: 

Je me rejouis de le voir. I rejoice to see it. 

Elle se pique d'etre la premiere. She prides herself on being first. 

Prenez garde de (ne pas) tomber. Take care not to fall. 

II s'excuse d'y aller. He excuses himself from going. 

Promettez de ne pas le dire. Promise not to tell it. 

4. As historical infinitive (= a past definite): 
Et I'ennemi de s'enfuir. And the enemy fled. 

5. After que in the second member of a comparison, 
unless the sentence be very short: 

H vaudra mieux rester que de It will be better to stay than to go 

partir si tard. so late. 

But: Mieux vaut savoir qu'avoir. Better wisdom than wealth. 




6. Reference list of verbs requiring infinitive with de: 

s'absenter, abeent o. s. 
ifrom) [_(/rom) 

s'absoudre, absolve o. a. 
s'abstenir, abstain (from) 
accorder, grant\_cu8tomed 
avoir accoutum6, be ac- 
accuser (s'), accuse {of) 
achever, finish 
admirer, wonder (at) 
afifecter, affect 
s'aflliger, grieve (at, over) 
s'apercevoir, perceive 
s'applaudir, congratulate 

0. 8. (on) 
appr6hender, fear 
arrfiter, prevent (from), 
determine CC^^O 

s'attrister, become sad 
avertir, notify, xvam 
s'aviser, think (of) 
bl&mer, blame (for) 
brfiler, long 
censurer, censure (for) 
cesser, cease [_over) 

se chagrincr, grieve (at, 
charger, charge 
se charger, undertake 
choisir, choose 
commander, command 
commencer,^ begin 
conjurer, beseech 
conseiller, advise 
consoler, console (for) 
se contenter, be satisfied 
continuer,* continue 
contraindre,* constrain 
convaincre, convict (of) 
convenir, agree 
craindre, fear 
crier, cry 

decider,' decide, resolve 
d6courager (se), discour- 
age (from) 
d6daigner, disdain 

dfifendre, forbid 
se defendre, forbear, ex- 
cuse o. «. 
d6fier,' defy 
se d6fier, distrust 
d6go(iter, disgust (with) 
d61ib6rer, deliberate 

demander,* ask 
se d6p6cher, make haste 
d6saccoutumer (se), dis- 
accustom (from) 
d6sesp^rer, despair (of) 
d68habituer (se), disac- 
custom (from) 
d6terminer,* resolve 
d^tester, detest [^(from) 
d6toumcr, dissuade 
dire,* bid 

discontinuer, cease 
disconvenir, deny [_(for) 
se disculpcr, excuse o. s. 
dispenser ,di«pcn«c (from) 
dissuadcr, dis8uade(from) 
douter, hesitate 
se douter, suspect 
6crire, write 
s'efforcer,* try 
s'effrayer, be afraid 
emp6cher, preverU 
s'cmpdchcr, abstain 

s'empresser,' hasten 
s'empresser,* be eager 
enjoindre, enjoin 
s'ennuyer,* ^ be tired (of) 
s'enorgueillir, be proud 
enrager, be enraged (at) 
entreprendre, undertake 
6pargner, spare 
essayer,' try 
s'^tonner, he astonished 
6tre ik^ ' be duty or office 

6viter, avoid 

excuser (s') , excuse (from) 

exempter, exempt (from) 

faire bien, do well 

se fatiguer,' be tired (of) 

feindre, feign 

f61iciter (se), congratulate 

&nir,* finish [.(on) 

se flatter, flcUter o. s. 

forcer,^ force 

fr6mir, shudder 

gager, tvager 

garder (so) , forbear 

g6mir, groan 

gfiner, incommode 

se glorifier, boast (of) 

gronder, scold (for) 

hasardcr, verdure 

se h&ter, hasten 

imaginer, imagine 

s'impatienter, be impct- 

imputer, impute 
s'indigncr, be indignant 
s'ing6rer, meddle (xpith) 
inspirer, inspire 
interdire, interdict (from) 
jouir, enjoy 
juger bon, think fit 
jurer,* promise (on oath) 
ne pas laisser,'* not to 

se lasser,' be weary (of) 
louer, praise (for) 
mander, bid [point of 
manquer,' fail, be on 
m6diter, meditate 
se mfeler, meddle (with) 
menacer, threaten 
m^riter, deserve [(of) 
se moquer, make sport 
mourir, die, long 
n6gliger, neglect 
notifier, notify 




obliger,* oblige, force presser, urge 

obliger,' do favour se presser, hasten 

obtenir, obtain presumer, presume 

s'occuper,' be intent {on) prier,^ beg, pray 

offrir, offer 
omettre, omit 
ordonner, order 
oublier,^ forget 
pardonner, forgive 
parier, bet 
parler, speak 
86 passer, do without 
permettre (se), permit 

priver (se), deprive (of) 

pro Jeter, intend 

promettre (se), promise 

proposer, propose 

se proposer, intend 

protester, protest 

punir, punish (for) 

recommander, recommend sourire, smile 

TecommenceT,^ begin again se souvenir, recollect 

reprocher (se), reproach 

resoudre,' resolve 
se ressouvenir, remember 
rire (se), laugh 
risquer, risk 
rougir, blush 
sommer, summon 
se soueier, care 
souffrir,^ suffer 
soupQonner, suspect 

refuser,^ refuse 

persuader, persuade 

se piquer, pride o. s. {on) regretter, regret 

plaindre, pity Z{of) se rejouir, rejoice 

se plaindre, complain remercier, thank {for) 

prendre garde,' take care se repentir, repent {of) 

not, beware {of) reprendre, reprove {for) 

prendre soin, take care reprimander, reprimand 
prescrire, prescribe {for) 

^ Or 4. * Sometimes 4. ' See also list of verbs requiring t (§ 279, 6). 
* See also list of verbs requiring direct infinitive (§ 278, 6). 

Bugg6rer, suggest 
supplier, beseech 
tfi,cher,^ try 
tenter,^ attempt 
trembler,' tremble, fear 
trouver bon, think fit 
Be vanter, boast {of) 
venir,' ^ have just 

281. Distinctions. As appears from the list, the same 
verb sometimes requires a, de, or the direct infinitive. The 
following are examples of cases in which the sense varies 
with the construction: 

1. Aimer: 

J'aimerais bien le connaitre. 
J'aime mieiu: vous dire tout. 
Aimez-vous a demeurer ici? 

2. Decider: 

n m'a decide a entrer. 
Nous decidimes de partir. 

3. Defier: 

On le defia a boire. 

Je vous defie de prouver cela. 

4. Descendre: 
Descends chercher ton chapeau. 
D descendit meme a voler. 

I should like to know him. 
I prefer to tell you all. 
Do you like to live here? 

He induced me to go in. 
We decided to set out. 

They challenged him to drink. 
I defy you to prove that. 

Go down and get your hat. 
He even descended to theft. 




5. Determiner: 

Je I'ai determine a raster. 

n avalt determine de le rebdtir. 

6. Dire: 

n dit I'avoir vu. 

Je hii ai dit de venir. 

7. S'empresser: 

n s'empressait d Im plaire. 
n s'empressa de repondre. 

8. fitre: 

Je suis d ecrire des lettres. 
C'est Si vous de parler. 
C'est k vous d parler. 

9. Se fatiguer: 

D se fatigua a jouer au billard. 
n est fatigue de jouer. 

10. Finir: 

n ne finissait pas d me le dire. 
J^ai fini de travailler. 

11. Jurer: 
Je jure I'avoir vu. 
Je jure de le faire. 

12. Laisser: 
Je I'ai laisse dire. 

Je vous laisse a penser. 
n lie laissa pas de parler. 

13. Se lasser: 

n s'est lasse a courir. 
n se lasse de courir. 

14. Manquer: 

Ne manquez pas d'j §tre. 
Je manqtiai de tomber. 
n ne manque jamais d faire son 

15. Obliger: 

Je I'ai oblige a (de) le faire. 

I induced him to stay. 

He had determined to rebuild it. 

He says he saw it. 
I told him to come. 

He was eager to please her. 
He hastened to reply. 

I am (busy) writing letters. 

It is your place (or turn) to speak. 

It is your turn to speak. 

He fatigued himself playing billiaid& 
He is tired playing. 

"He was never done telling me so. 
I have finished working. 

I swear I saw it. 
I swear I will do it. 

I let him talk. 

I leave you to think. 

He did not stop talking. 

He tired himself out (by) running. 
He is tired of nmning. 

Don't fail to be there. 

I was on the point of falling. 

He never fails to do his duty. 

I obliged him to do it. 




Je suis oblige de partir. 
Vous m'obligerez beaucoup de le 

16. S'occuper: 
H s'occupe a lire. 

n s'occupe de detruire les abus. 

17. Penser: 

Que pensez-vous faire ? 

Je pensai tomber. 

Je pense a repliquer k cela. 

18. Prendre garde: 
Prenez garde a ne pas le faire. 
Prenez garde de (ne pas) tomber. 

19. Pretendre: 

n pretend vous connaitre. 
D pretend a devenir savant. 

20. Prier: 

n m'a prie a diner. 

Je vous prie de m'aider. 

21. Refuser: 

Me refusez-vous a manger? 
Je refuserai d'y aller. 

22. Resoudre: 

H m'a resolu a I'acheter. 
J'ai resolu de I'acheter. 

23. Trembler: 
H tremble a me voir. 

D tremble de me rencontrer. 

24. Venir: 
Venez nous voir. 

Si vous veniez a le voir. 
Je viens de le voir. 

I am obliged to go. 
You will greatly oblige me by 
doing it. 

He is busy reading. 

He is intent on destroying abuses. 

What do you intend to do ? 

I nearly fell. 

I think of replying to that. 

Take care not to do it. 
Take care not to fall. 

He asserts that he knows you. 
He aspires to become learned. _ 

He invited me to dine. 

I pray (ask) you to help me. 

Do you refuse to give me food 7 
I shall refuse to go. 

He induced me to buy it. 
I have determined to buy it. 

He trembles when he sees me. 
He fears to meet me. 

Come to see us. 

If you should happen to see him. 

I have just seen him. 

282. Infinitive with other Prepositions. The infinitive 
stands also after par, pour, sans, apres, entre, and after locu- 
tions ending in de or a, such as afin de, avant de, jusqu'a, etc.: 

§§ 283-284 THE mFINITIVE MOOD 81 

1. Par = by usually only after commencer and finir: 

n finit par m'insulter. He ended by insulting me {or He 

finally insulted me). 

2. Pour usually translates in order to, for the purpose of; 
sometimes also for, from, because, though, etc., and to after 
assez, trop, ete.: 

H faut manger pour vivre. We must eat (in order) to live, 

n est mort pour avoir trop bu. He died from over-drinking, 

n fut pimi pour avoir ri. He was punished for laughing. 

Pour 6tre pauvre, 11 n' est pas Though poor, he is no thief. 


n est trop franc pour se talre. He is too frank to keep quiet. 

a. Pour after a verb of motion (§ 278, 4) emphasizes the purpose: 
Plrai pour le voir. I shall go to see him. 

3. Sans = unthout: 

Ne partez pas sans manger. Do not go without eating. 

4. Apres = after requires the perfect infinitive: 
Aprls avoir dine, je partis. * After having dined, I set out. 

283. Infinitive for Subordinate Clause. 1. An infini- 
tive construction usually replaces a que clause of which the 
subject is the same with that of the subject or object (direct 
or indirect) of the principal clause: 

n croit vous avoir vu. He thinks that he has seen you. 

Dltes-Ieur de s'en aller. Tell them to be gone. 

2. Similarly afin de, a moins de, apres, avant de, de 
crainte de, de petu* de, de fagon a, de maniere a, pour, sans, 
etc. + the infinitive stand for afin que, etc. + the subjunc- 
tive, but only when the subject of both verbs is the same: 
n partlt sans me voir. He went without seeing me. 

But : n partlt sans que je le visse. He went without my seeing him. 

284. Infinitive with Passive Force. A transitive infini- 
tive has (seeming) paseive force after verbs of perceiving 

82' THE VERB §§285-286 

(voir, etc.), after faire, laisser, and when a + an infinitive 

is used adjectively (cf. §241, 3): 

J'ai vu batir cette maison. I saw this house being built. 

Je me f ais faire un habit. I am having a coat made for myself. 

Vous etes k plaindre. You are to be pitied. 

Une faute k eviter. A mistake to be avoided. 

Note. — This construction may be explained by supplying some such 
ellipsis as the following: J'ai vu bStir une maison a or par quelgu'un, I 

haos seen somebody building a house. 

285. Infinitive for English -ing. The infinitive must be 
used to translate many such forms (see § 287, 2, 3, 4). 


286. Functions. The participial form in -ant serves as a 
verbal adjective, as a present participle (without en), and 
as a gerund (with en): 

1. As a verbal adjective, it denotes quahty or state, and 
agrees like an adjective: 

Elle parait bien portantc. She seems well. 

Les enfants doivent etre obeissants. Children must be obedient. 

Les vivants, et les mourants. The living and the dying. 

Des paroles consolantes. Comforting words. 

Obs.: The verbal adjective, attributively, regularly follows the noun, 
as in the last example. 

o. Some verbs have a special form for the verbal adjective: 

Adj. Part. Adj. Part. 

different, different differant negligent, careless nSgligeant 

convaincant, convincing convainquant puissant, powerful pouvant 
fatigant, fatiguing f atiguant savant, learned sachant 

2. As a present participle, it is used, in general, like the 
English present participle, to denote simultaneous action, 
manner, cause, motive, etc., and is invariable: 

Pleurant, elle continua le recit. Weeping, she continued the story. 
Je le trouvai riant comme un fou. I found him laughing like mad. 
Elle ne sortit pas, etant malade. She did not go out, being ill. 


Ayant parle ainsi, il sortit. Having thus spoken, he went out. 

II n'entrera pas, moi vivant. He shall not enter while I live. 

Notes. — 1. It is often difficult to determine whether the form in -ant 
is participle (invariable) or adjective (variable). As a participle, the action 
(generally transitory) is prominent, but as an adjective, quality or else 
continued action (state) is denoted. It is nearly always a participle when 
it has a complement or a construction peculiar to the verb, such as object, 
negative, adverb following: Une femme mourante, A dying woman: Des 
gens mourant de faim, People dicing of hunger; Les ennemis se retirerent, 
brfilant les villes partout. The enemy retired, burning the toums eteryuhere; 
Une femme ne craignant rien, A woman fearing nothing; Des dames par- 
lant doucement« Ladies speaking softly; De soi-disant amis. So-called friends. 

2. In the last example, soi-disant, though adjective in force, remains 
invariable in view of the literal meaning, calling themselves. 

3. Ayant and itant are also always invariable, except in les ayants- 
droit (-cause). 

3. As a gerund, it, df>nn|fta oither simultaneous action o r 
* me ans by wliich/ and is invariable; en = while ^ in^ on , 
w hen, aSj bi/^ etc.. or is untranslated: 

En jouant, j'ai perdu ma montre. While playing, I lost my watch. 
En rentrant, j'ai trouve la lettre. On returning, I found the letter. 
Vous perdrez, en agissant ainsi. You will lose if you act thus. 
En lisant on apprend k lire. By reading one learns to read. 

a. Both participle and gerund denote simultaneous action, but the 
use of en, strengthened sometimes by tout, usually emphasizes the 
continuity of the action: 

(En) disant ceci, il prit la lyre. (While) saying this, he took the harp. 

Tout en pleurant, elle continua. Still weeping, she went on. 

6. The gerund usually refers to the subject: 
Je I'ai vu en allant k la poste. I saw him while going to the post. 

But: L'appetit vient en mangeant. One's appetite comes while eating. 

c. En is sometimes omitted, especially after aller: 
Generalement parlant. Generally speaking. 

n s'en va (en) grondant. Off he goes grumbling. 

d. The genmd denotes progressive action in a few expressions formed 
from aller: 

Cela alia (en) diminuant That kept growing less and less. 

287. English Forms in -ing. These are variously trans- 
lated into French; idiomatic differences are: 

84 THE VERB §§ 288-289 

1. Periphrastic tense forms are avoided in French: 

II a joue toute la matinee. He has been playing all morning. 

2. EngHsh gerunds are translated by an -ant form only 
when the preposition en may be used; otherwise by an 
infinitive, a noun, or a clause: 

En lisant on apprend k lire. By reading one learns to read. 

But: D parle de partir. He speaks of going away. 

n fut pendu pour avoir vole. He was hanged for having stolen. 

Ella partit sans dire adieu. She went without saying good-bye. 

Voir c'est croire. Seeing is believing. 

J'aime la chasse (or k chasser). I like hunting. 

Je suis etonne qu'il soit venu. I am surprised at his coming. 

3. After verbs of perception (entendre, sentir, voir, etc.), 
the relative or infinitive construction is much commoner 
than the participle: 

Je les vois venir (qui viennent or I see them coming. 


Les voila qui passent I See them passing ! 

II a vu sortir mes freres. He saw my brothers going out. 

Les avez-vous entendus f rapper Did you hear them knocking? 

(qui frappaient)? 

Je la {or Ixii) vis frapper I'enfant. I saw her striking the child. 

4. Compound nouns with a first component in -ing are 
not literally translated: 

Une machine k coudre. A sewing-machine. 

5. It is often more elegant to avoid a French form in 
-ant, even when permissible: 

Pendant mon voyage. While traveling. 


288. General Use. The past participle is used, (1) with- 
out auxiliary, (2) with etre, (3) with avoir (or etre used 
as avoir). 

289. Without Auxiliary. A past participle without any 
auxiliary has the force of an adjective (attributive, predica- 

§§290-291 . THE PAST PARTICIPLE 85 

tive, appositive), and agrees, like an adjective, in gender 

and number with the word quaUfied: 

Des Utes doonees par le roL Festivities given by the king. 

Lesbattiw; lesmorts. The beaten; the dead. 

Le passe n'est plus k nous. The past ia no longer ours. 

Jean et Marie semblent fatigues. John and Mary look tired. 

Tenez les portes fermees. Keep the doors closed. 

Us me regarderent etonnw. They looked at me astonished. 

a. Certain past participles have prepositional force when preceding 
the substantive, and are invariable, but are variable when following: 
Vu les difficultes. In view of the difficulties. 
Ezcepte eux; eux eicepte*. Except them; they excepted. 

Such are: Approuve, attendu, certifie, collationn6, y compris, non 
compris, entendu, eicepte, oul, paye, passe, suppose, vu, etc. 

b. Ci-inclus = enclosed and d-joint = herewUh, are invariable when 
beginning a sentence, or when followed by a noim without article: 
Ci-indus la copie, etc. Herewith the copy, etc. 

Vous recevez d-joint copie, etc. You receive herewith a copy, etc. 
But: J'envoie d-jointc ime (la) I send herewith a (the) copy, etc. 
copie, etc 

290. Past Participle with ktre. A past participle with 
etre agrees with the subject; for exceptions see §244: 

Ds sont (ont ete) battu5. They are (have been) beaten. 

Marie et Louise sont venues. Mary and Louisa have come. 

Ds sont sortis. They have gone out. 

Les dames etant arrivees. The ladies having come. 

Elle paria d'avoir ete bless€e. She spoke of having been hurt. 

a. Hence the past participle of an impersonal verb with Stre ia 
invariable, agreeing strictly with the grammatical subject il: 
n etait venu des soldats. Soldiers had come. 

291. Past Participle with avoir. 1. A past participle 
with avoir agrees with a preceding direct object; otherwise 
it is invariable: 

La piece que f ai ecritc, I'avez- Have you read the play I wrote t 

vous lue? 
Quels livres a-t-il apporte*? What books did he bring? 

86 THE VERB §292 

But : J'ai ecrit la lettre. I have written the letter. 

Elles ont lu et ecrit. They have read and written. 

Je lixi ai donne la lettre. I have given her the letter. 

2. Similarly, the past participle of a reflexive verb (con- 
jugated with etre for avoir) always agrees with the reflexive 
object, unless that object be indirect: 

Us se sont rejouis. They have rejoiced. 

Elles s'etaient trompees. They were mistaken. 

EUe s'est blessee. She wounded {or hurt) herself. 

Elle s'est laissee tomber. She has fallen (fell). 

But: lis se sont ecrit. They wrote to each other. 

Elle s'est blesse la main. She wounded her hand. 

lis se sont arroge ce privilege. They assumed that privilege. 

Us se sont plu k Paris. They enjoyed themselves in Paris. 

a. Besides the indirect reflexive object, a direct object may be 
present, with which the following past participle agrees: 
Les robes qu'elle s'est achetees. The dresses she bought herself. 

292. Remarks. AH cases of the agreement of the past 
participle depend upon the above general principles; special 
difficulties are: 

1. The past participle of an impersonal verb is invariable: 

La belle joumee qu'il a fait ! What a fine day it was ! 

La disette qu'il y a eu. The scarcity that there was. 

2. A noun denoting distance, time, price, weight, etc., 
with such verbs as marcher, courir, vivre, coiiter, peser, 
valoir, etc., is adverbial accusative (not direct object); 
hence no agreement: 

Les dix milles que j'ai marche. The ten miles I walked. 

Les cent francs que cet ouvrage The hundred francs that book cost 

^ m'a coiite. me. 

a. Such verbs used transitively, or figuratively with transitive force, 
follow the general rule: 

La malle que j'ai pesee. The trunk which I weighed. 

Les dangers qu'il a courus. The dangers he incurred. 

La peur que cela a coatee. The fear which that caused. 


3. A past participle preceded by an expression of number 
or quantity, a collective, etc., is variable or invariable ac- 
cording to the sense (cf. § 231-234) : 

Que de maux il a soufferts ! Wliat ills he endured ! 

C'est la moitie des meubles qu'on It is the half of the furniture that 

a saisie. has been seized. 

La moitie des meubles que j'ai The half of the furniture which I 

vendue. sold. 

Quelle joie, quel bonheur vous What joy, what happiness you 

lui avez procure ! have procured him ! 

a. Partitive en is never a direct object; agreement, however, takes 
place with combien, plus, moins, preceding en, if the sense be plural: 
Combien Dieu en a-t-il eiauces I How many of them God has heard ! 
Plus on vous a donne de livres. The more books you were given, 

plus vous en avez lus. the more of them you read. 

4. When an infinitive (with or without a preposition) 
follows, the past participle is invariable when the preceding 
direct object is governed by the infinitive, and variable if 
governed by the past participle alone: 

La lettre que j'ai voulu 6crire. The letter I wished to write. 

La lettre que j'ai oublie d'ecrire. The letter I forgot to write. 

D nous a pries d'y aller. He begged us to go. 

On nous a dit de sortir. They told us to go out. 

a. Entendu, vu, laissS, agree when the infinitive has active force, 
but are invariable if it has passive force (§284): 
La dame que j'ai entendue chanter. The lady I heard sing(ing). 
Les enfants que j'ai vu battre. The children I saw beaten. 

6. After dd, pu, voulu, ose, with auxiliary force, a governing infini- 
tive is either expressed or implied; hence no agreement: 
J'ai lu tous les livres que j'ai I read all the books that I could 

pu (lire). (read). 

But: Les livres que j'ai vouIu5. The books I wished. 

c. Fait + infinitive is invariable: 

Les medecins qu'il a fait venir. The doctors he sent for. 

d. The past participle of avoir k is variable or invariable: 
Les lettres que j'ai eu (cues) k lire. The letters I had to read. 

88 THE VERB §§ 293-294 

5. The relative pronoun que is sometimes direct object of 
a verb in a following que clause, either fully expressed or 
impUed, and hence the past participle is invariable: 

Des choses que j'ai cm qu'il ferait. Things I thought he would do. 
J'ai lu les livres qu'U a voxilu (que I read the books which he wished 
je lusse). (me to read). 


293. Transitives. 1. A transitive verb governs a direct 
object, as in English: 

J'ai ecrit la lettre (des lettres). I wrote the letter (letters). 

2. A transitive verb can have only one du-ect object; 
other substantives related to it must stand as indirect 
object or as prepositional complement: 
Pardonnez-Iui ses peches. Pardon him his sins. 

Je donne le de k la fille. I give the girl the thimble. 

Je lui donne le de avec plaisir. I give her the thimble with pleasure. 

Je conseille k mon fils de partir. I advise my son to go. 

o. By an extension of this principle, the verb faire = make, cause 
to, etc., + an infinitive, requires an indirect personal object when the 
infinitive has a direct object: 
Je fais lire ce livre d mcfli fils. I make (have) my son read this 

Je lui fais lire ce livre. I make him read this book. 

But: Je fais lire mon fils. I make my son read. 

Je le fais lire. I make him read. 

6. Laisser, voir, entendre, ouir, may have, and frequently do have, 
the same construction: 

Laissez-Ze {-lui) lire le livre. Let him read the book, 

Je V (lui) ai vu jouer ce r61e. I saw him play that part. 

But: Laissez lire Venfant. Let the child read. 

294. Intransitives. An intransitive verb can have no 
direct object, but may, of course, have an indirect object 
or a prepositional complement: 

H parle k ce soldat. He is speaking to that soldier. 

n lui parle de la guerre. He speaks to him of the war. ' 


a. A very few intransitives govern a direct object anomalously: 
II a vecu sa vie en heros. He lived his life like a hero. 

II va tout droit son chemin. He goes straight on his way. 

Note. — Many verbe serve either &a transitives or intraiisitives: II 
est descendu (intransitive), He has gone down; II a descendu le tableau 
(transitive). He has taken down the picture. 

295. Predicative Complement. Nouns are used predic- 
atively after certain verbs, as follows: 

1. In nominative relation: 

lis sont Anglais. They are Englishmen. 

D est medecin. He is a doctor. 

Elle est morte jeime fille. She died a young girL 

Such verbs are: 

demeurer, remain 6tre cens^, be auppoted passer, paaa 

devenir, become mourir, die rester, remain 

entrer, enter naltre, be bom sembler, seem 

6tre, be paraltre, appear aortir, go out, eto. 

2. In accusative relation: 

On le fit roi. They made him king. 

Je le crois honnete homme. I think he is an honest man. 

Je le connais incapable de mentir. I know he is incapable of falsehood. 

Such verbs arc: 

appeler, call estimer, esteem se montrer, show onesd/ 

oouronner, crown faire, make nommer, name 

croire, believe Be faire, become proclamer, proclaim 

declarer, declare instituer, institiUe savoir, know, etc. 

296. Prepositional Complement. The use of de and k 
presents special difficulty; other prepositions have, in 
general, their usual hteral force: 

1. Some verbs with de have the force of an English 

D Jouit d'lme p» -faite sante. He enjoyB perfect health. 

Elle s'est trompee de porte. She took the wrong door. 

On se sert d'encre pour ecrire. Ink is used for writing. 

Such verbs are: 
abuser de, mistue s'approcher de, approach avoir peur de, fear 

B'apercevoir de, perceive avoir beeoin de, netd avoir piti6 de, pity 




convenir de, admit 
ee defier de, mistrust 
se demettre de, resign 
disconvenir de, deny 
douter de, doubt 
ee douter de, suspect 

gemir de, bemoan 
jouir de, enjoy 
manquer de, lack 
medire de, slander 
Be mefier de, mistrust 
partir de, leave 

se passer de, do without 
Be servir de, use 
se souvenir de, recoiled 
se tromper de, mistake 
user de, employ, use 

2. Similarly, some verbs with a have the force of an 

English transitive: 

H obeit a son pere. He obeys his father. 

Ella ressemble k sa mere. She resembles her mother. 

Such verbs axe: 

aller h, fit, suit 

arriver k, reach 

attenter k, attempt (]the life) 

compatir k, pity 

convenir k, suit 

deplaire k, displease 

d^sobeir k, disobey 

se fier k, trust 

importer k, concern 

nuire k, harm 
obeir k, obey 
obvier k, obviate 
ordonner k, order 
pardonner k, pardon 
parvenir k, attain 
permettre k, permit 
persuader k, persuade 
plaire k, please 

promettre k, promise 
remedier a, remedy 
renoncer k, renounce 
rfipondre k, answer 
rfesister k, resist 
ressembler k, resemble 
succeder k, succeed 
survivre k, survive 

3. In some instances, on the contrary, a French transi 
tive has the force of an Enghsh verb + a preposition. 
Payez-lui les livres. Pay him for the books. 

Je regarde cet arbre-l&. I am looking at that tree. 

Such verbs are: 

demander, ask for 
d6sirer, wish for 
6couter, listen to 
envoyer chercher, send for 
esperer, hope for 

accepter, accept of 
admettre, admit of 
approuver, approve of 
attendre, wait for 
chercher, look for 

payer, pay for 
regarder, look at 
rencontrer, meet with 
souhaiter, vnsh for 

4. De and k frequently have, as compared with English, 
a special idiomatic force with certain verbs: 
*Cela depend de vous. That depends on you. 

Pensez a voire devoir. Think of your duty. 

Such verbs are: 

B'affliger de, grieve at blS,mer de, blame for consoler de, console for 

approcher(8') de, draw complimenter de, com- d6jeuner de, breakfast on 

near to pliment on d6pendre de, depend on 




se dfesoler de, grieve over se nourrir de, live on 

diner de, dine on profiter de, profit by 

f61iciter de, congratulate on punir de, puniah/or 

g^mir de, lament over r^compenser de, re- 
louer de, praise far ward Jot 

Be m61er de, meddle with se r^jouir de, r^oice at 

remercier de, thank for 
rire de, laugh at 
triompher de, triumph over 
vivre de, live on 

acheter qqch. k qqu., buy something 

from (or for) some one 
arracher qqch. k qqu., snatch from 
cacher qqch. k qqu., hide from 
conf6rer qqch. k qqu., confer on 
demander qqch. k qqu., ask for {of) 
d6rober qqch. k qqu., steal from 
emprunter qqch. k qqu., borrow from 
infliger qqch. k qqu., inflict on 
inspirer qqch. k qqu., inspire with 
m61er qqch. k qqch., mingle with 

6ter qqch. k qqu., take away from 
pardonner qqch. k qqu., pardon for 
payer qqch. k qqu., pay for 
pcDser k qqch. or k qqu., think of 
prendre qqch. k qqu., take from 
pourvoir k qqch., provide for 
procurer qqch. k qqu., procure for 
prodiguer qqch. k qqu., lavish on 
reprocher qqch. k qqu., reproach with 
80uhait«r qqch. k qqu., unsh 
volcr qqch. k qqu., steal from 

5. Many verbs have a double construction with varying 

Ds jouent aux cartes. They are plajnng cards. 

EUe joue du piano. She is playing the piano. 

Such verbs are: 
abuser qqu., deceive 
abuser de qqch., misuse 
aasister qqu., help 

assister k qqch., be present at, witness 
concourir k qqch., contribute to 
concourir pour qqch., compete for 
convenir k qqu., suit 
convenir de qqch., agree about 
croire qqu. or qqch., believe 
croire k, en, believe in 
demander qqu. or qqch., ask after 
demander qqch. k qqu., ask for (from, 

h6riter de qqu., be heir of 
hferiter de qqch., inherit 
jouer qqu., deceive {^strumerU 

jouer d'un instrument, play on an in- 
jouer k un jeu, play (at) a game 
manquer qqu. or qqch., miss 
manquer de, lack, be nearly 
manquer k, fail in 

k, think of (about) 
de, hate opinion of 
prfetcndre qqch., assert 
prfetendre k, aspire to 
servir, serve (tr. and intr.) 
servir de, serve as 
serv'ir k, be useful for 
se servir de, make use of 
supplier qqu., take the place of 
supplier k qqch., complete 
toucher qqu. or qqch., touch 
toucher de I'argent, draw money 
toucher k, meddle with, be near to 
toucher d'un instrument, play an in- 
strument (keyed) 
user qqch., wear out 
user de, make use of 
en user de, deal, act 
veiller qqu., watch over, nurse 
veiller k qqch., attend to, watch over 
veiller sur qqu., watch over, etc. 

92 THE NOUN §§297-301 

297. Position. Objects and prepositional complements 
regularly follow the verb, the direct object (if any) being 
first; but if of unequal length, the longer is usually last. For 
position of personal pronouns, see the Pronoun. 

298. Composite Complement. The various parts of a 
complement must be of the same grammatical value, i.e., 
all nouns, all verbs, etc.: 

H apprend a lire et k chanter. He learns to read and sing. 

II apprend la lecture et le chant. He learns reading and singing. 

299. Manifold Verb. Two or more verbs can govern 
the same complement only if alike in government: 

II aime et respecte son oncle. He loves and respects his uncle, 

n aime son oncle et lui obeit. He loves and obeys his uncle. 



300. General Rule. Nouns in French are either mascu- 
line or feminine. As an aid to memory, general rules for 
determining gender are given in the following sections. 

301. Gender by Derivation. 1. Nouns derived from 
Latin mascuUnes are regularly masculine: 

Miu- (L. murum); livre (L. librum); Wall; book; order; poet. 
ordre (L. ordinem); poete (L. poeta), 

a. Exceptions are not luicommon; Latin masculine abstracts in -or 
(accusative -orem) have become feminine, except masculine honneur, 
deshonneur, labeur, amour: 

candeur, f. (L. candorem), innocence erreur, f. (L. error em), error 

* couleur, f. (L. colorem), color fureur, f. (L. furorem), fury 

douleur, f. (L. dolorem), pain etc. 

* Masculine in such phrases as couleur de feu, couleur de rose, etc., 
e.g., ce ruban est d'un beau couleur de rose. 




2. Nouns derived from Latin feminines are r^ularly 

Justice (L. justitiam); charite Justice; charity; hand; faith. 
(L. caritatem); main (L. ma- 
num); foi (L. fidem). 

3. Nouns derived from Latin neuters are r^ularly 

Corps (L. corptw) ; fer (L. /errum) ; Body; iron; gold; meadow; cen- 
or (L. aurum); pr6 (L. pratum); tury; verb, 
sidde (L. soeadum); yerbe (L. 

a. More than a hundred neuter plurals in -« have become feminine 
angular in French, just as if derived from nouns in -a of the Latin 
first declension: 

feuillc (L. folia), leaf 

graine (L. (prma), seed 

huile (L. olea), oU 

joie (L. gaudia), joy 

anne (L. arma), arm 
date (L. data), date 
dett« (L. debita), debt 
6tude (L. atudia), study 

l^vre (L. labra), lip 
oeuvre (L. opera), toork 
pomme (L. poma) apple 

302. Gender by Endings. L Masculine are most nouns 
ending as follows: 

(1) In a vowel sound (not -e mut^): 

Un op€ra (c6tl, chapeau, cheveu). An opera (side, hat, hair). 
Un parti (zero, caillou, tissu). A party (zero, pebble, tissue). 

a. Feminine exceptions are: 

guerilla, guerilla inoiti6, half 

gutta-percha, gutta-percha founni, ant 

polka, polka merci, mercy 

razzia, raid foi, faith 

tombola, charity lottery loi, law 

v6randa, veranda paroi, uxUl 

cit^, city virago, virago 

Further, most abstracts in -te, -tie : 

aimti6, friendship liberty, liberty 

charity, charity piti6, pity 

bru, daughter-in-law 
glu, bird lime 
tribu, trS>e 
vertu, virtue 
eau, water 
peau, akin 

sant^, health 

(2) In a consonant: 
Le sac (pied, joug, sol, nez, temps). The sack (foot, yokcj soil, nose, time). 





a. Feminine 

exceptions are: 

clef, key 

chair, fksh 

vis, screw 

croix, cross 

nef, ship, nave 

cour, court 

dent, tooth 

faux, scythe 

soif, thirst 

cuiller, spoon 

dot, dow)er 

noix, walnut 

faim, hunger 

mer, sea 

foret, forest 

paix, peace 

fagon, fashion 

tour, iot^^er 

gent, <n6e 

perdrix, partridge 

fin, end 

brebis, sheep 

mort, death 

poix, pite/i 

lefon, lesson 

fois, <ime 

nuit, ni&/i< 

toux, coit(;A 

main, Aand 

oasis, oasis 

part, par<, share 

voix, voice 

rancon, ransom 

souris, mouse 

chaux, lime 


Further, nouns in -son, -ion and most abstracts in -eur (cf. § 301, a): 

chanson, song nation, nation faveur, favor 

maison, hov^e occasion, occasion " fureur, fury 

raison, reason possession, possession peur, fear 

trahison, treason couleur, color etc. 

(3) In -acle, -age, -asme, -ege, -erne, -isme, -tere: 

Le spectacle (voyage, sarcasme, The spectacle (journey, sarcasm, 
college, diademe, magnetisme, college, diadem, magnetism, 

mystere). mystery). 

a. The following feminines in -age should be noted: 

plage, beach 
rage, rage 

cage, cage 
image, image 

nage, swimming 
page, page (of a book) 

2. Feminine are most nouns ending as follows: 

(1) In -e preceded by a vowel or double consonant: 

Une annee (vie, vue, raie, sole, A year (life, sight, streak, silk, 
roue, pluie, famille, fiamme, wheel, rain, family, flame, 

couronne, tristesse, botte). crown, sadness, boot). 

(2) In -ace, -ade, -ance, -ence, -ense, -iere, -oire, -ude, 

La preface (salade, Constance, The preface (salad, constancy, 
presence, defense, liuniere, presence, defence, light, his- 

histoire, habitude, culture). tory, habit, culture). 

303. Gender by Meaning. 1. Names of male beings 
are usually masculine, and names of female beings feminine; 
Un homme; ime fenune. A man; a woman. 

Un bceuf ; une vache. An ox; a cow. 


a. Most nouns denoting professions, e.g., auteur, author, 6crivain, 
tcriier, imprimeur, printer, etc., and a few nouns lacking a feminine 
form, e.g., ange, angel, temoin, witness, etc., remain masculine when 
applied to females: 
Cette dame est un auteur dis- That lady is a celebrated author- 

tingue. ess. 

Marie est un ange. Mary is an angel. 

h. Some names of lower animals are masculine only, e.g., Elephant, 
elephant, hibou, otd; others are feminine only, e.g., fourmi, ant, souris, 
mouse; ambiguity may be avoided by adding mAle or femelle: 
Un Elephant mdle (femelle). A bull (cow) elephant. 

c. Some nouns are feminine only, whether apphed to males or females : 
caution, surety personne, peraon vedette, Kout 

connaissance, acquaintance pratique, customer victime, victim 

dupe, dupe recrue, recruit vigje, look-cut man 

ganache, blockhead sentinelle, sentind etc. 

2. The following are masculine: 

(1) Names of cardinal points and winds: 

Le nord; le sud; le zephyr. The north; the south; the zephyr. 

a. Feminine exceptions are: 
Use, north wind mouaaon, montoon tramontane, north wind 

fanse, breeze 

(2) Names of seasons, months, dajrs of the week: 
Le printemps; octobre; lundi. Spring; October; Monday. 

(3) Names of countries not ending in -e: 

Le Canada; leDauphine; le Chili. Canada; Dauphiny; Chile. 

(4) Most names of mountains not ending in -es, and 
most names of rivers: 

Le Hartz; le Jura. The Hartz mts.; the Jura mts. 

Les Apennins. The Apennines. 

Le Volga; le Rhfine; le Rhin. The Volga; the Rhone; the Rhine. 

But fem.: Les Alpes (Pyrenees, Vosgcs, etc.). 

a. The rivers of France in -e are nearly all feminine: 
La Seine, la Loire, etc. The Seme, the Loire, etc. 

(5) Names of trees and shrubs: 

Le chSne ; le bouleau ; le pommier. The oak; the birch; the apple tree. 

96 THE NOUN §303 

a. Feminine exceptions are: 

aubepine, hawthorn 6pine, thorn vigne, vine 

bourdaine, buckthorn hi^ble, dwarf elder viorne, wild clematis 

bruy^re, heath ronce, bramble etc. 

(6) Names of weights and measures of the metrical system: 
Un metre (gramme, litre, etc.). A meter (gramme, liter, etc.). 

(7) Names of metals and chemicals: 

Le fer (or, cuivre, argent, sul- Iron (gold, copper, silver, sul- 
fate), phate). 

a. Feminine exceptions are: 

fonte, cast iron t61e, sheet iron 

(8) Words and phrases not nouns when used as nouns: 
Lebeau; leblanc; le franfais. The beautiful; white; French. 
Un a ; im mais ; vm oui-dire. An ' a ' ; a ' but ' ; a rumor. 

Le derriere de la tete. The back of the head. 

a. Adjectives referring to concrete objects have the gender of the 
noun understood: 

Une belle {sc. dame, femme, etc.). A beauty. 

Une capitale (sc. ville, lettre). A capital. 

b. The names of the letters of the alphabet, as given in § 4, are all 
masculine, but f, h, 1, m, n, r, s are often treated as feminine. 

Un a; un b; une {or tm) f. An ' a '; a ' b '; an ' f.' 

3. The following are feminine: 

(1) Names of countries in -e: 

La France- (Asie, Normandie). France (Asia, Normandy). 

a. Some masculine exceptions are: 
le Bengale, Bengal le Mexique, Mexico le Maine, Maine (in Fr.) 

(2) Most names of cities and towns, especially in -e, -es: 
Rome; Athenes; Tyr; Hion. Rome; Athens; Tyre; Ilium. 

a. Masculine exceptions are: 
le Caire, Cairo Londres, London Paris, Paris 

le Havre, Havre Versailles, Versailles etc. 

Notes. — 1. Any name of a town or city is masculine as a collective: 
Tout Rome le sait, All Rome knows it. 2. In case of doubt as to the gender, 
the name may always be preceded by la ville de = the town {city) of. 


(3) Names of holidays, fete de being understood: 
La Saint-Martin; la mi-juln. Martinmas; mid- June. 

a. Observe : 
NoSl, m. (la Noel, la fete de NoSl). Christmas. 

(4) Names of arts, sciences, trades: 

La peinture (chimie, librairie). Painting (chemistry, book-trade). 

a. Principal exception: 
le dessin, drawing 

304. Nouns of Double Gender. 1. Some nouns denot- 
ing persons, mostly in -e, and adjectives in -e, when so 
used, are either masculine or feminine: 

Un (une) artiste ; un (une) €[kve. An artist; a pupil. 
Un (une) malade; un (tme) rebelle. A patient; a rebel. 

Such nouns are: 

aide, assiatant * enfant, child proim^taire, ovoner 

camaradc, comrade esclave, slave pupille, toard 

compatriote, compatriot locataire, tenant etc. 

* Regulariy masculine in tbe plural. But : belles enf ants, pretty little girU. 

2. The meaning of some nouns varies with the gender: 
Un critique; une critique. A critic; a criticism. 

Le mode; la mode. The mode, mood (gram.); the fashion. 

Other such nouns are: 

Masc. Fem. 

pttge peve(ofabook) 

pendulum clock 
stove, pall frying-pan 
politician politics 
position post office 
sleep, nap sum 
smile mouse 

sculptor sculpture 
turn, trick tower 
! trumpeter trumpet 
steamer steam 
vase slime, mud 

veil amL 





assistant, hdp 











guard (mil.), 

keeper, body of 



troops,watrJi,hiU poste 













mtooire memorandum memory 




mercy, pity 














98 THE NOUN §304 

3. The following nouns are either masculine or feminine, 
with identical or closely related meaning: 

a. Apres-midi = afternoon and automne = aviumn are usually mas- 
culine, sometimes feminine. 

h. Amour (m.) = love, loved object, passion, amour; amour (f. s. 
poet.) = passion, amour; amoiurs (f. pi.) = passion, amours. 

c. Automobile (m. or f.), more commonly feminine. 

d. Delice = delight and orgue = organ {music) are masculine in 
singular and feminine in plural. 

c. Hymne (m.) = hymn, song of praise; hymne (f.) = {church) 
hymn. (Commonly cantique is used.) 

/. Couple (m.) = couple, pair (joined by affection, sentiment, etc.); 
couple (f.) = couple, two (two like objects taken together): 

Vn couple d'amoureux. - A pair of lovers. 

Une couple d'oeufs. Two (a couple of) eggs. 

Note: TJne paire de gants, etc. A pair of gloves, etc, 

g. PSque or paques (m. s.) = Easter; piques fieuries (f. pi.) = 
Palm Sunday (so also in other phrases); paque (f.) = Passover. 

h. Orge (f.) = barley is masculine in orge monde (perle) = pot- 
{pearl-) barley. 

Wi' Foudre (f.) = thunderbolt is ^metimes masculine in poetry or 
elevated prose; foudre (m.) in le foudre de Jupiter = Jove^s thunder- 
bolt and in figurative expressions, e.g., un grand foudre de guerre = 
a great warrior. 

j. (Euvre (f.) = work, works, is sometimes masculine in elevated 
style; ceuvre (m. s.) = works (collectively of an engraver or musician); 
le grand ceuvre = the philosopher's stone. 

k. Gens (pi. m. or f.) = people, persons, etc. Attributive adjec- 
tives are feminine when preceding, and masculine when following gens, 
but predicatives, before or after, are masculine. All is translated by 
toutes only when attributive and separated from gens by an adjective 
variable for the feminine; otherwise by tous: 

De bonnes gens. Good people. 

Les vieilles gens sont malbeuretuc. Old people are unhappy. 

85 305-306 



Les petites gens et les grands. 
Merci, bonnes gens, merci. 
Ces gens sont heureuz. 
Toutes les vieilles gens. 
Tous les gens. 
But: Tous les habiles gens. 

Tous ces gens-ci. 

Tous sont de bonnes gens. 

Les gens sont tous ici. 

The small people and the great. 

Thanks, good people, thanks. 

Those people are happy. 

All (the) old people. 

AH the people. 

All the clever people. 

All these people. 

All are good people. 

The people are all here. 

Notes. — 1. A pronoun to which gens is antecedent is masculine: Les 
gens qui sont venus. The people who have come. 2. Gens in expressions like 
gens de robe = lawyers and in jeones gens = young men is always mas- 

305. Gender of Compound Nouns. 1. Compound nouns 
made up of a verb -f a governed noun are r^ularly 

Un cure-dents ; un porte-pliune. A toothpick; a penholder. 
Un tire-bouchon ; un portefeuille. A corkscrew; a portfolio. 

a. Occasionally they are feniinine: 
Une perce-neige. A snowdrop. 

2. The gender of other compounds is r^ularly that of 
the noun when only one noun is present, or of the principal 
noun in case there are two: 
Une eau-forte. An etching. 

Une mappe-monde. A map of the world. 

La fete-dieu. Corpus Christi day. 

306. Formation of the Feminine. Most nouns denot- 
ing living beings distinguish the masculine and feminine as 

1. Some by a different word: 





bceuf, ox 


mari, httsband 


bouc, he-goat 


oncle, unde 


coq, cock 


parrain, godfather 


fr^re, brother 


pore, pig 


homme, man 

fem me 






a. The feminine form is often obviously cognate; 

Masc. Fem. 

ambassadeur, ambassador ambassadrice 

canard, drake 


* chanteur, singer 


cochon, hog 


compagnon, companion 


dindon, turkey cock 


empereur, emperor 


Masc. Fem, 

gouverneur, tutor gouvernante 
loupi wolf louve 

mulet, mule mule 

*procureur, proxy procuratrico 
serviteur, servant servante 
vieillard, old man vieille 
etc. etc. 

* Also in -euse, see § 337. 2 (2), a. 

2. Some by adding -esse to the last consonant; 





abb^, abbot 


ogre, ogre 


ane, ass 


pair, peer 


chanoine, canon 


pauvre, pauper pauvresse 

comte, count 


pretre, priest 


diable, devil 


prince, prince 


drole, rogue 


Suisse, Swiss 


druide, druid 


tigre, tiger 


bote, host 


traitre, traitor 


maitre, master 




a. So also the following, but with changes in the stem; 





dieu, god 


defendeur, defendant 


doge, doge 


* demandeur, plaintiff 


due, duke 


docteur, doctor 


larron, thief 


enchanteur, enchanter 


nfegre, negro 


p6cheur, sinner 


prophfete, prophet 


* vendeur, seller (law) 


* chasseur, huntsman chasseresse 

vengeur, avenger 


* Also in -euse, see § 337, 2 (2), a. 

3. A few nouns take -ine: 





tsar, czar 


Philippe, Philip 


h^ros, hero 




4. Most other nouns follow the analogy of adjectives of 
like termination, and will be noted under the Adjective. 

§§ 307-308 NUMBER OF NOUNS 101 


307. General Rule. The plural of a noun is r^ularly 
formed by adding -s to the singular: 

Roi(5); reine(s); jardm(s). King(«); queen(«); garden(a). 

308. Principal Exceptions. The following are the prin- 
cipal exceptions to the above rule: 

1. Nouns in -s, -x, -z remain imchanged in the plural; 
so also invariable words when used as nouns: 

Le bras; la voir; le nez. The arm; the voice; the noae. 

Les bras; les voix; les nez. The arms; the voices; the noses. 

Les oui et les non; les on dit. The ayes and noes; the rumors. 

I^usieurs peu font tm beaucoup. Many littles make a ' muckle.' 

2. Nouns in -au, -eu, and seven in -ou, take -x: 
NoyauCx); ch4teau(x); jeu(x), Kemel(«); ca8tle(«); game(8); 

VCBU(X). vow(«). 

The seven nouns in -ou are: 
hijou(x)t jewel genou(x), A»ie« joujou(i), toy 

caillou(x), pe662e hibou(x), oui pou(x), Umse 

chou(x), cabbage 
But: clou(s), nail, sou(s), half-penny, etc. 

3. Most nouns in -al change -al to -au, and add -x as above: 
G^nero/; cheva/; journal. General; horse; newspaper. 
Generotix; chevoux; joumoux. Generals; horses; newspapers. 

a. But the following, and a few rarer ones in -al, are r^ular: 
avalis), endorsemerU cal(8), caUosity chacal(8),yac*aZ 

bal(8), ball (for dancing) camaval(8), carnival r6gal(s), treat 

4. The following in -ail have the plural in -aux: 

bail (-aux), lease travafl (-aux), work vitrail (-aux), stained 

corail (-aux), coral vantail (-aux), folding-door glass window 
soupirail (-aux), ventail (-aux), veniail 


But: d6tail(s), detail; €ventafl(s), /an, etc., are regular. 

Note. — Bestianz (pi.), catile, is often given as the plural of b^tail, 
eatUe; it is from an obsolete form bestiail, parallel to b^tail. 

5. Gent = ra4X, tribe, has the plural gens = people, etc. 

102 ' THE NOUN §§ 309-311 

309. Double Plurals. The following have two plural 
forms, mostly with varying meaning: 

aleul (ajieux), ancestor ceil (yeux), eye 

aieul (aieuls), grandfather ceil (oeils-) in compounds, e.g., 

ail (aulx), garlic ceUs-de-boeuf, oval mndows 

ail (ails), garlic pal (paux), pale, stake 

ciel (cieux), sky, heaven, climate pal (pals), pale, stake 

ciel (ciels), bed-tester, sky {in paint- travail (travaux), work 

ing), roof {of a quarry) travail (travails), report {of a minis' 

ter, etc.), brake {for horse-shoeing) 

Obs.; The -x plural regularly has the literal meaning of the word. 

310. Foreign Nouns. Nouns of foreign origin -take -s, 
usually only when fully naturalized, but usage varies greatly 
(see a dictionary): 

a. Partial list of variable foreign nouns: 

accessit(s), honorable bill(s), bill toast(s), toast 

mention duo(s), duo tramway(s), street-railway 

album(s), aZfewm jury(s),ywrj/ •viva,t{s) , hurrah 

alibi(s), alibi opera(s), opera etc. 

bifteck(s), beefsteak pensum(s), task 

b. Partial list of invariable foreign nouns: 

amen in-folio magnificat requiem veto 

facsimile in-octavo nota bene Te Deum etc. 

item interim post-scriptum vade mecimi 

c. A few Italian nouns retain their plural in i: 

dilettante (-1), dilettante 8oprano(-i), soprano quintetto(-i), guintette 

libretto (-1), libretto lazzarone(-i), beggar etc. 

311. Compound Nouns. The only components which 
take a plural sign are nouns and adjectives. The following 
are special rules: 

1. Compounds without hyphen are treated as one word, 
and follow the general rules: 
Portemanteau(x) ; grand*niere(s). Valise(s); grandmother (s), 

a. Exceptions are: 

bon(s)homme(s), goodman, etc. madame (mesdames), madam, Mrs. 

gentil(s)homme(s), nobleman mademoiselle (mesdemoiselles), Misa 

monsieur (messieurs), Mr., sir, etc. monseigneur (messeigneurs), my lord 

§ 311 NUMBER OF NOUNS 103 

2. When placed in juxtaposition and connected by a 
hyphen, nouns and adjectives are variable: 
Chef(s)-lieu(x); chou(ac)-fleur(5); County-town («); cauliflower(«); 

gran(l(s)-pere(5). granclfather(«). 

a. Demi- is invariable in compounds. 

Des demi-heuits. Half hours. 

b. Further exceptions are: 

blanc-fleuig(s), signature in blank teiTe-pIein(8), platform 

chevau-16ger(8), licht-horseman etc. 

3. Of two nouns joined by preposition and hyphens, the 
first only is variable: 

Arc(s)-en-ciel ; chef(5)-d'0Buvre. Rainbow; masterpiece. 

a. The preposition de is sometimes understood: 
bain(s)-marie, vxUer bath, double boiler tiinbre(8)-poete, pottage-atamp 
hdtel(8)-dieu, hospital etc. 

b. The following are invariable, since the idea conveyed by their 
plural docs not properly belong to the first component simply: 
ooq-&-l'&ne, coch-and-buU story pot-au-fcu, beef and soup 
pied-i-terre, temporary lodging iAte-k-tAte, private interview 

4. A noun with preceding invariable component is usually 
variable : 

Anglo-Saxon (5 ) ; avant-garde (f) Anglo-Saxon; vanguard 
tire-bouchon(s) ; vice-roi(s) corkscrew; viceroy 

bouche-trou(«) stop-gap 

a. But the final noun remains invariable when the plural idea does 
not properly belong to it: 

abat-jour, lamp shade gagne-pain, means of living r6vellle-matin, alarm 

coupe-goTge, cut-throat place perce-neige, snowdrop dock 

crfeve-coeur, heartbreak prie-dieu, praying~stool serre-tAte, headband 

contre-poison, antidote boute-en-train, jolly fellow etc. 

b. On the other hand, a final noun of clearly plural sense retains -s 
in the singular: 

un (des) casse-noiaettes, nutcracker un (des) porte-clefs, turnkey 
un (des) cure-dents, toothpick etc. 

5. Invariable words, such as verb, adverb, preposition, 
etc., are invariable in compounds: 

Des on dit; des passe-partout. Rumors; master-keys. 

104 THE NOUN §§ 312-313 

a. Garde- is usually variable in compounds denoting persons, and 
invariable in those denoting things: 

Des gardes-malades. Sick-nurses. 

But: Des garde-robes. Wardrobes. 

312. Plural of Proper Nouns. 1. Names of persons or 

families are usually invariable in the plural: 

Les deux Racine. The two Racines. 

Les Comeille et les Racine de la The ComeiUes and Racines of the 
scene. stage {i.e., Comeille, Racine, and 

others like them). 
Les Duval sent arrives. (The) Duvals have come. 

a. A few Latin names, originally plural in form, and certain well- 
known historical names of families and dynasties, take -s : 

Les Bourbons 

Les Gracques 

Les Pharaons 

Les Tudors 

Les C^sars 

Les Guises 

Les Scipions 


Les Cond6s 

Les Horaces 

Les Stuarts 

h. Names of persons used as common nounri to denote ' p)ersons like* 
or 'works by' those named are often variable, but usage is not fixed: 

Les ComeiUes sont rares. Corneilles are rare. 

J'ai vu detjx Raphaels. I saw two Raphaels. 

But: Les Hamlet; les La Fontaine ; les Goethe; les Washington, etc. 

2. Names of places take -s when the idea is plural: 

Les Indes ; les Vosges. The Indies; the Vosges. 

Les deux Romes. The two Romes {i.e., the ancient 

and modem). 


313. Case Relations. The noun in French does not vary 
in form to denote case; it is used as follows: 

1. With verbs, as subject, object, predicate: 

Le pere aime son fils. The father loves his son. 

Jean est devenu soldat. John has become a soldier. 


2. In appositions, and with adjectival force: 
Henri IV, roi de France. Henry IV, King of France. 
Un roi enfant. A child king. 

3. After prepositions: 

Jai parie k son pere. I have spoken to his father. 

4. Absolutely, generally with adverbial force: 

Le diner fini, il partit. The dinner ended, he set out. 

n etait li, le chapeau k la main. He was there, (with) his hat in his 


Je suis venu samedi. I came on Saturday. 

D est reste trois hetires. He stayed three hoiu^. 

pai marche dix milles. I walked ten miles. 

Nous I'avons achet6 dix francs. We bought it for ten francs. 

5. Vocatively: 

Bonjotu*, mes amis. Good morning, my friends. 

314. Agreement. A predicate noun, or a noun used 
adjectivally, usually agrees like an adjective with the word 
referred to (see Agreement of the Adjective): 

Ds (elles) sont Allemand(e)s. They are Germans. 

La reine mere. The queen mother. 


316. The Indefinite Article 

Masc. Fem. 

un, a (an) tme, a (an) 

316. The Definite Article 

Sma. Pl. 

^- 1^2?,) the Masc. or Fem. les, the 

Fem. la (1') j 

Ob*.: For the forms in parenthesis, see i 19, 1. 

106 THE ARTICLE §§317-318 

317. Contractions. The prepositions de and a + le and 
les, are always contracted as follows: 

de + le = du ^ + le = au 

de + les = des k + les = aux 

Notes. — 1. No contraction takes place with la, 1'. 2. Formerly en 
+ les was contracted to es, a form still used in academical titles, e.g., 
Bachelier es lettres, Bachelor of Arts. 

318. Agreement and Repetition. The article agrees in 
gender and number with its noun, and is regularly repeated 
(as also de, a) before each noun or adjective denoting a 
distinctive object: 

Une maison et un jardin. A house and garden. 

Le flux et le reflux. High and low tide. 

Au bon et au mauvais c6te. On the good and bad side. 

Les bons et les mauvais. The good and the bad. 

Des homines ou des femmes. Men or women. 

But: Le bon et pieux pretre. The kind and pious priest. 

Le delta ou basse Egypte. The Delta or Lower Egypt. 

a. The definite article is not repeated when a single adjective pre- 
cedes nouns joined by et: 

Les principales villes et provinces The principal towns and provinces 
de la France. of France. 

&. Singular adjectives in apposition to a plural noun omit the article: 

Les langues frans:aise et anglaise. The French and English languages. 
Or: La langue frangaise et la langue anglaise. 
La langue franjaise et I'anglaise. 

c. A few expressions of collective force, like the following, are per- 
missible, but are either not obUgatory or are confined to set expressions : 

Les pere et mere. The parents. 

Les lundl et mardi. (On) Mondays and Tuesdays. 

Les trois et quatre avril. The third and fovirth of April. 

Les officiers et soldats. The officers and soldiers. 

£cole des ponts et chaussees. School of bridges and roads. 

d. For the repetition of le, la, les with the superlative, see Com- 
parison of Adjectives. 7 



319. Use in GeneraL French and English agree to a 
considerable extent in the use of the article; differences are 
noted below. 

320. The Indefinite Article. 1. Its use corresponds in 
general with that of EngUsh o, an; its plural is the partitive 
des (§323): 

Un honune; tine femme; des gens. A man; a woman; people. 

2. Contrary to English usage, the indefinite article also 
commonly stands before an abstract noun used parti tively 
with an adjective or an adjectival adjunct: 
n montra un soin extreme. He showed extreme care, 

n a une patience k toute epreuve. He has patience equal to anything. 
EUe jouit d'une bonne sant6. She enjoys good health. 

C'est ime triste nouvelle. It is sad news. 

a. The adjective or complementary clause depending on such a noun 
may be understood: 

VoilA une patience I There is patience for you I 

J'etais d'une humeur ... I was in a temper . . . 

Un gar^on d'une raison ... A young fellow of (splendid) in- 


Note. — For several cases in which the English indefinite article is re- 
placed by the French definite article, or vice versa, or is omitted, see below. 

321. The General Noun. A noun used in a general sense, 
i.e., *in general,' 'all,' 'every,' etc., being implied with 
it, r^ularly has the definite article in French, though not 
usually in English: 

La vie est courte. Life is short. 

Le f er et le cuivre sont utiles. Iron and copper are usefuL 

Petudie la musique. I am studying music. 

Les Franfais aiment la gloire. The French love glory. 

Le cheval est Tami de I'homme. The horse is the friend of man. 

Le noir vous sied bien. Black becomes you. 

Paime les pommes et les poires. I like apples and pears. 

le.beau et Tutile. The beautiful and (he useful. 

Le boire et le manger. Eating and drinking. 

108 THE ARTICLE §§ 322-324 

a. So also, names of languages, except after en; but not, however, 
after parler: 

Sait-il le frang ais ? Does he know French ? 

D parle bien (le) frangais. He speaks French well. 

But: Dites cela enfranfais. Say that in French. * 

Parlez-vous frangais ? Do you speak French ? 

322. The Partitive Noun. A noun implying 'an unde- 
termined quantity or number of ' is said to be used par- 
ti tively or in a partitive sense. 

323. Partitive with Article. The partitive sense, ex- 
pressed in English by the noun simply, or else the noun 
preceded by 'some* or 'any/ is regularly expressed in 
French by the noun preceded by de + the definite article: 
Du pain trempe dans du vin. (Some) bread dipped in wine. 
A-t-il des amis ? Has he (any) friends ? 

Des enfants poussaient des cris Some children were uttering ter- 

desesperes. rible cries. 

II est des gens qui le croient. There are people who believe it. 

C'est du Carlyle pur. That is pure Carlyleism. 

Note. — This use of de + the definite article, or even of de alone (see 
next section) , is often called the ' partitive article ' ; it is entirely identical 
in form with de + the article in other senses, e.g., Je vends du ble, I sell 
wheat; Quel est le prix du ble? What is the price of the wheat ? 

324. Omission of Article. The partitive sense is ex- 
pressed by de alone + the noun as follows: 

1. When an adjective precedes the noun; so also, when a 
noun is understood after an adjective: 
Avez-vous de bon papier ? Have you any good paper ? 

Donnez-moi de ces plumes-la. Give me some of those pens. 

J'ai de vos livres. I have some of your books. 

De bon vin et de mauvais (sc. vin). Good wine and bad. 
De gros livres et de petits (sc. Big books and little ones. 

But: Des soldats franjais. French soldiers. 

J'ai du pain blanc. I have white bread. 

a. The article is not omitted when the noun has a distinctive adjunct: 
Du bon papier qu'il a achete. Some of the good paper he bought. 


6. The article is not omitted when adjective and noun are indivisible 
in sense, i.e., when forming a real or a virtual compound: 
Des grands-peres; des petits-fils. Grandfathers; grandsons. 
Des petits pels; du ton sens. Green peas; common sense. 

Des jeunes gens; de la bonne foi. Yoimg men; honesty. 

c. Famiharly, the article is often used contrary to the rule: 
Du bon Tin; du vrai bonheur. Good wine; true happiness. 

2. After a general negation, implying non-existence of 
the object in question: 

D n'a pas de montre. He has no (not any) watch. 

Je n'ai point de livres. I have no (not any) books. 

Sans avoir d'argent. Without having (any) money. 

D ne fit pas de remarques. He made no remarks. 

Pas d'argent et pas d'amis. No money and no friends. 

3. But the article is not omitted, the n^ation being no 
longer general: 

a. When the noun has a distinctive adjunct: 

Je n'ai plus du vin de cette annee. I have no more of this year's wine. 

Je n'ai pas de Targent pour le I have no money to waste (=1 

gaspiller. have money, but not to waste). 

b. In contrasts: 

Pas du lait, mais du th€. Not milk, but tea. 

c. In negative interrogation impljing affirmative answer: 
ITavez-vous pas des amis, de la Have you not friends, health, in- 

santS, de Tinfluence ? fluence? 

325. Omission of the P*artitive Sign. The partitive sense 
is expressed by the noun simply, when the preposition de 
forms an essential part of the governing expression, thus: 

1. In expressions of quantity or number: 

Une iivre de the (noix). ' A pound of tea (nuts). 

Un morceau de papier. A piece of paper. 

Une foule de gens. A crowd of people. 

Peu de temps; beaucoup d'amis. Little time; many friends. 

Assez de livres. Enough books (or books enough). 

110 THE ARTICLE § 326 

Trop de peine. Too much trouble. 

Que de gens assembles I What a number of people as- 

sembled ! 

a. Analogous to the above are expressions like the following: 
Trois jours de marche. Three days' march. 

Cent soldats de tues. A hundred soldiers killed. 

Quelque chose (rien) de bon. Something (nothing) good. 

h. Bien = beaucoup regularly has de + the definite article: 
Bien c?e /'argent ; biendu monde. Much money; many people. 
Bien des gens le croient. Many people think so. 

But: Bien d'autres. Many others. 

Note. — Bien in other senses does not take de : J'ai bien faim, / am 
very hungry. 

c. La plupart = most, the greater part, etc., haa de + the def. art.: 
La plupart des hommes. Most men. 

La plupart du temps. Most of the time. 

d. Expressions of quantity or number with a distinctive adjimct 
have de + the definite article; so also, beaucoup, peu, etc., absolutely: 
Une livre du the de ce marchand. A pound of this tradesman's tea. 
Beaucoup des gens de ce pays. Many of the men of that country. 

2. After a verb requiring de before its complement, and in 
phrases, adjectival or adverbial, formed from de + a noun: 

H vit de pain (not de du pain). He lives on bread, 

D manquait d'argent. He lacked money. 

J'ai besoin d'argent. I need money. 

H se passe de vin. He does without wine. 

Un vase rempli d'eau. A vessel filled with water. 

II etait convert de plaies. He was covered with wounds (sores) . 

Une robe de sole. A silk dress. 

Un homme de genie. A man of genius. 

Une bourse pleine d'or. A p\n-se full of gold. 

326. General and Partitive Sense. The general sense of 
a noun (§ 321) is to be carefully distinguished from the 
partitive sense (§ 322) : 

Les oiseaux ont des ailes. Birds have wings. 

Les hommes sent des animauz. Men are animals. 


327. Article with Titles. A title of dignity or profession, 
preceding a proper name, regularly takes the definite article, 
except in direct address: 

La reine Victoria fut aimee. Queen Victoria was beloved. 

Le docteur Ribot est arrive. Doctor Ribot has come. 

Qu'est-ce que le pere Dam dit? What does Father Dam say? 

But: Bon jour, docteur Ribot. Good morning, Doctor Ribot. 

a. So also, when such title is preceded by a title of courtesy (mon- 
sieur, madame, etc.), whether in speaking to or in speaking of the 

Bonjour, monsieur le docteur. Good morning, doctor. 

Monsieur le president I'a dit. The president said so. 

6. A preceding attributive adjective may have the force of a title: 
La petite Claire; le gros Robert. Little Clara; big Robert. 

328. Article for Possessive. The definite article is com- 
monly used with the force of a possessive adjective, when 
no ambiguity arises from its use: 

Donnez-moi la main. Give me your hand, 

n a perdu la vie. He has lost his life. 

II avait le chapeau sur la tete. He had his hat on his head. 

a. The use of an indirect pronoun object + the definite article often 
avoids ambiguity: 

Le courage lui manqua. His courage failed (him). 

Elle lui a arrache les yeux. She tore out his eyes, 

n s'est fait mal k la tete. He hurt his head. 

6. Possessive force appears also in avoir mal (froid, chaud, etc.) 
k + the definite article followed by a novm denoting part of the per- 
son; similarly, in phrases of personal description made up of avoir + 
the definite article + a noim + an adjective: 

Pai mal k la tete. I have a headache (my head aches), 

n a mal aux yeux. He has sore eyes (Ws eyes, etc.). 

H a froid aux pieds. He has cold feet (his feet, etc.). 

H a la tete grosse {or une grosse He has a large head. 

n a les bras longs(or de longs bras) . He has long arms. 
Le chene a I'ecorce mde. The oak has (a) rough bark. 

112 THE ARTICLE §§ 329-330 

329. Article Distributively. 1. The definite article with 
distributive force replaces English a of weight, measure, 
number, when indicating price: 

Deixx francs la livre {le metre). Two francs a pound (a meter). 
Des oeufs (a) dix sous la dotizaine. Eggs at ten cents a dozen, 
Des poires (&) xm sou la piece. Pears at a cent apiece. 

a. Otherwise par is generally used with price: 
Cinq francs par jour. Five francs a (per) day. 

Cent francs par tete. A hundred francs a (per) head. 

Trois francs par legon. Three francs a (per) lesson. 

2. The definite article is also used distributively with 
names of days: 

H vient le dimanche. He comes (on) Sundays. 

Le bateau part tous les Itmdis. The boat goes every Monday. 

330. Omission of the Article. The article, whether defi- 
nite, indefinite, or partitive, is frequently omitted. This 
takes place: 

1. In a large number of expressions made up of a verb 

+ a noun: 

J'ai sommeil; il a honte. I am sleepy; he is ashamed. 

Je vous demande pardon. I beg your pardon. 

Further examples are: 

avoir besoin, need donner avis, notify faire place, make room 

avoir faim, he hungry donner ordre, give orders prendre cong6, take leave 

avoir bonne mine, look well faire attention, pay at- prendre garde, take care 

avoir peur, he afraid tention rendre visite, pay a visit 

avoir tort, he {in the) wrong faire cadeau, make a trouver moyen, find 
courir risque, run the risk present ■ means 

demander conseil, ask ad- faire faillite, fail (in etc., etc. 

vice business) 

2. In many adjectival and adverbial phrases made up of 
a preposition + a noun: 

D'apres nature; devant temoins. After nature; before witnesses. 
Sans cause; k travers champs. Without cause; across the fields. 

Further examples are: 


k bord, on board chien de berger, par chemin de fer, by rail- 

k cheval, on horseback shepherd's dog xoay 

k dessein, intentionally homme de cceur, par exemple, for example 

k genoux, on one's knees man of feeling par experience, by experience 

k pied, on foot homme de g^nie, par terre, by land 

pot k fleurs, fknoerpot man of genius sans crainte, without fear 

moulin k vent, windmill en bateau, in a boat sans raiaon, without reason 

apr^ diner, after dinner en 6t^, in summer sous condition, on condition 

avec int^rfet, with interest en voiture, in a oar- sous pressc, in the press 

avec plaisir, unth pleasure riage sur papier, on paper 

Bortir de table, 2«ave tAe <a6^ par an, by the year etc., etc. 

3. Before a predicate noun which qualifies in a general 
way the personal subject, or object, of certain verbs (cf. 

lis sent Russes. They are Russians. 

EUe est modiste. She is a milliner. 

Nous sommes medecins. We are doctors. 

n parait honnete homme. He seems an honest man. * 

Son frere se fit soldat. His brother became a soldier. 

On I'a ordonne pretre. He was ordained a priest. 

Soyons amis. Let us be friends. 

NoTB. — Nouns so used are commonly those of nationality, profession, 
title, etc., and their function ia adjectival. Whenever a predicate noun 
denotes an individual or a species, it must have the article : La rose est xm» 
fleur, The rose is a flower; Les rois sent des hommes. Kings are men. 

a. The article is not omitted when the predicate noun has a dis- 
tinctive adjunct: 

Son fr&re est un artiste de merite. His brother is an artist of merit. 

Ds sont devenus des generaux They became distinguished gen- 

distingues. enb. 

6. Observe the predicative force of a noun after traiter + de, quali- 
fier + de: 

D m'a traite de sot. He called me a fool. 

Je qualifie cela de fraude. I call that fraud. 

a After c'est, ce sont, the noun is logical subject, not predicate, and 
hence the article or some other determinative word must be used with 

C'est xme Allemande. She is (a) German. 

Ce sont les (mes) gants. Those are the (my) glovea 

114 THE ARTICLE §330 

4. Before such an appositive noun as. serves merely the 
purpose of a parenthetical explanation: 

L'Avare, comedie de Moliere. L'Avare, a comedy by Moliere. 

Paris, fils de Priam, ravit Helene, Paris, the son of Priam, carried off 
femme de Menelas. Helen, (the) wife of Menelaus. 

a. Thus is explained the omission of the article in numerical titles: 
Jacques premier (deux). James the First (the Second). 

6. An apposition which distinguishes, contrasts, compares, regularly 
has the article, as in English: 

Pierre le Grand. Peter the Great. 

Racine le fils et non Racine le Racine the son and not Racine the 

pere. father. 

Montreal, la plus grande ville du Montreal, the largest city in 

Canada. Canada. 

M. Cook, im ami de men pere. Mr. Cook, a friend of my father. 

c. Colloquially, the article is often omitted in contrasts: 
Dumas pere et Dumas fils. Dumas the elder and Dumas the younger. 

Note. — Peeudo-apposition (really ellipsis of de or of a de clause) is 
found in many cases like L'eglise {sc. de) Saint-Pierre, St. Peter's Church; 
des meubles {sc. du temps de) Louis XV, Louis XV furniture; La rue (sc. 
de) MLrabeau, Mirabeau Street. 

5. In condensed sentences, such as titles of books, enu- 
merations, addresses, advertisements, proverbs, antithet- 
ical expressions, etc., and usually after ni . . . ni, sans . . . 
ni, soit . . . soit, tant . . . que, jamais : 

Causes de la perte de Rome. Causes of the fall of Rome. 

Portrait de Napoleon HI. (A) portrait of Napoleon III. 

Soldats, officiers, citoyens, tous Soldiers, officers, citizens, all has- 

accounirent. tened up. 

Beaute, talent, esprit, tout s'use Beauty, talent, wit, everything 

a la longue. wears out in the long run. 

II loge rue Richelieu. He lives in Richelieu street. 

Maison k vendre. (A) house for sale. 

Chapeaux pour hommes. Men's hats. 

Corps et ame; nuit et jour. Body and soul; night and day. 

Soit pexu", soit prudence, il evita Whether from fear or prudence, he 

le combat. avoided the combat. 




D n'a ni pere ni mere. 
Sans amis ni argent. 
Tant hommes que femmes. 
Jamais pere n'a tant aime. 

He has neither father nor mother. 

Without friends or money. 

As well men as women. 

Never did a father love so much. 

331. Unclassified Examples. The following examples 
show idiomatic distinctions in the use of the article which, 
from the point of view of EngUsh, cannot conveniently be 
brought under general rules: 

Vous etes le bienvenu. 

Demander (faire) /'aumdne. 

Avoir le temps. 

Aller k /'ecole (/'eglise). 

Coimnander le respect. 

Le feu s'est declare. 

Faire la guerre. 

Jeter (lever) Z'ancre. 

Garder le silence. 

Mettre le feu k. 

Sur (vers) les trois heures. 

Au revoir ! 

L'annee demidre (prochaine). 

La semaine (Z'annee) passfie. 

Le vendredi saint. 

Le mercredi des cendres. 

Le printemps, I'ete, etc. 

Au printemps, en ete, etc. 

La (sc. fete de) Saint-Michel. 

La {sc. fete de) mi-juin. 

La moitie de I'annee. 

Les deux tiers du temps. 

Tous (Jes) detix; tons (les) trois. 

Tous les mois. 

Le ministre de la guerre. 

Le meilleur des amis. 

n cria d Tassassin. 

Je I'ai dit au hasard. 

Prendre le deuil de quelqu'un. 

Sentir la fumee. 

Je vous souhaite la bonne annee. 

II n'a pas le sou. 

You are welcome. 

Ask (give) alms. 

To have time. 

To go to school (church). 

To command respect. 

Fire broke out. 

To make war. 

To cast (weigh) anchor. 

To keep silence. 

To set fire to. 

Towards three o'clock. 

Good-bye ! 

Last (next) year. 

Last week (year). 

Good Friday. 

Ash Wednesday. 

Spring, summer, etc. 

In spring, in summer, etc 



(The) half (of) the year. 

Two-thirds of the time. 

Both; all three. 

Every month. 

The minister of war. 

The best of friends. 

He cried murder. 

I said it at random. 

To go into mourning for somebody. 

To smell of smoke. 

I wish you a happy new year. 

He is wretchedly poor. 

116 THE ARTICLE §332 

D est plus grand que vous de la He is taller than you by a head. 


Un homme a la barbe noire. A man with a black beard. 

La belle question ! What a (fine) question ! 

A la (sc. mode) franjaise. In the French style. 

S'en aller a /'anglaise. To take French leave. 

A la {sc. mode de) Henri IV. In the style of Henry IV. 

Cent (mille) ans. A hundred (a thousand) years. 

Les amis, oii allez-vous? (My) friends, where are you going? 


332. Names of Persons. 1. As in English, names of per- 
sons usually take no article: 
Corneille; George Fox. Corneille; George Fox. 

a. The definite article is a constituent part of some surnames: 
Les tomans de Zesage. The novels of Lesage. 

Les fables de La Fontaine. The fables of La Fontaine. 

2. The definite article is used according to Italian analogy 
in the French form of a few famous Italian surnames; so 
also sometimes in a very few names which are not Italian: 
Le Cortege; le poeme du Tasse. Correggio; the poem of Tasso. 

Le Poussin; le Camoens. Poussin; Camoens. 

3. The article is used when the name has a distinctive 
adjunct, when it is plural, or when used as a common noun: 
Le Christ. Christ (= the 'Anointed'). - 

Le Satan de Milton; le grand Milton's Satan; the Great Cond6. 


Les Corneille et les Racine. A Corneille, a Racine ( = Corneille, 

Racine and others hke them). 

C'est un Alexandre. He is an Alexander. 

C'est du Ciceron tout pur. It is pure Ciceronian. 

J'ai lu le Telemaque. I have read Telemaque. 

4. Familiarly, often in a depreciatory sense, the definite 
article is not uncommon, especially with names of females: 
Sans attendre la Barbette. Without waiting for Barbara. 

Le Duval me Pa dit. Duval told me so. 


333. Names of Countries. 1. Names of continents, coun- 
tries, provinces, large European islands, take the definite ar- 
ticle, especially when standing as subject or object of a verb: 

L'Asie est un grand continent. Asia is a large continent. 

Nous aimons la France. We love France. 

La Normandie produit des cereales. Normandy produces cereals. 
La Corse est une ile franfaise. Corsica is a French island. 
But non-European islands often do not take the article: 
Madagascar est une grande ile. Madagascar is a large island. 
Cabot decouvrit Terre-Neuve. Cabot discovered New'foundland. 

Note also such forms as: L'ile de Cuba, les ties Bahama. 

2. Before names of continents, European countries and 
islands singular, and feminine countries singular outside of 
Europe, en without the article denot€s 'where,' 'where to'; 
so also, after de denoting 'point of departure from' and 
after de in most adjectival phrases: 

n est en (va en) Europe. He is in (is going to) Europe. 

D voyage en France (Portugal). He travels in France (Portugal). 

n vient d'Espagne (Danemark). He comes from Spain (Denmark). 

Le roi de Portugal (Espagne). The King of Portugal (Spain). 

Le fer de Suede. Swedish iron. 

U va en Corse. He is going to Corsica. 

a. Exceptions are rare, e.g., au Maine, Le due du Maine, etc. 

Note. — In an adjectival phrase, de denoting titular distinction, origin, 
description, or mere apposition usually omits the article, e.g., le pays de 
France, ^e Royaume Uni de Grande-Bretagne et (f'Irlande. 

3. But the definite article is not omitted, in answer to 
'where?' 'where to?' or after de as above, when the name 
is plural, or has a distinctive adjunct, or denotes a mascu- 
line name of a country outside of Europe: 

n est aux Indes. He is in India. 

n va aux Etats-Unis. He goes to the United States. 

Aux Pays-Bas. In (to) the Netherlands. 

L'imperatrice des Indes. The Empress of India. 

Venir des Indos (de I'Inde). To come from India. 

Dans la France meridionale. I 

Dans le Midi de la France. J 

In Southern France. 

118 THE ARTICLE §§ 334r-335 

Dans I'Amerique du Nord. In North America. 

La reine de la Grande-Bretagne. The Queen of Great Britain. 

II revient de I'Afrique australe. He returns from South Africa. 

Au Mexique (Japon). In (to) Mexico (Japan). 

Le Dominion du Canada. \ - m, t>. • • r ^ 

La Puissance du Canada. / ^^^ Domimon of Canada. 

Chasse de la Chine. Expelled from China. 

Le consul du Perou. The consul of Peru. 

Le fer du Canada. Canadian iron. 

But note such as: Son pere est k Madagascar. 

a. In a few names hke Asie Mineure, basse Bretagne, the adjec- 
tive is no longer felt to be distinctive: 

En Asie mineure. In Asia Minor. 

4. Omission of the article in the predicate, in enumera- 
tions, titles, etc., sometimes occurs (cf. §330, 5): 

La Gaule est devenue France. Gaul became France. 

Espagne, Italic, Belgique, tout Spain, Italy, Belgium, all would 
eftt pris feu. have caught fire. 

334. Names of Cities. Names of cities and towns usu- 
ally have no article, unless used with a distinctive adjunct: 

Londres, Paris, Quebec. London, Paris, Quebec. 

A Boston (Montreal). To or in Boston (Montreal). 

But: La Rome de ce siecle. (The) Rome of this century. 

La Nouvelle-Orleans. New Orleans. 

a. The definite article is an essential part of several names of cities: 
Le Caire; le Havre; la Havana. Cairo; Havre; Havana. 

335. Names of Mountains and Rivers. Names of moun- 
tains always, and names of rivers regularly, have the defi- 
nite article: 

LesAlpes; leNU; lemont Blanc. The Alps; the Nile; Mt. Blanc. 

a. For rivers, the usage after en, de, is parallel with that described 
in § 333, 2: 

De I'eau de Seine. Seine water. 

Un abordage a eu lieu en Seine. A collision occurred on the Seine.. 




grande, tall 


jolie, pretty 


rus6e, cunning 


morte, dead 



336. General Rtile. The feminine of an adjective is 
r^ularly formed by adding -e to the mascuUne singular, 
but adjectives ending in -e remain unchanged: 

Masc. Fem. 

facile, facile, easy 

jeune, jeune, young 

sincere, sincere, sincere 

c^ldbre, cdlebre, celebrated 

a. Similarly, nouns of like termination (but see § 306, 2) : 
Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. 

marquis, marquis, marquise artiste, artist, artiste 

ami, friend, amie camarade, comrade, camarade 

cousin, cousin, cousine concierge, porter, concierge 

lapin, rabbit, lapine malade, patient, malade 

6. Adjectives in -gu are r^ular, but require the diaeresis to indicate 
that u is sounded, e.g., aigu, sharp, aigu6. 

c. The circumflex in d& (f. due) distinguishes it from du = of the, 
and disappears in the fem. (§214); observe also mft (f. mue, §219). 

d. Besides adjectives in -e, a very few others are invariable for the 
feminine, e.g., capot, in etre capot = have come to grief, grognon, grum- 
bling, rococo, rococo, sterling, sterling, and rarer ones. 

Note. — Here also properly belongs grand in grand'mftre, etc. In 
O. F. grand was masculine or feminine, but grammarians at a later date 
gave it the apostrophe to denote the supposed elision of e. 

337. Special Rules. 1. Irr^ularities consist chiefly of 
changes in the stem on adding the feminine sign -e; thus, 
when -e is added: 

(1) Final £ = v, x = s, c = chin some, and qu in others, 
g = gu: 

Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. 

actif, active, active * blanc, white, blanche 

bref , brief, breve t pubUc, public, publique 

heureux, happy, heureuse long, long, longue 

* So also: franc, frank, franche; sec, dry, s^he. 

t So also: ammoniac (-que), ammoniac; turc (-que), TurkisJi. 


a. Similarly, nouna of like termination: 

Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. 

veuf, widower, veuve epoux, spouse, 6pouse turc, Turk, turque 

Note. — Here also belongs bailli, bailiff (O. F. baillif), baillive. 

6, The adjectives doux, douce, sweet, faux, fausse, false, roux, 
rousse, red (of hair, etc.), retain the [s] sound in the feminine, denoted 
by c and ss respectively; grec, Greek, has feminine grecque; prefix, 
■prefixed, is regular. 

(2) Final -el, -eil, -ien, -on, and usually -s, -t, double the 
final consonant: 



cruel, cruel, 


pareil, like. 


ancien, old. 


bon, good, 


bas, low, 




gros, big. 


6pais, thick, 


expres, express, 


muet, dumb. 


sot, foolish, 


But: ras, rase, flat; gris, grise, gray; mat, mate, dead, dvU; pret, 
prete, ready; d6vot, devote, devout; bigot, bigote, bigoted; cagot, 
cagote, hypocritical; idiot, idiote, idiotic, and a few rarer ones. 

a. Similarly, nouns of like termination, but see §306: 

Masc. Fem, Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. 

mortel, mortal, mortelle lion, lion, lionne poulet, chicken, pouletto 

chien, dog, chienne chat, cat, chatte linot, linnet, linotte 

b. A very few adjectives and nouns of other endings follow this 

Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. 

paysan, peasant, paysanne gentil, nice, gentille 

rouan, roan, rouanne nul, null, nulle 

(3) The following have two masculine forms, one of which 
doubles 1 for the feminine, like the above: 



Masc. Fem. 

beau or bel, fine, 


mou or mol, soft, molle 

fou or fol, mad. 


nouveau or nouvel, netp, nouvelle 

jumeau or (0. F. 

vieux or vieil, old, vieille 

jumel), tmn, 


Ohs.: The -1 form is regularly used only before a vowel or h mute; vieux 
before a vowel is permissible, e.g., un vieux ami (better: un vieil ami). 


a. Analogous are a few nouns: 
Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. 

chameau, camel, chamelle jouvenceau, young fellow, jouvenceUe, etc. 

(4) Before final -r and -et of a few adjectives e becomes e 
(cf. § 12, 1); so also in bref, breve, sec, seche: 

Masc. Fem. 



cher, dear, chdre 

complet, complete, 


l^er, ligfU, 16gdre 



a. Similarly, nouns in -cr. 

Masc. Fem. 



berger, shepherd, bergdre 

Stranger, stranger, 6trang8re, etc 

6. The complete list of adjectives in -et with fem. in -dte is: . 
(in)ooiDplet, {in)comjdeU (in)discret, iin)di3creet replet, over-ttout 

eoncret, concrete inquiet, uneasy secret, secret 

(5) Tt .' following feminine stems show etymological ele- 
ments w ich have disappeared in the masculine: 

Ma£c. Fem. Masc. Fem. 

coi (L. quit »), qitiet, ooite frais (L. L.frescits), cod, fraidie 

b4nin (L. Ik lignus), benign, b^nigne tiers (L. tertius), third, tierce 
favori(It.j vorito), favorite, favorite 

2. Adjectives in -eur form their feminine as follows: 

(1) Majeur, mineur, meilleur and those in -erieur are 

Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. 

majeur, major, majeure ext^rieur, exterior, extdrieure 

meilleur, better, meilleiu'e sup^eur, superior, sup^ieure 

a. Similarly, nouns of like termination: 

Masc. Fem. Masc. ' Fem. Masc. Fem. 

mineur, mirwr, mineure ; prieur, prior, prieure ; inf^rieur, inferior, inf6rieure 

(2) Those in -etir with a cognate present participle in 
-ant change -r to -s and add -e : 

Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. 

cau8eur, talkative, causeuse r^veur, dreamy, r^veuse 

flatteur, JUUtering, flatteuse trompem-, deceitftd, trompeuse 

menteur, lying, menteuse etc. etc. 

122 THE ADJECTIVB §§ 338-339 

a. Similarly, nouns of like termination, but see also § 306, 1, a, 2, a: 
Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. 

danseur, dancer, danseuse buveur, drinker buveuse 

chanteur, singer, chanteuse vendeur, seller vendeuse 

flatteur, flatterer, flatteuse etc. etc. 

(3) Those in -tear, with no cognate present participle in 
-ant, have the feminine in -trice: 

Masc. Fem. Masc. ^ Fem. 

accusateur, accusing, accusatrice directeur, directive, directrice 

createur, creative, creatrice etc. etc. 

a. Similarly, nouns of like termination, but see § 306, 1, a, 2, a: 
Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. 

accusateur, accuser, accusatrice createur, creator, creatrice, 
acteur, actor, actrice etc. etc. 


338. General Rule. Most masculine adjective i and all 
feminines form their plural by adding s to th singular 
(cf. §307): 

grand(s), grande(s) jeune(s), ieune(s) bas, basse(s) 

ioli(s), jolie(s) aigu(s), aigue(s) douj-, douce(s) 

rus6(s), rusee(s) complet(s), complete(s) etc. etc. 

339. Special Rules. The following rules are parallel 
with those for the irregular plural of nouns (cf . § 308) : 

1. Masculine adjectives in -s, -x (none in -z) remain 

Sing. Pl. Sma. Pl. Sing. Pl. 

bas bas gris gris faux faux 

6pais epais soumis soumis vieiix vieux 

frais frais, etc. doux doux, etc. heureux heureux, etc. 

2. Masculine adjectives in -eau, and one in -eu take x: 
Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl. 

beau beaux jumeau jumeaxix 

nouveau nouveaux h^breu h6breux 

But: bleu, bleus; feu, feus 




3. Masculine adjectives in -al regularly have the plural 
in -aux: 





































a. Fatal makes fatals; Littr6 gives also final (s). 

6. According to the Dictionnaire de VAcadcmie, the following have 
no masculine plural: 

* sutomnal frugal * jo\'ial naval f paacal 

* colossal glacial natal * partial 

* Littr6 gives a plural in -aux. 

t Littr^ admits a plural in -aoz, and quotes authority for a plural in -«. 

Notes. — 1. There are upwards of a hundred and fifty adjectivee 
in -al. The Dictionnaire de I'AccuUmie is silent regarding the masculine 
plural of some sixty of these, to nearly fifty of which, however, Littr^ gives 
a plural in -aux. The following have not been pronounced upon by either 
authority: Brumal, d^loyal, diagonal, instrumental, labial, medicinal, 
mental, monacal, paradoxal, quadragesimal, total, virginal. 

2. Regular plurals in -als were formerly much commoner, and usage is 
still unsettled for some words. When the plural is wanting or doubtful it ia 
often avoided, e.(7., Unrepas frugal; des repas st/n^es. Plurals commonly ao 
avoided are: Final, frugal, glacial, initial, matinal, natal, naval, th6&tral. 


340. General Rule. An adjective, whether attributive 
or predicative, regularly agrees in gender and number with 

its substantive: 

Cold seasons are healthful. 
They are pleased. 
They said they were ill. 
I believe them sincere. 

Les saisons froides sent sained. 
Elles sont contentes. 
Bs se disaient maladet. 
Je les crois sinc^res. 

a. When the substantive has a de clause, the agreement ia parallel 
with that explained for subject and verb (cf. § 232, 2). 

h. The agreement with vous is according to the sense: 
Madame, vous etes bien boime. Madam, you are very kind. 

124 THE ADJECTIVE §§341-343 

341. Manifold Substantive. 1. One adjective qualify- 
ing two or more substantives is made plural, and agrees in 
gender with both, if of the same gender; if of different 
gender, the adjective is masculine. 

De la viande et des pommes de Cold meat and potatoes. 

terre froides. 
Sa soetir et lui sent contents. His sister and he are pleased. 

a. When substantives are joined by ou, ni . . . ni, or are synonymous, 
or form a chmax, etc., the principles stated for agreement of subject 
and verb apply (cf. § 233). 

b. When nouns differ in gender, the masculine one is usually placed 
nearest the adjective, especially when the feminine form is distinct 
from the masculine. 

La mer et le ciel bleus. The blue sea and sky. 

2. When the noun is followed by a preposition + a noun, 
the agreement is, of course, according to the meaning: 
Une table de bois dur. A table of hard wood. 

Une table de bois carree. A square wooden table, 

342. Manifold Adjective. When two or more adjectives, 
denoting different objects singular, refer to one noun, the 
noun is made plural, and the adjectives follow it in the 
singular, or the noun is made singular, and the article re- 
peated with each adjective. 

Les nations grecque et romaine. The Greek and Roman nations. 
La nation grecque et la romaine. The Greek nation and the Roman. 
Or: La nation grecque et la nation romaine. 

a. The agreement for a preceding ordinal is parallel to this: 
Les sixieme et septieme rangs. The sixth and seventh ranks. 
Le sixilme rang et le septieme. The sixth rank and the seventh. 
Le sixieme et le septidme rang. The sixth and the seventh rank. 

343. Special Cases. 1. Adjectives used as adverbs are 
regularly invariable: 

Cette rose sent bon. That rose smells sweet. 

Les livres content cher ici. Books cost dear here. 


a. Possible, replacing a clause, and fort, in se faire fort = to 
oneself, are considered as adverbs: 
Pal fait le moins de fautes pos- I have made as few mistakes as 

sible. possible. 

Elle se fait fort de le payer. She pledges herself to pay it. 

2. Compound adjectives, with or without hyphen, are 
treated as follows: 

(1) Both components are variable when coordinate, 

except first components in -o: 

Des sourd(e)s-muet(/c)s. Deaf-mutee. 

Des oranges aigres-douces. Sourish oranges. 

But : Les lettres greco-romaines. Graeco-Roman literature. 

(2) A subordinate component is usually invariable, being re- 
garded as adverbial, but the principle is not fully carried out: 

Des mots grecs-modeme. Modem Greek words. 

Des enfants coxirt-vetus. Short-coated children. 

Une dame haut placee. A lady of high rank. 

Des enfants nouveau-nes. New-bom infants. 

o. But the subordinated component is variable in frais cueilli = 
freshly gathered, in ivre mort = dead drunk, in grand onvert = tride 
open, and in premier, dernier, nouveau + a past participle (except 
nouveau-ne, see above): 

Des fleurs fraiches cueillie;. Freshly gathered flowers. 

La porte est grande ouvertc. The door is wide op>en. 

Les nouveaox maries. The bridegroom and bride. 

3. Nouns serving as adjectives of color are regularly 

Des robes lilas (citron). Purple Gemon-colored) dresses. 

a. Rose, cramoisi, pourpre, are exceptions, and vary: 
Des robes rose^ (cramoisies). Pink (crimson) dresses. 

b. Modified adjectives of color are also usually invariable, the 
modifier being also invariable by rule, 2 (2), above: 

Des cheveux blond ardent. Reddish blond hair. 

Note. — Those constructions are explained by suppljnng the ellipsis: 
Des robes (cooleor de) iilas; Des cheveox (couleor de) blond ardent. 

126 THE ADJECTIVE § 344 

4. A few adjectives are variable or invariable according 
to position or context: 

a. Demi = half, nu = naked, plein = ftdl of, are invariable before 
and variable after the noun; so also, excepte and others (§ 289, a, b), 
franc de port = postpaid (also franco, adverb) is invariable before, 
and usually variable after: 
Une demi-hetire; une hexxre et Half an hour; an hour and a half. 

H a de I'or plein ses poches. He has his pockets full of gold. 

n est nu-tete; il a les bras nus. He is bareheaded; his arms are bare. 
H a les yeux pleins de larmes. His eyes are full of tears. 

Recevoir franc de port une lettre. To receive a letter postpaid. 
Des lettres franches de port. Postpaid letters. 

Obs.: demi, nu, when preceding, form a compound with hyphen. 

&. Feu = late, deceased, is invariable when preceding the definite 
article, or determinative, and variable after it: 
Feu la reine (la feue reine). The late queen. 

c. After avoir I'air = have an air (appearance) the adjective agrees 
with air; but it agrees with the subject of the verb when the expression 
means seem, appear: 

Cette dame a I'air hautain. That lady has a haughty air. 

Elle a I'air malheureuse. She seems unhappy. 

Cette soupe a I'air bonne. This soup looks good. 

5. A very few adjectives are always invariable: 
Nous avons ete capot. We had come to grief. 
Vingt livres sterling. Twenty pounds sterling. 

344. Nouns as Adjectives. By a sort of apposition, 
nouns are frequently used as adjectives; when so used, they 
usually agree like adjectives: 
Une maitresse cheminee. A main chimney. 

Des philosopbes poetes. Poet philosophers. 

But: La race negre, etc. 

a. Temoin = wiiness, at the head of a phrase, is adverbial and 

J'ai bien combattu, temoin les I have fought well, witness the 
blessures que j'ai rejues. wounds I received. 

b. For nouns as adjectives of color, see § 343, 3. 



345. The Comparative. It is regularly denoted by plac- 
ing plus = more, moins = less, for inequality, and aussi = 
as, for equality, before each adjective compared; than or 
as = que: 

D est plus grand que Jean. He is taller than John. 

n est moins grand que Jean. He is less tall than (not so tall as) 


n est aussi grand que Jean. He is as tall as John. 

II est plus diligent et plus attentif He is more diligent and (more) at* 

que Jean. tentive than John. 

U est plus faible que malade. He is more weak than ill. 

a. Aussi, used negatively, may be replaced by si: 

II n'est pas aussi (si) grand que J. He is not so tall as John. 

b. When aussi or si is omitted, comme (jwI que) is used: 
Un roi riche comme Cresus. A king as rich as Crossus. 

c. After plus, moins, afi&rmatively, than = que . . . ne when coming 
before a finite verb : 

n est plus grand ^'il ne (le) parait. He is taller than he seems. 

d. More and more (or -er and -er) = de plus en plus; less and lest 
(or -er and -er) = de moins en moins; the more . . .the more = plus 

. . . (et) plus ; the less the less = moins . . . (et) moins; the more . . . 

= d'autant plus . . .: 

L'air devint de plus en plus froid. The air became colder and colder. 

n devint de moins en moins actif . He became less and less active. 

Plus il devient riche (et) moins il The richer he becomes the less 

est genereui. generous is he. 

II en sera d'autant plus riche. He will be the richer for it. 

346. Irregular Comparison. The adjectives bon, mau- 
vais, petit, have a special comparative form: 

Pes. CoMP. Pes. -COMP. 

bon, good, meilleur or bon, plus bon (rare) 

mauvais, bad, fire or mauvais, plus mauvais 

petit, small, moindre or petit, plus petit 

128 THE ADJECTIVE §§347-348 

a. Bon is hardly ever compared regularly: 

A bon marche, a meilleur marche. Cheap, cheaper. 

Cela sent bon (meilleur). That smells good (better). 

But: Ce n'est ni plus bon mplus mauvais. 

Notes. — 1. In expressions like Ce vin est plus ou moins bon, bon is 
not really comparative. 2. Some grammarians admit plus bon = more 

b. Pire is, in general, stronger than plus mauvais, and may serve 
also as a comparative to mechant = bad, evil, wicked: 

Cet homme est mechant (pire). That man is bad (worse). 

c. In general, moindre = less, lesser, less (in importance) and plus 
petit = smaller, less {in size): 

Votre douleur en sera moindre. Yovir sorrow will hence be less. 
Une plus petite pomme. A smaller apple. 

347. The Superlative Relative. 1. It is denoted by 
placing the definite article (variable) or a possessive adjec- 
tive (variable) before the comparative of inequality: 

Elle est la moins aimable. She is the least amiable. 

Mes metlleurs amis. My best friends. 

La moindre diflficulte. The sKghtest difficulty. 

a. When the superlative follows the noim, the definite article is not 

C'est 1' enfant le plus diligent et le He is the most dihgent and atten- 

plus attentif de tous. tive boy of all. 

Mes amis les plus fideles. My most faithful friends. 

2. After a superlative, in = de (not a, dans> etc.); among 
= entre or d'entre: 

L'homme le plus riche de la ville. The richest man in the city. 
Le meillevu: ecrivain des Etats-tJnis. The best writer in the United States. 
Le plus brave (d')entre les Grecs. The bravest among the Greeks. 

348. The Superlative Absolute. It is expressed by le 
(invariable) + plus or moins before the adjective, or else 
by an adverb, such as tres, bien, fort, extremement, etc., 
or some other modifying expression: 

Elle est le plus heureuse (moins She is happiest (least happy) when 
heureuse) quand elle est seule. she is alone. 


Vous etes tres aimable. You are very (most) kind. 

C'est tout ce qu'il y a de plus beau. It is most beautiful. 

Un brave des braves. One of the bravest. 

Un homme des plus dignes. A most worthy man. 

Une dame on ne peut plus digne. A most worthy woman. 

Des tribus sauvages au possible. Most savage tribes. 

a. Occasionally it is denoted in familiar style by re|)etition of the 
adjective, or by -issime: 

Cet homme est ruse, ruse. That man is very, very cunning. 

D est richissime. He is very wealthy. 

349. Remarks. 1. Comparative and superlative are in- 
distinguishable in constructions requiring in English a 
definite article before the comparative: 
Le plus fort de mes deux frdres. The stronger of my two brothers. 

2. De denotes by how much after a comparative or 
superlative : 

Plus fige de trois ans. Older by three years. 

II est de beaucoup le plus grand. He is the tallest by far. 
But: D est beaucoup plus grand. He is much taller. 

3. Observe the following: 

Les basses classes. The lower classes. 

J'ai fait mon possible. I did my utmost. 


350. Predicative Adjectives. They are placed, in general, 
as in English: 

Elles sont contentes. They are pleased. 

Elle parut fatiguee. She seemed tired. 

Brave, savant, vertueux, il se fit Brave, learned, virtuous, he made 

aimer de tons. himself beloved by all. 

o. Observe the position after assex, after plus . . . plus, moins . . . 
moins, and in exclamations with combien ! conime ! que ! tant ! as 
compared with the order of words in English: 
II est assez sot pour le croire. He is silly enough to beheve it. 

130 THE ADJECTIVE §§351-352 

Plus il devint riche moins il fut The richer he became the less 

generexix. generous was he. 

Que vous etes aimable de venir I How kind you are to come ! 

351. Attributive Adjectives. When used literally, to de- 
fine, distinguish, specify, emphasize, etc., they usually 
follow; but when used figuratively, or as a merely orna- 
mental epithet, or denoting a quality viewed as essential 
to the object, or when forming, as it were, one idea with 
the noun, they usually precede: 

Une rue etrolte; une etroite A narrow street; an intimate 

amitie. friendship. 

Un roi savant; le savant auteur. A learned king; the learned author. 

Le fameux Pitt; un ruse coquin. The famous Pitt; a cunning rogue, 

a. The following, of very common use, generally precede: 
beau grand joli meilleur pire vilain 

bon gros long moindre sot 

court jeune mauvais petit vieux 

352. Special Rules for Attributives. 1. Certain adjec- 
tives serve regularly to define, distinguish, etc., and hence 
regularly follow; such are: 

(1) Adjectives of physical quality: 

tJne table carte e; une pierredure; A square table; a hard stone; cold 

de I'eau froide (chaude); de (hot) water; black ink; a pi- 

I'encre noire; une sauce pi- quant sauce, 

a. By the general rule (§ 351) they sometimes precede: 
De noirs chagrins; une verte Dark sorrows; a green old age; 
vieillesse; le bleu ciel d'ltalie. the blue sky of Italy. 

(2) Adjectives of nationality, religion, profession, title, 

and those from proper names: 

Le droit anglais; un pretre catho- English law; a Cathohc priest; 
lique; une splendeur royale; royal splendor; Ciceronian 

le latin cic6ronien. Latin. 

(3) Participles used as adjectives: 

Une etoile filants; un homme A shooting star; an educated man; 
instruit; une porte ouverte. an open door. 


o. By* the general rule (§351) they sometimes precede: 
Una eclatante victoire. A signal victory. 

h. Past participial forms which have become real adjectives, e.g., 
pretendu, absolu, parfait, dissolu, feint, ruse, etc., very often precede 
(pretendu nearly always): 

Une feinte modestie. Feigned modesty. 

Le pretendu comte. The would-be coxmt. 

2. Adjectives sometimes follow the noun on account of 
their adjuncts or their function; thus: 

(1) When modified by an adverb, other than aussi, si, 
tres, bien, fort, plus, moins, assez: 

Un discours extremement long. An extremely long speech. 
But: Un tres long discours. A very long speech. 

(2) When modified by an adverbial phrase, or in com- 

Une contr^e riche en vins. A district rich in wines. 

Un guerrier brave conune un lion. A warrior as brave as a lion. 

(3) Nouns used appositively as adjectives: 
Une puissance amie. A friendly power. 

3. Two or more adjectives, with one noun, follow, m 
general, the rules stated, but, if joined by a conjunction, 
they all follow, in case one is such as must follow: 

Une jolie petite fille. A pretty little girl. 

Une belle maison blanche. A beautiful white house. 

Un objet blanc et etincelant. A white and dazzling object. 

Une dame belle et savante. A beautiful and learned lady. 

a. The more sjiecific of two or more adjectives which follow comes 
last, contrary to English usage: 

Des ecrivains fran^ais habiles. Clever French writers. 

4. A considerable number of adjectives differ more or 
less widely in meaning, according as they precede or follow: 
Mon cher enfant ; une robe ch ere. My dear child; a costly dress. 

Le moyen &ge; un homme d'kge The Middle Ages; a middle-aged 
moyen. man. 




Such adjectives are: 











































Note. — Distinctions of this kind depend, in the main, upon the general 
principles laid down above, but they are too numerous and too subtle 
to be given in detail here. Observation, and the use of a good dictionary 
will, in time, make the learner familiar with the most important of them. 

353. Determinatives. Such adjectives, including numer- 
als, possessives, demonstratives, indefinites, precede: 

Trois plumes; mes plumes. Three pens; my pens. 

Ces plumes-ci; d'autres plumes. These pens; other pens. 


354. An adjective is often followed by a complement con- 
nected with it by a preposition, such as a, de, en, envers, 
etc. The preposition to be used is determined by the mean- 
ing of the adjective, as explained in the following sections. 

355. Adjective + a. The preposition a. = to, at, for, 
etc., is required after most adjectives denoting tendency, 
fitness, and their opposites, comparison, etc. 

Cet homme est adoime a la boisson. That man is addicted to drink. 

II est favorable a mes projets. He is favorable to my projects. 

II est bien habile aux affaires. He is very clever in business. 

Un homme superieur a tous. A man superior to all. 

Ce n'est bon a rien. That is good for nothing. 

Such adjectives are: 

accoutum6, accustomed (to) cher, dear (to) hardi, bold (in) 

adroit, clever (at) convenable, suitable (to) impropre, unfit (for) 

agreable, pleasant (to) 6gal, equal (to) inferieur, inferior (to) 

antferieur, anterior (to) exact, exact (in) inMble, unfaithful (to) 

ardent, ardent (in) fiddle, faithful (in) inutile, useless (to) 

bon, good, fit (for) fort, clever (at) lent, slow (in) 


nuisible, hurtful (to) pr6t, ready (to) semblable. similar {to) 

oppos6, opposed (to) prompt, prompt (in) utile, useful (to) 

pareil, similar (to) propice, propitious (to) etc. 

port6, inclined (to) propre, fit (for) 

a. Bon pour = good for, beneficial to, kind to. 

356. Adjective + de. The preposition de = of, from, 
with, etc., is required after most adjectives denoting source 
or origin (hence also, feeling, sentiment, abundance), sepa- 
ration (hence also, absence, distance, want, etc.), and after 
most past participles to denote the agent (cf. § 240): 
fetes-vous natif de IHuis? Are you a native of Paris? 

lis sont contents de mon succds. They are pleased at my succesa. 

Elle est pleine de vanite. She is full of vanity. 

Je suis libre de soucis. I am free from care, 

n est inconnu de tous. He is unknown to all. 

Such adjectives are: 

absent, absent (from) digne, vwrihy (of) jaloux, jealous (of) 

afflig^, grieved (at) 61oign6, distant (from) lourd, heavy (tciih) 

aise, glad (of) enchant^, delighted (with) offens6, offended (at) 

alann6, alarmed (at) ennuy6, weary (of) pauvre, poor (in) 

ambitieux, ambitious (of) 6tonn6, astonished (at) plcin, full (of) 

avide, greedy (of) exempt, free (from) ravi, delighted (tvith) 

b6ni, blessed (by) f&ch6, sorry (for) satisfait, satisfied (with) 

capable, capable (of) fier, proud (of) soucieux, anxious (about) 

charm6, delighted (with) gloricux, proud (of) souill^, soiled (with) 

ch6ri, beloved (by) h6riss6, bristling (with) etr, sure (of) 

confus, confused (at) heureux, glad (of) surpris, surprised (at) 

contrari6, vexed (with) honteux, ashamed (of) triste, sad (at) 

d6nu6, destitute (of) ignorant, ignorant (of) vain, tain (of) 

dfepourvu, devoid (of) indigne, unworthy (of) vex6, vexed (at) 

d6sireux, desirous (of) inquiet, uneasy (about) vide, empty (of) 
different, different (from) ivre, intoxicated (with) etc. 

a. Fiche centre = angry at or with (a person). 

357. Adjective + en. En is required after a few adjec- 
tives denoting abundance, skill, etc.: 

Le Canada est fertile en ble. Canada is fertile in wheat. 

D est expert en chirurgie. He is expert in surgery. 

Such adjectives are: 
abondant, abounding (in) fort, strong (in), learned (in) riche, rich (in) 
f6cond, fruitful (in) ignorant, ignorant (in) , savant, learned (in) 



§§ 358-359 

a. fort and ignorant sometimes have sur: 
n est fort sur I'histoire. He is well versed (good) in history. 

Ignorant sur ces naatieres-l&. 

Ignorant about those matters. 

358. Adjective + envers. Envers is used after most 
adjectives denoting disposition or feeling towards: 

II est liberal envers tous. 

He is hberal towards all. 

Such adjectives are: 

affable, affable 
bon, kind 

charitable, charitable 
civil, civil 
cruel, cruel 
dur, hard, harsh 
g^nereux, generous 
grossier, rude 

honnfete, polite 
indulgent, indulgent 
ingrat, ungrateful 
insolent, insolent 
juste, just 
mechant, malicious 
misericordieux, merciful 
ofEcieux, obliging 

poli, polite 
prodigue, lavish 
reconnaissant, grjiteful 
respectueux, respectful 
responsable, responsible 
rigoureux, stern 
severe, severe, stern 

a. Bon, dur, very frequently take pour; indulgent may take pour 
or a: 

n est bon (dur) pour moi. 
Indulgent pour {k) ses enfants. 

He is kind (harsh) to me. 
Indulgent to his children. 

6. Observe that bien and mal are sometimes used adjectivally, 
as in: il est bien, he is good-looking; elle n'est pas mal, she is not bad- 
looking; nous sommes bien ici, we are comfortable here, etc. 



Personal Pronouns 

1. Conjunctive forms: 

IST Peb. 2nd Per. 

'JN. je I tu thou 

3hd Peh. (f.) 3bd Ref. (m.f .) 
elle she, it 

lui (to) her 
la her, it 
elles they 




3bd Per. (m.) 
il he, it 
§ D. me (to) me te (to) thee lui (to) him 
SS'A. me me te thee le him, it 

^N. nous we vous you ils they 
P^ D. nous (to) us vous (to) you leur (to) them leur (to) them se (to) -selves 
^^A. nous us vous you les them les them se -selves 


2. Disjunctive forms: 

l8T. Feb. 2nd Feb. 3rd Feb. (m.) Sbd Per. (f.) 3bd Ref. (m.f.) 

5 A 

moi I, me toi thou, loi he, him elle she, her soi oneself, etc 


^A.. > nous we, us vous you euz they, them elles they, them 
^P. J 

[N. = nominative; D. - dative; A. - accusative; P. » object of a 

Note. — A more scientific terminology would be ' unstressed ' and 
'stressed' instead of 'conjunctive' and 'disjunctive,' as indicating the real 
distinction between the two sets of forms, e.g., Je (unstressed) parte; Q'" 
parle ? — Moi (stressed). As a matter of fact, the unstressed forms usually 
stand in immediate connection with the verb (as subject or object), hence the 
term 'conjunctive,' while the stressed forms are usually employed otherwise, 
hence the term 'disjunctive.' 

360. Pronominal Adverbs 

J = to (at, on, in, into, etc.) it at them; there, thither, 
en = of {from, etc.) it or them; some, any, some of it, some of them; 
thence, from there. 

Note. — Y and en were originally adverbs ( y from L. ibi = there, and 
en from L. inde = tlience), but they are now usually pronominal in function, 
and are used precisely like the conjunctive forms. 

361. Agreement. The personal pronoun regularly agrees 
with its antecedent in gender, number, and person: 

Nous les avons frappe(e)s. We have struck them. 

Elle lit la lettre; elle la lit. She reads the letter; she reads it. 

a. The first person plural for the first person singular is used by 
sovereigns and authorities, and by writers, as in English: 
Nous (le roi) avons ordonnS et We (the king) have ordained and 

ordonnons ce qui suit. ordain as follows. 

Comme nous avons dit dej&. As we have said already. 

6. Vous = you (singular or plural) has a plural verb; its other 
agreements, as also those of nous above, are according to the sense: 
Nous (la reine) sommes contente. We (the queen) are satisfied. 
Madame, vous etes bien bonne. Madam, you are very kind. 

136 THE PRONOUN § 362 

c. For imperative first plural instead of first singular, see § 267, a. 

d. II and le are used as invariable neutral forms, when the antecedent 
is one to which gender cannot be ascribed: 

y en a-t-i7 ? — Jele crois. Is there any (of it)? I think so. 

362. Case Relations of Conjunctives. 1. The nomi- 
native forms stand as subject and the accusative forms as 
direct object to a verb; their use is obvious: 
n nous a vus. He saw us. 

a. The conjunctive is optional when there are two accusatives: 
Je (les) blame lui et elle. I blame him and her. 

2. The dative forms denote the person or thing for whose 
* advantage ' or ' disadvantage ' the action is done, denoted 
by a = to, for, from, with nouns: 

Je leur preterai les livres. I shall lend them the books. 

On lui a vole son argent. His money has been stolen from 


But a + a disjunctive form is used in the following cases: 

(1) When two datives are joined by a conjunction, or 
when in emphasis a second dative is implied: 

J' en ai parle & lui et i elle. I spoke of it to him and to her, 

Je donne le livre k elle (pas k lui). I give the book to her (not to him). 

(2) When the conjunctive direct object is any other 
pronoun than le, la, les: 

Je vous presente k elle. I introduce you to her. 

II se presenta a moi. He introduced himself to me. 

But: Je le (la, les) leur presente, etc. 

(3) After verbs of motion and some others, to denote the 
' object towards which the action tends,' the relation, 
though expressed by a, not being really dative: 

Je courus k lui. I ran to him. 

Cette maison est k moi. That house belongs to me. 

n pense (songe, reve) a eux. He thinks (muses, dreams) of them. 

§§ 363-365 



Such verbs are: 

accoutumer, accustom 

aller, go 

appeler, call 

en appeler, appeal 

aspirer, aspire 

attirer, attract 

avoir affaire, have to do 

avoir recours, have re- 

comparer, compare 
courir, run 
fetre (i), bcloTto (to) 
faire attention, pay atten- 
habituer, accustom 
marcher, march 
penser, think 
prendre garde, take heed 

prendre interSt, take 

pretendre, aspire 
recourir, have recoxurte 
renoncer, rerunince 
revenir, come back 
rfever, dream 
songer, muse 
venir, come 

a. Certain verbs of this class, when not Uteral, take the conjunctive 

n lui Vint une idee. There occurred to him an idea. 

Vous nous reviendrez. You will come to see us again. 

Note. — The ethical dative, denoting the person 'interested in' or 
'affected by' an action, rare in English, is common in French: Gotitez-moi 
ce vin-lft, Just taste that wine. 

363. Impersonal il. For invariable il as the subject of 
an impersonal verb, see §§ 248-253. 

364. Predicative /e, la, les. As predicate the third per- 
son is either variable or invariable: 

1. Le agrees when referring to a determinate nomi or 
to an adjective used as such: 

fites-vous sa mere? — Je la suis. Are you his mother? — I am. 
£tes-vous la mariee? — Je la suls. Are you the bride? — I am. 

2. Le, invariable, is used when referring to an adjective, 
or to a noun as adjective: 

l;tes-vous fatiguee? — Je le suis. Are you tired? — I am. 
Etes-vous mere? — Je le suis. Are you a mother? — I am. 

365. Pleonastic le. The neutral form le (§361, d) is 
often pleonastic, as compared with Enghsh usage: 

fites-vous mere? — Je le suis. Are you a mother? — I am. 

Qu'ils soient venus, je le sais. That they have come, I know. 

Pais du bien, quand tu le peux. Do good when you can. 

Ce qu'il voulait, il le veut encore. What he wished, he still wishes. 

138 THE PRONOUN §§366-367 

Je suis prete, s'il le faut. I am ready if need be. 

Je m'en irai, si vous le desirez. I shall go if you wish (it), 
lis sent comme je (le) desirerais. They are as I should like. 
II est plus age que je ne (le) suis. He is older than I am. 
06s.: This le is optional in comparative clauses. 

a. Le is also used in a number of fixed expressions: 
II ne le cede a personne. He yields to nobody. 

Nous Z'avons emporte. We have carried the day. 

II Va echappe belle. He had a narrow escape. 

6. Le may sometimes be translated by one or so: 
II est soldat; je le suis aussi. He is a soldier; I am one too. 

Sois brave, et je Ze serai aussi. Be brave and I shall be so too. 

366. Reflexives. 1. A special conjunctive reflexive form, 
se for dative or accusative of either gender or number, is 
required in the third person only; for the first and second 
person the ordinary forms are used (cf . § 242) : 

n (elle) se loue. He (she) praises him (her) -self. 

lis (elles) se le sent dit. They said so to each other. 

But: Je me loue; tu ie loues; nous nous louons; vous vous louez. ' 

2. The disjunctive soi is hardly used beyond the third 
singular in an indefinite or general sense: 
Chacun travaille pour soi. Every one works for himself. 

On doit parler rarement de soi. One should rarely speak of oneself. 
De soi le vice est odieux. In itself vice is hateful. 

But: EUe est contente d'elle-meme; ils ne songent qu'a eux-memes. 

a. The use of soi is rarer for the feminine than for the mascuhne: 
Un bienfait porte sa recompense A good deed brings its reward 

avec SOI (lui). with it. 

La guerre entraine apres elle (soi) War brings after it countless evils. 

des maux sans nombre. 

Note. — Soi is no longer used of persons denoted by a general noun, e.g.', 
L'avare ne vit que pour lui-m^me (not pour soi), nor is it used, as formerly, 
of p)ersons to avoid ambiguity, e.g., Quoique son frere soit dans la misere, 
U ne pense qu'3 lui-meme (not k soi). 

367. Uses of en. 1.' En is in function an equivalent of 
de + a pronoun of the third person of either gender or 
number; it is used of things, and less commonly of persons: 




Je parle des plumes; j'en parle. 
Donnez-les-moi; j'en ai besoin. 
11 est mon ami; j'en reponds. 
II aime ses fils, et 11 en est alme. 

Vous voili ; j'en suis content. 
Vient-il de Chicago? — II en vient. 

I speak of the pens; I speak of them. 
Give me them; I need them. 
He is my friend; I answer for him. 
He loves his sons, and is loved by 

There you are; I am glad of it. 
Does he come from C? He does. 

a. The antecedent is often understood or indefinite: 

Voyons ! oft en etions-nous? 
Ds en sont venus auz mains. 
D m'en veut. 
Tant s'en faut. 
C'en est fait de luL 
A vous en crolre. 
Quo! qu'll en solt. 
Je n'en peuz plus. 

Let me see, how far on were we? 

They came to blows. 

He has a grudge against me. 

Far from it. 

It is all up with him. 

If one is to believe you. 

However it (that) may be. 

I am worn out. 

There are some who think so. 

n y en a qui le crolent. 

2. Through a somewhat special application of the general 
principle, it is further used: 

(1) In a partitive sense: 

Void du papier; en voxilez-vous? Here is some paper; do you wish 

— Mercl, j'en al. any? — Thank you, I have some. 

Avez-vous xme plume? — J'en ai Have you a pen? — I have one (I 

une (j'en al plusleurs). have several). 

H me faut en acheter d'autres. I must buy others. 

(2) En = thereof + the definite article replaces a possess- 
ive adjective referring to a possessor in the preceding 
clause, but only when the thing possessed is a direct 
object, a subject of etre, or a predicate noun: 

Palme ce pays; j'en admire les I like this country; I admire its 

Blimez les peches de ces gens, 

mals n'en bl&mez pas les mal- 

Cette affaire est delicate; lesuc- 

cds en est douteux. 
Ceci est la gloire du pays; cela 

en est la honte. 
But: Cette maison a ses defauts (the possessor not being in the pre- 

Blame the sins of those people, but 
do not blame their misfortunes. 

That affair is delicate; its success 

is doubtful. 
This is the country's glory; that is 

its disgrace. 

140 THE PRONOUN §§368-369 

vious sentence); J'aime ces vers; leur hannonie me ravit (the thing 
possessed being subject of another verb than etre) ; J'admire ce pays; 
11 est fameux par ses bonnes lois (the thing possessed being governed 
by a preposition). 

368. Use of y. Y is in function equivalent to a (en, 
dans, etc.) + a pronoun of the third person of either gender 
or number; it is used of things, and rarely of persons: 
Jepenseimespeches; j'ypense. I think of my sins; I think of them. 
II est en Europe; il y est, et moi He is in Em-ope; he is there, and I 

j'y vais aussi. am going there too. 

II se connait en ces choses, mais He is an expert in those things, but 

moi je ne m'y connais pas. I am not. 

II aspire a cela; il y aspire. He aspires to that; he aspires to it. 

Vous fiez-vous k lui? — Je m'y fie. Do you trust him? — I trust him. 

a. The antecedent is often tmderstood or indefinite: 
II y va de votre vie. Your life is at stake. 

J'y suis I Qu'i/ a-t-il? I have it ! What is the matter? 

II s'y prend adroitement. He goes about it cleverly, 

Est-ce que Monsieur B. y est? Is Mr. B. at home? 

Y pensez-vous? You don't mean it? 

369. Position of Conjunctive Objects. 1. They stand 
immediately before their governing verb, except the impera- 
tive affirmative: 

Je leiu: en parietal. I shall speak to them of it. 

Je I'y ai envoye pom: le leur dire. I sent him there to tell them it. 
II lui faut parler ; 11 faut lui parler. He must speak; one must speak to 


a. With negative infinitive, the object may stand between ne and 
pas (point, rien, etc.); similarly adverb + infinitive: 
Je suis etoime de ne point le voir I am astonished not to see him. 

{or ne le point voir). 
Pour les blen considerer. To consider them well. 

6. The objects of an infinitive governed by falre, lalsser (cf. § 230, 
6, 7) or a verb of perceiving (entendre, etc.), accompany the finite verb: 
Je le lui feral dire. I shall make him say it. 

II se le volt refuser. He sees himself being refused it. 

Faites-vous-la raconter. Have it related to you. 


c. A similar arrangement is permissible with aller, venir, envoyer, 

etc. + an infinitive: 

Je vais le chercher. I'll fetch it (or him). 

J'enverrai le chercher or\ t l n j r l- 

"1 „ . , . r A shall send for him. 

Je Tenverrai chercher. J 

Note. — In the older language, objects of an infinitive often stood 
before the so-called modal auxiliaries, e.g., Je vous dois dire, but usage 
hardly permits this now, except for en, y, eg., Ce qu'on en doit attendre. 

2. Conjunctive objects stand immediately after an im- 
perative affirmative: 

Regardez-les; 4coutez-nous. Look at them; listen to us. 

Donnez-le-lui ; allons-nous-en. Give it to him; let us go away. 

But: Ne les regardez pas. Do not look at them. 

Ne les ecoutez point. Do not listen to them. 

Ne le lui donnez pas. Do not give it to him. 

0. The rule does not apply to the subjunctive as impve. (§ 272, 1, o) : 

Qu'il les ecoute. Let him listen to them. 

Notes. — 1. Formerly, but rarely now, an imperative affirmative when 
joined to another by et (ou, mais) might have an object before it: Achetez- 
les et les payez, etc. 

2. Void and voild, which are imperatives by derivation, are always 
preceded by their conjunctive object: Les Toid, en voili, etc. 

370. Relative Position of Objects. Personal pronomi 
objects and pronominal adverbs are arranged with reference 
to each other, as follows: 

1. When coming before the verb: 

before [ le 1 before f lui 1 before y — before en 
\]& \ \ leur / 






n me les donne. He gives them to me. 

n les lui donne. He gives them to him. 

n nous en donne. He gives us some of it. 

Je leiir en parlerai. I shall speak to them of it. 

Ne leur en parlez pas. Do not speak of it to them. 

Je l*y ai envoye po;ir le leur dire. 1 sent him there to tell them it. 




a. When there are two direct or two indirect objects, they become 
disjunctive and follow the verb: 

J'ai vu lui et elle. I have seen him and her. 

J'en ai parle a lui et a elle. I spoke of it to him and to her. 

2. When coming after the verb: 

le (la les) 

me (te, lui, nous, vous, le\ir) 

before moi (toi, lui, nous, vous, leur) 
before y (en) 
before en 

Doimez-m'en; va-Z'en. 

Give them to me. 
Give them some of it. 
Give me some; begone. 
Take us there. 
Go away. 

a. After an imperative, the indirect objects nous, vous, may precede 
the direct le, la, les in familiar language: 
Conservez-i'ous-?e. Keep it for yourselves. 

Tenez-vous-le pour dit. Consider it as final. 

3. Reference table showing possible con 


of two 

pronouns : 

(Before the Verb) 

(After the Verb) 

me le 

te le 

se le 

le lui 

-le -moi 

-le -toi 

-le -lui 

me la 

te la 

se la 

la lui 

-la -moi 

-la -toi 

-la -lui 

me les 

te les 

se les 

les lui 




nous le 

vous le 

se le 

le leur 

-le -nous 

-le -vous 

-le -leur 

nous la 

vous la 

se la 

la levu- 

-la -nous 

-la -vous 

-la -leur 

nous les 

vous les 

se les 

les leur 







lui en 











nous en 

vous en 


leur en 




nous en 

vous en 


les en 



-les -en 















nous y 

vous y 


leur y 




nous y 

vous y 


les y 



-les -y 

y en 



Obs.: 1. The dujunctive forms moi, toi are used instead of me, te after 
the verb, except before en. 

2. After the verb, the forms are joined to it and to each other by hyphens, 
apostrophe instead of hyphen being used according to § 19. 

3. Combinations of three forms are rare, e.g., 11 nous y en a domi6; 
they are usually avoided, e-g., Donnes-y-en a moi for Donne-m'y-eTi. 

4. The forms in [ ] are almost always avoided, either by transposition 
or by some other form of expression, e.g., Menes-y-moi or Mene-moi la for 
'M.hne-m'y, etc. See § 159, 4. 

371. Omission of Object The object of the second of 
two verbs in a compound tense joined by et or ou may be 
omitted along with the auxiliary and the subject: 

H Pa. pris et tue. He caught and killed it. 

Or: II Ta pris et Ta tue. He caught it and killed it. 

* D Ta pris et il Ta tu6. He has caught it and has killed it. 

But: II Pa. pris, Pa tue. He has caught it, has killed it. 

II le prend, et le tue. He catches it, and kills it. 

Note. — The verbs must be alike in government, must have the same 
auxiliary, must both be affirmative or negative, otherwise no omission is 

372. Disjunctives. When, for any reason, the pronoun 
is stressed (§ 7), the disjunctive form is usually employed 
(see §359, note); thus, the disjunctives are used: 

1. Absolutely, a verb being implied, but not expressed: 
Qui est Ik? — Moi (eux, elle). Who is there? — I (they, she). 
Qui as-tu vu? — Lxii (eux). Whom did you see? — Him (them). 
Toi absent, que ferai-je? You absent, what shall I do? 

a. So also, in compariaons, and analogously, after ne . . . que: 
Je suis plus grand que toi. I am taller than you. 

Faites comme eux. Do as they do. 

Je n'ai vu que lui. I have seen him only. 

2. In appositions, often emphatic: 

Moi, je I'ai vu (moi-meme). (Why) I saw it myself. 

Toi qui I'as vu, tu me crois. You who saw it (j'ou) believe me. 

Lui aussi (il) le sait. He too knows it. 

Cela vous est facile k vous. That is easy for you. 

144 THE PRONOUN § 373 

a. With lui so used, and sometimes also with eux, the conjimctive 
subject may be omitted: 

Lui seul (il) ne le voulait pas. He alone did not wish it. 

Lui travaillait; eux jouaient. He worked; they played. 

Note. — Je soussigne = / the undersigned is a relic of the earlier language. 

3. As logical subject after ce + etre: 
C'estmoi(toi,vous); ce sent eux. It is I (thou, you); it is they. 

4. With an infinitive: 

Moi t'oublier ! jamais. I forget thee ! Never. 

Et eux de s'enfuir. And they made off. 

5. When the subject or object is composite, see also 
§362, 1, a and 2, (1): 

Son frere et lui sent venus. His brother and he have come. 

a. A composite subject or object is usually summed up by a pleo- 
nastic appositive conjunctive, especially when the components are 
unlike in person: 

Vous et lui (vous) I'avez vu. You and he saw it. 

Je vous envoie, toi et ton frere. I send you and your brother. 

6. After a preposition: 

Je parle de toi et d'eux. I speak of you and of them. 

Us sont chez eux. They are at home. 

n se moque de nous. He makes sport of us. 

a. Observe the peculiar use of a preposition + a disjunctive pronoun 
as a sort of emphatic appositive of possession. 
J'ai une maison k moi. I have a house of my own. 

Mon idee k moi, c'est, etc. My (own) idea is, etc. 

Note. — A disjunctive for things after a preposition is usually avoided, 
either by means of en, y, or else by an adverb, such as dedans, dehors, 
dessus, devant, derriere, etc.: Je ne vols rien la dedans (in it); Voyez sur 
la table, cherchez dessus (on it) et dessous (under it). 

7. For moi and toi after imperative, see § 370, 3, ohs. 1. 

373. Pronouns in Address. In addressing one person 
vous is, in general, the pronoun of formality and respect, 
whilst tu denotes familiarity, affection, solemnity, etc., 
as follows: 




1. Tu = you, of one person, is generally used between 
members of the same family (husband and wife, parents 
and children, brothers and sisters), between very intimate 
friends, between children, by grown persons to children and 
sometimes to servants, by everybody to animals and inani- 
mate objects: 

Oa es-tu, mon cher pSre? Where are you, my dear father? 

Est-ce toi, mon enfant? Is that you, my child? 

Pauvre chien, tu as faim. Poor dog, you are hungry. 

2. Tu = thou is used in poetry and elevated prose, and 
by Protestants in addressing God, Roman Catholics using 

Nous te (vous) louons, 6 Dieu I We praise thee, O God ! 

3. Vous, with the above limitations, is used, both in the 
singular and plural, as 'you' is in English. 




1. Adjectival Forms: 
Sing. Pl. 

m. mon 
f. ma (mon) 
m. ton 
f. ta (ton) 
m. son 
f. sa (son) 

mes, my 

tes, thy, your 

his, her, 
its, one's 

> ses \ 









nos, our 
vos, your 
leurs, their 

Obs.: 1. The forms in parenthe- 
sis, mon, ton, son, are used instead 

2. Pronominal Forms: 

Sma. Pl. 

m. le mien les miens 1 . 

, , . , . > mme 

f . la mienne les miennes j 

m. le tien les tiens 1 , . 

f . la tienne les tiennes J ' 

m. le sien les siens \ his, hers, its, 

f . la sienne les siennes J one's own 

m. Ien6tre\ , ^^ 

e , «>_ ^ les notres, ours 

f. la ndtre I ' 

m. le v6tre 1 , -.^ 

f. Iav6tre/ l^s v6tres, yours 

m. le leurl , , ^, . 

, , , > les leurs, theirs 
f . la leur j 

Obs.: 1. The feminine, except for 
leur, is formed as for adjectives of 

146 THE PRONOUN §§375-376 

of ma, ta, sa, before a vowel or h like ending. 2. De, a + le, les, 
mute: Mon amie, my friend (f.); contract as usual; thus, du mien 
ton histoire (f.), your story; son (= de -\- le mien), aux miennes 
aimable tante, his amiable aunt. {= h -\- les miennes), etc. 3. Note 
2. Since son (sa, ses) = his, her, its, the accent mark in notre, vdtre, 
one's, the context determines which absent in notre, votre. 4. Since le 
sense is intended. sien (la sienne, etc.) = his, hers, 

its, one's, the context determines 
which sense is intended. 
Note. — The regular feminine forms, ma, ta, sa, were at one time used 
before a vowel sound ; a trace of this usage survives in ma mie (for m'amie) . 

375. Agreement. The possess! ves agree in gender and 
number with the noun denoting the object possessed, and in 
person with the possessor: 

Elle a son crayon et les miens. She has her pencil and mine. 

n a sa plume et les votres. He has his pen and yours. 

a. The possessive adjective must be repeated precisely like the 
definite article (cf. § 318): 

Mes parents et mes amis. My relatives and friends. 

b. When the possessor is indefinite, son (sa, etc.) and le sien (la 
sienne, etc.), are used: 

On doit tenir sa parole. One must keep one's word. 

Se charger des affaires d'autrui To undertake the business of others 
et negliger les siennes. and neglect one's own. 

376. Use of Adjectival Forms. They are used, in general, 
like the corresponding EngUsh forms; idiomatic distinc- 
tions and special rules are: 

1. The possessive adjective is commonly replaced by the 
definite article (cf . § 328) when no ambiguity arises from 
its use: 

II s'est casse la jambe. He broke his leg. 

Donnez-moi la main. Give me your hand. 

n m'a dechire le visage. He has scratched my face. 

But: II a dechire son habit. He has torn his coat. 

a. If the sense is specific, emphatic, or distinctive, the possessive is 

Mon bras me fait mal. My arm pains me. 

Voili ma migraine encore I There is my sick-headache again I 


Je I'ai vu de mes propres yeuz. I saw it with my own eyes. 
Elle lui a donne sa main. She has given him her hand {sc. in 


2. En + tiie definite article serves in certain cases as a 
substitute for son, leur, see § 367, 2, (2) : 

a. This construction is more usual for things than for persons; for 
things personified, for names of places, or to avoid ambiguity, son, leur 
are not uncommon: 

La necessite parle; il faut suivre Necessity speaks; we must follow 

sa loi. her law. 

Vous rappelez-vous cette ville? Do you remember that city? Its 

Ses promenades sont trds promenades are very fine. 


La source de toutes les passions Sensation is the source of all the 

est la sensibilite, I'imagination passions, imagination determines 

determine leur pente. their tendency. 

3. The emphatic own is denoted by propre or by an 
apposition with k: 

Je I'ai ecrit de ma propre main. I wrote it with my own hand. 
C'est mon opinion k moi. That is my own opinion. 

Cf. also: J'ai un cheval k moi. I have a horse of my own. 

a. Along with son the k construction often avoids ambiguity: 

Son pere d lui. His (i.e., not her) father. 

Sa mere a elle. Her mother. 

4. Men (ma) is commonly used, in direct address, before 
the name of a relative (not before papa, maman) or the title 
of a superior officer: 

Bonjour mon pere (mon colonel). Good morning, father (colonel). 
But: Est-ce toi papa (maman)? Is that you, papa (mamma)? 

Note. — This usage explains the origin of monsieur (= mon + sienr), 
madame (= ma -f dame), etc. 

5. In speaking to a person of his or her relatives, votre 
(vos) is often preceded by monsieur, etc., for politeness: 
Madame votre mhte y est-elle? Is your mother in? 

148 THE PRONOUN § 377 

6. When there is plurality of possessor, the object pos- 
sessed usually remains singular, if it is singular as regards 
the individual possessor: 

Les homines songent moins a leur Men think less of their souls than 

ame qu'a leur corps. of their bodies. 

lis ont perdu la vie. They lost their lives. 

a. Sometimes the sense demands a plural: 
Leurs tetes se ressemblent. Their heads are alike. 

377. Use of Pronominal Forms. They are used, in 
general, like the corresponding English forms; idiomatic 
distinctions and special rules are the following: 

1. Mine, etc., after etre is regularly expressed by a + moi, 
etc., when denoting ownership simply, while le mien, etc. 
denotes a distinction of ownership: 

Cette montre est a moi. 1 That watch is mine. 

Cette montre est la mienne. J That watch is mine (not yours). 

2. The pronominal form sometimes stands without article 

in the predicate after certain verbs: 

Ces opinions sont v6tres. Those opinions are yoiu-s. 

Elle deviendra mienne. She shall become mine. 

Je les ai fait miens. I made them mine. 

Such verbs are: 
Stre devenir dire faire regarder comme, etc. 

3. The idiom a friend of mine, etc., is not literally 
translated : 

Un de mes amis. A friend of mine. 

/ One of my friends, (who is) a doctor. 
Un medecin de mes amis. | ^ ^^^^^^^ ^ ^^.^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

Un ami k moi. A friend of mine. 

Mon ami que void. This friend of mine. 

Cf . : Un tour de sa fafon. One of his tricks. 

a. The use of mien (tien, sien) attributively in this sense is familiar: 
Un mien parent. A relative of mine. 

Une sienne cousine. A cousin of his. 


4. Ejnphatic own is rendered by propre, or is, more 
usually, untranslated: 

Son avis et le mien (propre). His opinioa and my own. 

5. When used absolutely, i.e., without antecedent, the 
singular denotes property, what is mine, etc., and the plural 
relatives, friends, allies, etc. : 

Je ne demande que le mien. I ask only for what is mine. 

Les notres se sont bien battus. Our soldiers (etc.) fought well. 

a. Familiarly, the feminine means pranks, etc.: 
U fait encore des siennes. He is at his pranks again. 

Note. — Other absolute uses are not permissible, e.g., Votre lettre (not 
la T6tre) de la semaine demiere. 


378. Demonstratives 

1. Adjectival forms: 2. Pronominal forms: 

Sma. Pii. SiNQ. Pl. 

™- «("*)! this, that ces f"!"^l that (one), etc. ""^ 

' > tms. inai ces > inai ^one;. etc. 

f. cette J f. cellej celles 

m. ce (cet) ...-cil ^. . • m. celui-cil ... , » . ceux-ci \ 

, ^^ ' . > this ces...-ci, „ .> this (one), etc. ,, . > 
f. cette... -a I f. celle-cil celles-ci J 

m. ce (cet) . . . -ul ., . ^,_ ,» m. celui-li 1 .. . , v . ceui-ia ) 

J .. > that ces . . . -la , „ ,.> that (one), etc. „ .^ \ 

f. cette... -li J f. celle-iaj "■ celles-li / 

l^ce, this (these), that (those), he (she, 
Oba.: The form cet is used <a it, they) 
before a vowel or h mute: Cet ^ ceci, this 
arbre; cet Aomme; cet autre di; >::^cela, that 

but: ce ch£ne; ce hhtre. Obs.: The e of ce is elided before a 

vowel or h mute (§ 19); c' becomes 
$» before a (§5. 4): f'a €t€. 

379. Agreement. The adjectival form agrees in gender 
and number with the noun before which it stands; the pro- 
nominal form agrees in gender and number with the noun 
instead of which it stands: 

Cette pltime et celle de Jean. This pen and that of John. 

J'aime ces livres-ci, mais je I like these books, but I do not 

n'aime pas ceuz-li. like those. 

150 THE PRONOUN §§ 380-382 

a. The demonstrative adjective must be repeated like the definite 
article (cf. § 318). 

380. Use of Adjectival ce. Ce (cette, etc.) = this or 
that; to distinguish this from that -ci and -la are respec- 
tively added to the noun: 

Lis ce livre-ci; lis ce Iivre-/a. Read this book; read that book. 

J'aime ces tableaux-Zd. I Hke those pictures. 

a. Ce (cette, etc.), referring to what has ah-eady been mentioned, 
sometimes has the force of that: 
Le telegraphe, cette grande de- The telegraph, that great discovery 

couverte de notre siecle. of our century. 

6. The definite article replaces the demonstrative adjective in a few 

Ne parlez pas de la sorte. Do not speak in that way. 

Je reviens a Z'instant. I shall be back in a moment. 

381. Celui. The pronoun celui (celle, etc.) = that, that 
one, the one, he, is regularly used only along with a relative 
clause or a de clause: 

Ceux qui rient pleureront. Those who laugh will weep. 

Celle dent je parle est venue. She of whom I speak has co'me. 

Le devoir d'aimer Dieu et celui The duty of loving God and that of 

d'aimer son prochain. loving one's neighbor. 

Cette robe et celle que j'ai vue. This dress and the one I saw. 

Mes plumes et celles de mon frere. My pens and my brother's. 

Obs.: Note the use of celui = English possessive noun. 

a. The relative sentence is sometimes elliptically expressed by the 
past participle: 
Les decouvertes enumerees sont The discoveries enumerated are 

celles faites par Edison. those made by Edison. 

6. Celui-la replaces celui when the predicate comes before the 
Celui-la est riche qui est toujours He (that man) is rich who is always 

content. happy. 

382. Celui-ci, celui-la. The pronouns celui-ci (celle-ci, 
etc.) = this, this one, he, the latter and celui-la (celle-la, 


etc.) = that, that one, the former, are used to contrast the 

nearer with the more remote: 

Voici les deux chaines; gardez Here are the two chains; keep this 

celle-ci, et renvoyez celle-la. (one), and send back that (one). 

Veut-il ceux-ci ou ceux-1^? Does he wish these or those? 

Ciceron et Virgile etaient Ro- Cicero and Virgil were Romans; 

mains; celui-ci etait poete, et the former was an orator, and 

celui-lA orateur. the latter a poet. 

Oba.: The idiom in the last example is literally the latter . ... the former. 

a. This or that for emphasis, not contrast, is celui-U: 
C'est ime bonne loi (que) celle-li. This (that) is a good law. 

383. Ce as Representative Subject. Ce = this, that, 
these, those, hie, she, it, 'they, according to the context, is used 
with etre, or with devoir, pouvoir, savoir + etre, as repre- 
sentative subject, when the logical subject is: 

1. A proper noun, or a determinate noun, including 
adjectives as such: 

Cest Marie et sa mSre. It is Mary and her mother. 

Ce sera im beau spectacle. That (it) will be a fine sight. 

Ce sont nos plumes. These (those) are our pens. 

t.tait-ce le meilleur? Was it the best? 

Ce «ont des Allemands. They (those) are Germans. 

Cest mon anii(e). He (she) is my friend. 

Ce pent etre Jean. That may be John. 

a. Before 6tre + an indeterminate noim il (lis, elles) is the regular 

77 est temps de s'en aller. It is time to go. 

lis sont amis (Franfais). They are friends (French). 

Elle est couturiere. She is a seamstress. 

Note. — For a few expressions like c'est dommage, etc., in which c'est 
stands with an indeterminate noim, see 384, 1, note 3. 

6. n est is always used to indicate hours of the day: 
77 est midi (trois heures). It is noon (three o'clock). 

But: Quelle heure est-ce qui What hour has just struck? — It 

vient de sonner? — Cest cinq is five. 


152 THE PRONOUN §384 

c. Observe the use of ce in the following date idioms: 
C'est aujourd'htii lundi. To-day is Monday. 

Ce sera domain le quatre. To-morrow will be the fourth. 

2. A pronoun: 

Qui est-ce? — Ce sent eux. Who is it? — It is they. 

Ce sent les leurs. Those are theirs. 

C'est ceci; c'est cela. It is this; it is that. 

C'etaient les memes. They (those) were the same. 

Ce doivent etre les miens. Those must be mine. 

3. An infinitive, or an infinitive with de: 

Ce serait tout perdre. That would be losing everything. 

Voir c'est croire. Seeing is believing. 

Ce que je crains c'est de /'offenser. What I fear is to offend him. 

4. A noun sentence: 

Est-ce que vous ne le ferez pas? WA\ you not do it? 
Oa est-ce qu'il est? Where is it that he is? 

Ce n'est pas qu'il ait peur. It is not that he is afraid. 

a. The noun sentence may be understood : 
Vous partirez, n'est-ce pas? (= You will go, will you not? 
n'est-ce pas qu» t«us partirez?) 

5. An adverb of quantity: 

Combien est-ce? C'a ete trop. How much is it? It was too much. 
Note. — For agreement of the verb, see § 232, 3. 

384. Ce as Real Subject. Ce stands as real subject of 
etre, or of devoir, pouvoir, savoir -f- etre, when the com- 
plement of etre is: 

1. A masculine adjective, an adjective + a + an infinitive, 
an infinitive preceded by a, an adverb (in all these cases 
without further syntactical connection; see a, below): 
C'est beau (vrai, bien). That (it) is fine (true, well). 

Ce doit etre (ne saurait etre) vrai. That must be (cannot be) true. 
II est parti, c'est clair. He is gone, that is clear. 

C'est clair, il est parti. It is clear, he is gone. 

C'est a desirer. That (it) is to be desired. 

La vue est belle ! — Oui, c'est beau I The view is fine ! — Yes, it is fine I 


Oft sera-ce? Where will it (that) be? 

Cetait bien mal k vous. That was very wrong of you. 

a. When followed by de + an infinitive or by a que clause, the 
regular construction for the above is impersonal il (not ce); so also 
the parenthetical il est vrai and n'est-il pas vrai? (= n'est-ce pas?), 
though without syntactical connection: 
n est facile de dire cela. It is easy to say that. 

n est triste de vous voir ainsL It is sad to see you thus. 

n est clair que j'ai raison. It is clear that I am right. 

n est k desirer que la guerre It is to be desired that the war will 

finisse bientot. soon end. 

On rit, il est vrai, mais attendez. They laugh, to be sure, but wait. 
Jl est bien mal a vous de parler aiosL It is very wTong of you to speak so. 

Note. — 1. Cclloquially, c'est is pretty freely used instead of Q est before 
de + infinitive or a que clause: Cest facile de faire cela; Cest clair que j'ai 
raison, etc. 

2. This use of ce is permissible in the literary style only in expressions 
of emotion, e.g., C'est heureuz (malheureoz, beau, triste, €toimant, etc.), 
c'est i presumer (craindre, regretter, etc.): Cest triste de vons voir; 
Cest k craindre qu'il ne soit noy£. 

3. The ce construction is obligatory after a few noun phrases of like value, 
e-g., C'est dommage (piti6, plaisir, justice), etc., Cest piti6 de I'entendre. 

2. A prepositional phrase, or a conjunction: 
Cest pour vous. It (that) is for you. 

Cest pourquoi je suis venu. That is why I came. 

Cest comme vous (le) dites. It is as you say. 

386. Ce + a Relative. As antecedent ce + a relative 
denotes that which, what, which, etc.: 
Ce qui m'amuse. What (that which) amuses me. 

Ce que je dis est vraL What I say is true. 

Ce dont nous parlions. What we were speaking of. 

Ce d quoi je pense. What I am thinking of. 

n est ige, ce qui est dommage. He is old, which is a pity. 

a. Ce, so used, either immediately precedes the relative, or is, for 
emphasis, di\nded from it by etre + a predicate substantive: 
Ce qu'il veut c'est la gloire. What he desires is glory. 

Cest la gloire ^'il veut. It is glory that he desires. 

Note. — This type of construction is widely used to render a predicate 
substantive emphatic, e.g., Cest ton frere qui le dit; Cest k vous que 
(= & qui) je parle; Cest monrir que de vivre ainsi; Cest one belle ville 
que Paris (cf. 397, 2, note 1). 

154 THE PRONOUN §§386-388 

386. Other uses of ce. Apart from its use with etre 
or with a relative, ce is found in a few phrases only, mostly 
archaic, familiar or jocular: 

Ce devint un usage. This (that) became a custom. 

Tu cralns, ce lui dit-il. " You fear," said he to him. 

Sur ce, je vous quitte. And now, I leave you. 

De ce non content. Not satisfied with this. 

a. The parenthetical ce semble may be used only when uncon- 
nected (cf . § 384, 1, a), otherwise il semble : 
C'estlui, ceme semble, au moins. It's he, it seems to me, at least. 
But: // me semble que c'est lui. 

387. Pleonastic ce. As compared with English, ce is often 
pleonastic; thus, it is used with etre + a logical subject: 

1. Regularly, after celui qui and ce qui: 

Celle qui I'a dit c'est vous. The one who said so is you. 

Ce que je crains ce sent mes pre- What I fear is my would-be friends. 

tendus amis. 

Ce a quel je pense c'est sa sante. What I think of is his health. 

2. Regularly, between infinitives when not negative: 
Penser, c'est vivre. To think is to live. 

But: Vegeter(ce)n'est pas vivre. To vegetate is not to live. 

3. Regularly, in inversion with que: 

^ _. . (Paris is a beautiful city. 

Cest une beUe viUe que Pans, jj^ ^ ^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ p^^^ 

4. Optionally, in other inversions for emphasis: 

La guerre (ce) serait la mine. War would be ruin. 

Note, — When the complement of fetre is an adjective or participle, 
pleonastic ce may not be used: Ce qui est utile n'est pas toujours juste. 

388. Ceci and cela. Ceci = this, the nearer, and cela 
= that, the more remote, are used to denote something 
indicated, but not yet named: 

Gardez ceci et donnez-moi cela. Keep this and give me that. 

Obs.: If the object has been already named, or if the name is fully in*- 
plied by the context, celui-ci (-li), etc. must be used. 


a. Ceci also refers to what is about to be said, and cela to what haa 
been said: 

Reflechissez bien k ceci. Think well on this. 

Je ne dis pas davantage, cela suffit. I say no more, that is enough. 

6. Ceci {not cela) may have a predicate noun: 

Cea est im secret. Irr,,. • . 

_ _ ^ . . . / . > This IS a secret. , 

Or: C'est ici im secret (rarer). J 

But: Cest Ih un secret. 1 

Cela c'est un secret. J 

Note. — Cela is not so divided before mtme, seul, and ita division in 
negations is optional: Cela seul (m£me) en est la cause; Cela n'est pas 
{or ce n'est pas Id) une faute. 

c. Cela {riot ceci) = ihia before a de clause: 

Paris a cela d'avantageux. Paris has this advantage. 

d. Cela may be replaced by Ul after de and par: 

De Ih vient que, etc. From that it comes that, etc. 

D faut commencer par Zd. We must begin with that. 

e. Cela is often contracted to fa colloquially: 

Qa ne fait rien. That doesn't matter. 

/. Ca is sometimes used famiUarly or contemptuously of persona 
instead of a personal pronoun: 

Regardez comme fa mange. Look how they (etc.) eat. 

fa veut faire k sa tete. You (etc.) wish to do as you please. 

Note. — Distinguish c> from (i (adverb) and s4I (interjection). 

389. Interrogatives 

1. Adjectival forms: 2. Pronominal forms: 

SiNO. Pl. Sing. Pl. 

m. quel? quels? 1 which? m. lequel? lesquels? 1 which? which 
f. quelle? quelles? J what? etc. f. laquelle? lesquelles?/ or what one(8)7 

I; qui? who? whom? 
> que? what? 
^ quel? what? 
ObB.: 1. For the feminine and plural of quel, of. {§ 337, 1 (2), and 338. 

2. Lequel = le + quel, both parts being inflected (§§ 316, 389, 1); de, 
d contract with le, les (cfuquel, auquel, etc., cf. § 317). 

3. Que = qu' before a vowel or h mute (8 19). 

156 THE PRONOUN §§ 390-391 

390. Agreement. The adjectival forms agree like ordi- 
nary adjectives; the variable pronominal forms agree in 
gender, but not necessarily in number, with the nouns for 
which they stand; the invariable qui? assumes the number 
of the noun or pronoun referred to: 

Quels livres avez-vous? Which (what) books have you? 

Quelle plume avez-vous prise? Which pen did you take? 

Quelles sont vos raisons? What are your reasons? 

Laquelle des dames est venue? Which of the ladies has come? 

Qui Sonne? Qui sont-elles? Who rings? Who are they? 

391. Quel? Lequel? The adjective quel? = which? 
whatf and the pronoun lequel? = which (one)? what (one)? 
refer either to persons or things, and stand both in direct 
and indirect questions: 

Quels livres avez-vous? Which (what) books have you? 

Dites-moi quel livre il a. Tell me which (what) book he has. 

Desquels avez-vous besoin? Which (ones) do you need? 

Dites-moi lesquels vous avez. Tell me which (ones) you have. 

Quelle dame est arrivee? Which (what) lady has come? 

Je ne sais pas laquelle. I do not know which (one). 

Quelles sont vos raisons? What are your reasons? 

Quel homme est-ce la? What (what kind of) man is that? 

Auquel des hommes parle-t-il? To which of the men does he speak? 

a. Quel ! in exclamations sometimes = what a ! what ! : ' 

Quel heros ! Quels heros ! What a hero ! What heroes ! 

Quelle belle scene 1 — Oui, c'est What a beautiful scene ! — Yes, it 
beau! is fine. 

b. Quel? as predicative adjective often replaces qui? = who? 

Quels sont ces gens-ia? Who are those people? (or what 

kind of people are those?) 
Sais-tu quelle est cette dame? Do you know who that lady is? 

Note. — A pleonastic de is commonly used before alternatives after 
quel? lequel? and other interrogatives, probably caused by case attraction 
with des deux, often present in such expressions: Lequel (des deux) est 
le plus habile, de cat homme-ci ou de celui-la; Laquelle est la plus illustre, 
d'Athenes ou de Rome? 


392. Qui? 1. The pronoun qui? = w;Ao? if;/iam? is regu- 
larly used of persons only, and stands in both direct and 
indirect questions: 

Qui frappe? Qui est li? Who is knocking? Who is there? 

De qui {k qui) parle-t-il? Of whom (to whom) is he speaking? 

Qui avez-vous vu? Whom did you see? 

Qui etes-vous? Who are you? 

Dites-moi qui est venu. Tell me who has come. 

a. Qui? is sometimes used, though rarely and not necessarily, as 
subject of a transitive verb in the sense of wtiat t 

Qui vous amene de si bonne heure? What brings you so early? 

b. Qui? predicatively, is often replaced, especially when feminine 
or plural, by quel? 

Quelle est cette dame? Who is that lady? (What 1. is that?) 

Quels sont-ils? Who are they? 

2. Whose f denoting simply ownership = k qui? other- 
wise generally de qui ? sometimes quel ? but never dont : 

A qui est cette maison-li? Whose house is that? 

De qui etes-vous fils? Whose son are you? 

Quelle maison a ete briilee? Whose (what) house was burnt? 

Note. — Compare with this the idiom c'est i qui: C'^tait i qui finirait 
le premier, It teas a strife as to who would finish first. 

393. Que? Quoi? The form que? = tr/wi/f is conjunc- 
tive, while quoi? = what? is disjunctive; their uses in detail 

1. Que? stands regularly as direct object or as predicate, 
and in direct question only: 

Que vous a-t-il dit? What did he say to you? 

Que cherchez-vous? What are you looking for? 

Que sont-ils devenus? What has become of them? 

a. Que? alternatively with quoi? may stand with an infinitive in 
indirect question: 

Je ne sais que (quoi) dire. I know not what to say. 

158 THE PRONOUN §394 

b. Que? and que ! sometimes have adverbial force : 

Que ne m'avez-vous dit cela? Why did you not tell me that? 

Que vous etes heureux I How happy you are ! 

Que d'argent perdu 1 What a quantity of money lost ! 

2. What? as subject of a verb is regularly qu'est-ce qtii? 
Qu'est-ce qui fait ce bniit? What is making that noise? 

o. The form que? may stand as subject of a few intransitive verbs, 
mostly such as may also be impersonal, but never as subject of a 
transitive verb: 

Que sert de pleurer? What is the use of crying? 

Que vous en semble? What do you think of it? 

Qu'est-ce? What is it? 

3. Quoi? is used absolutely, i.e., with ellipsis of the verb, 
and after a preposition: 

II y a du nouveau. — Quoi? There is news. — What? 

Quoi de plus beau que cela? What finer than that? 

Quoi ! vous I'admirez ! What ! You admire him ! 

A quoi pensez-vous? What are you thinking of ? 

En quoi puis-je vous servir? In what can I help you? 

•a. In cases of special emphasis quoi? may be direct object : 
Je regois quoi? — Des lettres. I receive what? — Letters. 

6. With an infinitive, que? or more emphatically, quoi? is used: 

Que (quoi) faire? What is one to do? 

Je ne sais que (quoi) repondre. I know not what to answer. 

394. Interrogative Locutions. The use of interrogative 
phrases formed vi^ith est-ce, etc., instead of the simple forms 
is very frequent (cf . §§ 392-3) : 

Qui est-ce qui chante? for Qui chante? 

Qui est-ce que vous demandez? " Qui demandez-vous? 

A qui est-ce que vous parliez? " A qui parliez-vous? 

Qu'est-ce que cela prouve? " Que prouve cela? 

Qu'est-ce que c'est? " Qu'est-ce? 

Qu'est-ce que c'est que cela? " Qu'est-ce que cela? 

De quoi est-ce qu'il parle? " De quoi parle-t-il? 

8§ 395-397 THE RELATIVE PRONOUN 159 


395. Relative Pronouns 

qui, who, which, that; whom {after a preposition} 

que, whom, which, that 

dont, whose, of whom, of which, etc. 

ofl, in which, into which, at which, to which, etc. 

lequel, m. s. lesquels, m. pi. 1 

laqueUe, f. s. lesqueUes, f. pLJ ^^®' ^^°^' ^^^^' "^' 

quoi, what, which 

06a.: For qu', see $ 19. 

396. Agreement. A relative pronoun, whether variable 
or invariable in form, is of the gender, number, and person of 
its antecedent: 

Moi qui etais (vous qui etiez) UL I who was (you who were) there. 

Les lettres que j'ai apportees. The letters which I have brought. 

Moi qui suis son ami(e). I who am his friend (m. or {.). 

Dieux (vous) qui m'ezaucez ! (Ye) gods who hear me ! 

C'est nous qui I'avons dit. It is we who have said it. 

Je suis celui qui I'ai dit. I am the one who has said it. 

a. When the antecedent is a predicate noim, or an adjective as such, 
the relative may agree in person either with this noim or with the 
subject of the sentence: 

Nous sommes deiix moines qui We are two monks who are trav- 

voyageons (voyagent). eling. 

Je suis le seul qui I'aie (ait) dit. I am the only one who has said 


b. The relative after un + a plural is either singular or plural, usually 
according to the sense: 

C'est un de mes (des) procds qtii It is one of my (of the) lawsuits 
m*a (m'ont) mine. which has (have) ruined me. 

397. Qui, Que. Both qui and que refer to antecedents, 
of either gender or number, denoting persons or things; 
their uses in detail are: 




1. Qui = who, which, that, serves as subject; qui = 
whom, of persons only, or things personified, may also be 
used after a preposition: 

La dame qui a chante. 

Les amis qui sont arrives. 

La vache qui beugle. 

Les livres qui ont ete perdus. 

Les oiseaxix qui volent. 

Ce qui m'amuse. 

Rien qui soit beau. 

La tante chez qui je demeure. 

Les amis a (de) qui je pariais. 

Rochers k qui je me plains. 

The lady who (that) has sung. 
The friends who (that) have come. 
The cow which (that) lows. 
The books which, have been lost. 
The birds which (that) fly. 
What (that which) amuses me. 
Nothing that is beautiful. 
The aunt with whom I live. 
The friends to (of) whom I spoke. 
Rocks to whom I complain. 

a. Qui, without antecedent, sometimes = celui qui (ceux qui, etc.), 
or, when repeated, = les uns ... les autres : 

Love him (the one) who loves you. 

Aimez qtii vous aime. 

Jouera qui voudra. 

Pour qui connait. 

Qui d'un cote, qui de I'autre 

Let those who will play. 
For any one who knows. 
Some on one side, some on the other. 

h. Similarly, in a few phrases, mostly exclamatory or parenthetical, 
qui = ce qui: 

Voiia qui est etrange ! That is strange ! 

Qui pis est {or ce qui e^t pis). What is worse. 

2. Que = whom, which, that, serves regularly as direct 

Les ami(e)s que j'aime. 
Le livre (cheval) que j'ai. 
Les plumes que j'ai achetees. 
Ce que vous dites. 
Rien de ce que vous dites. 

The friends whom (that) I love. 
The book (horse) which I have. 
The pens which I have bought. 
That which you say. 
Nothing that you say. 

a. Que stands also as predicate nominative (cf. §295, 1), and as 
logical subject of an impersonal verb: 

Malheureuse que je suis ! 
Qu'est-ce qu'elle est devenue? 
A I'heure qu'il est. 
L'homme qu'il vous faut. 
Prenez ce qu'il vous faut. 

Unhappy woman that I am ! 
What has become of her? 
At the present hour. 
The man that you need. 
Take what you need. 


Notes. — 1. The que of emphatic inversions (§ 385, a, n.) is best ex- 
plained as predicative que: C'est une belle ville que Paris = C'est une 
belle ville que Paris (est) or C'est une belle ville (ce) que (c'est) Paris; 
Erreur que tout cela = (C'est) erreur que tout cela (est) or (C'est) erreur 
(ce) que (c'est) tout cela. 

2. The form que is often a relative adverb, not to be confounded in 
function with the relative proper: Dans le temps que cela arrivait; C'est 
k Tous que ]e parle (or C'est voos i qui je parle). 

398. Dont The form dent = whose, of whom, of which, 
etc., has the value of de + a relative; it refers to anteced- 
ents, of either gender or number, denoting persons or things 
(dont is never interrogative): 

L'homme dont le fils est mort. The man whose son is dead. 

Les gens dont je parle. The people of whom I speak. 

Les plumes dont je me sers. The peua which I make use of. 

La gloire dont il est avide. The fame for which he is eager. 

Ce dont je me plains. That of which I complain. 

a. A noun after dont = whose does not omit the article as in English, 
and must follow its governing verb (cf . § 400, 2) : 

Le monsieur dont j'ai trouve la The gentleman whose purse I 
bourse. found. 

b. As compared with d'oft (cf. §399, a), dont has figurative force 
in expressions referring to extraction, lineage, etc.: 

La maison dont il sort. The family from which he comes. 

c. Dont was originally an adverb (L. de + tmde), and is often best 
construed as such: 

Le pays dont il est venu. The country whence he came. 

399. Oii. The adverb o^ = where is also used as a 
relative with the value of dans (a, sur, vers, etc.) + a 
relative; if preceded by a preposition, ou = which, where: 

La maison oft je loge. The house in which I lodge. 

Le siecle oft nous vivons. The age in which we live. 

Le but oft il tend. The end towards which he tends. 

Les villes par oft je sxiis venu. The cities through which I came. 

L'endroit d'oft il vient. The place from which he comes. 

162 THE PRONOUN §§ 400-401 

a. D'oft = from which, whence, is usually literal in force: 
La maison d'oft il sort. The house out of which he comes. 

400. Lequel. The form lequel = who, whom, which, that, 
refers to persons or things, and varies in form to agree with 
its antecedent; it is chiefly used where qui, que, etc., may 
not be employed: 

1. Lequel, being inflected, stands where qui, que, from 
want of inflection, would be ambiguous, or it serves, owing 
to its stress, to denote the more remote of two possible ante- 
cedents : 

La soeur de mon ami laquelle The sister of my friend who has 

vient d'arriver. just come. 

Le fils du redacteur lequel je The son of the editor whom {i.e., 

viens de voir. the son) I have just seen. 

a. Lequel may not be used of persons after en, and it must be used 
of persons after parmi, entre: 

Un homme en qui je crois. A man in whom I beUeve. 

Les amis parmi (entre) lesquels. The friends among whom. 

2. When depending on a noun governed by a preposition, 
whose must be turned by duquel, etc., which must follow 
the noun (cf . § 398, a) : 

La dame au fils de laquelle {or The lady to whose son I give 
de qui) je donne des legons. lessons. 

Note. — Lequel is used exceptionally as an adjective: J'espere partir 
demain, auquel cas, etc.; Je viens de toucher mille francs, de laquelle 
somme je payerai mes dettes. 

401. Quoi. 1. The form quoi = what, which, is used 
without definite antecedent, and stands after a preposition, 
rarely otherwise: 

Voili de quoi je parlais. That is what I was speaking of. 

Sur quoi il est parti. Whereupon he went away. 

C'est a quoi je pensais. That is what I was thinking of. 

H m'a paye, ce k quoi je ne m'at- He paid me, which I hardly ex- 

lendais guere. pected. 


a. De quoi + an infinitive, expressed or implied, denotes the means 
or cause of the action of the infinitive: 

D a de quoi vivre. He has enough to live on. 

I] a de quoi {sc. vivre, etc.). He has means (is well off). 

Donnez-moi de quoi eciire. Give me something to wTite with, 

n n'y a pas de quoL There is no occasion (don't men- 

tion it, etc.). 

6. Quoi stands without a preposition in a few expressions: 

Quoi faisant. (By) doing which. 

Un je ne sals quoi de cruel. A certain indefinable cruelty. 

2. What = that which is expressed by ce + a relative 

Je vois ce qui se passe. I see what is going on. 

Je sais ce que je sais. I know what I know. 

Ce dont je me plains. That of which I complain. 

Ce k quoi je me fiais. What I was trusting to. 

n est sourd, ce qtii est bien dom- He is deaf, which is a great pity, 

402. Remarks. 1. The relative pronoun, often omitted 
in English, is never omitted in French: 

Le tableau que j'ai vu Ul. The pictxire (which) I saw there. 

Le livre dont je parle est k moi. The book (which) I speak of is 

2. Relative and antecedent should stand as near together 

as possible: 

H y a de ce livre une edition qui There is an edition of that book 

se vend, etc. which is sold, etc. 

Not: Une edition de ce livre qui, etc. 

3. A preposition never ends the relative sentence, as 
sometimes in English: 

Ce k quoi je me fiais. What I was trusting to. 

4. For English forms in -ing = relative clause, see § 287, 3. 




403. Indefinites 

1. Adjectival forms: 

1. certain, a certain; pi. certain 4. divers, m. pi. \ ^^„^. „„ .„ 

2. chaque, each, every diverses, f . pi. J 

3. difierent(e)s, pi., various, etc. 5. maint, many a 

6. quelque, some; pL, some, (few) 

Obs.: Except for divers, the feminine and plural are formed hke those 
of ordinary adjectives. 

2. Pronominal forms: 

1. autrui, others, other people, etc. 

2. chacun, m. 1 each (one), every 
chacune,f. / (one) 

3. on (I'on), one, people, etc. 

4. personne . . . ne, nobody, etc. 

5. quelqu'un, m. s. 1 somebody, 
quelqu'une, f . s. J etc. 
quelques-uns, m. pi. 1 some (peo- 
quelques-unes, f . pi. J pie), etc. 

6. quelque chose, something 

7. rien . . . ne, nothing 

Obs.: 1. On often becomes I'on after a vowel sound to avoid hiatus, 
especially after et, ou, oii, que, lorsque, etc., qui, quoi, pourquoi, si, ainsi, 
aussi, but not usually when a closely following word has initial 1; qu'on 
almost always becomes que I'on when a closely following word has initial 
[k] sound. 

2. For quelqu'un(e), see § 19. 

3. Note the hyphen of the plural of quelqu'tm. 

3. Forms serving either as adjective or as pronoun: 

1. auctm . . . ne, no; nobody, etc. 

2. autre, other 

3. meme, same, etc. 

4. nul . . . ne, m. 1 no; nobody, 
nulle . . . ne, f . J etc. 

5. pas un . . . ne, no; nobody, etc. 

such, etc. 

6. plusieurs, m. or f. pi., several 

7. tel, m. 
telle, f . 

8. tout, m. tons, m. pi. 1 all, every, 
toute, f . toutes, f . pi. / etc. 

9. un, a; one, etc. 

065.: The feminine and plural are like those of adjectives of like ending, 
except the feminine of nul and the plural of tout. 

404. Use of Adjectival Forms. 1. Certain = (a) cer- 
tain, pi. certain, some, precedes its noun; the use of un in 
the singular, and of partitive de in the plural, is optional: 
(Un) certain roi de France. A certain French king. 

(De) certaines gens. C3ertain (some) people. 


a. Certains is exceptionally used as a pronoun: 
Certains pretendent, etc. Some assert, etc. 

Note. — Certain, placed after the noun, is an ordinary adjective = 
sure, trustworthy, positive, etc. (cf. § 352, 4). 

2. Chaque = each, every, is distributive and singular only: 
Chaque honune (femme). Each or every man (woman). 

a. Distinguish chaque = every, each, which individualizes, from 
tout = every, all, which generalizes: 

Chaque honune a des passions. Every (each) man has passions. 
Tout homme a une passion do- Every man has (all men have) a 

minante. ruhng passion. 

Chaque annee; tous les ans. Each year; every year. 

3. Differents, Divers = various, sa^eral, sundry, divers, 
are indefinite adjectives only when plural and standing 
before nouns: 

Differentes choses m'ont retenu. Various things detained me. 

On a essaye divers moyens. Several methods have been tried. 

Note. — With the sense of different, diverse, they are used as ordinary 

4. Maint, whether singular or plural, = many a; it is 
often repeated: 

Maint(s) danger(s). Many a danger. 

Mainte(s) fois. Many a time. 

En mainte et mainte occasion. On many an occasion. 

5. Quelque = some; when used of quantity or number, 
quelque = some, hut not much or many, a little, a few, and 
is of more limited force than the partitive some (§322): 

Quelques amis sont pires que des Some friends are worse than ene- 

ennemis. mies. 

J'ai eu quelque difficulte. I have had some (a little) diflBculty. 

D a quelques amis ici. He has some (a few) friends here. 

Voici les quelques francs qui nous Here are the few francs we have 

restent. left. 

a. Quelque has adverbial force, and is invariable, before numerals 
(not nouns of number) = about, some: 

166 THE PRONOUN • §405 

A quelque dix milles d'ici. About (some) ten miles from here. 

But: Quelques centaines de pas. A few hundred paces. 

A cent et quelques pas. At a httle more than 100 paces. 

6. Similarly before adjectives or adverbs = however (cf. § 271, 4, 6): 
Quelque riches qu'ils soient. However rich they may be. 

Quelque bien que vous parliez. However well you may speak. 

Note. — However + adjective is also expressed by tout . . . que (usually 
with the indicative), si . . . (que) (with the subjunctive), pour ... que 
(with the subjunctive), e.g., Toutes bonnes gu'elles sont, However good 
they are; Si bonnes gu'elles soient, However good they are; Si bonnes vos 
raisons soient-elles, However good your reasons are; Pour bonnes ^u'elles 
soient, However good they are. 

c. For the use of quelque (s) . . . que = whatever, see§ 407. 

405. Use of Pronominal Forms. 1. Autrui = others, other 
people, our neighbor (in general), is rarely used except after 
a preposition: 

D ne faut pas convoiter les biens We must not covet the goods of 

d'autrui. others. 

La rigueur envers autrui. Severity towards others. 

Note. — Others is more usually les autres, d'autres (§406, 2, b); regu- 
larly so, as subject or direct object. 

2. Chacun = each, each one, every one is the pronoun 
corresponding to the adjective chaque (§404, 2): 

Chacun d'eux a refuse. Each (every) one of them refused. 

Donnez a chacun (e) sa part. Give to each his (her) share. 

Des poires a deux sous chacune Pears at two cents each, 

a. The possessive form to chacun is regularly son: 

Mettez-les chacun (e) a sa place. Put them each in his (her, its) 


b. Chacun, in apposition to nous, vous, takes, as its possessive, notre, 

Parlez chacun(e) k votre tour. Speak each in your turn. 

c. Chacun, in apposition to ils, <illes, takes the possessive lour before 
the direct object; otherwise son or lexir: 


Elles recitent chacune leur verset They each recite thdr verse (each 
(chacune a son or leur tour). in turn). 

d. The reflexive to chacun = ewry one is se (soi) : 
Chacun poxir soL Every one for himself. 

3. On = one, some one, we, you, they, people, etc., is used 
as subject of a verb in the third singular, without specifying 
any person in particular: 

On dit que la reine est malade. They (people) say the queen is ill. 

A-t-on allume mon feu? Has any one hghted my fire? 

On ne pent pas meler I'hiiile avec One (we, you) cannot mix oil with 

Feau. water. 

a. The on construction often corresponds to an English passive, 
especially when the agent is not specified: 

On a attrape le larron. The thief has been caught. 

On croit que la guerre est finie. It is thought the war is over. 
On vous demande. You are wanted. 

b. On may not be replaced by a personal pronoun subject: 

On est triste quand on est sans A man is sad when he is without 
argent. money. 

c. Since on is subject only, the corresponding direct and indirect 
objects, when required, are borrowed from vous: 

Lorsqu'on presse trop un poisson When you squeeze a fish too much 
a vous echappe. it escapes you. 

d. The reflexive to on is se (soi), and the corresponding possessive 
is son, whatever be the English equivalent: 

On se demande. People ask themselves (wonder). 

On perdrait son temps* You would lose yoiu* time. 

«. Although on is invariable, a feminine or plural noun or adjective 
may relate to it, when the sense is clearly feminine or plural: 
On est plus jolie k present. She is prettier now. 

On est si proches voisins. We are such near neighbors. 

/. On may replace a personal pronoim, often with depreciatory force: 
On y pensera. I (we) shall see about it. 

On se croit bien fin. You (he, etc.) think yourself vary 

cunning. x 


The pronoun 


4. Personne and rien along with ne + a verb, or when 
alone, a verb being understood, = nobody, no one, not any- 
body, etc., and nothing, not anything, respectively: 
Personne n'est venu. Nobody (no one) has come. 

Je n'ai parle a personne. I have spoken to nobody (not 

spoken to anybody). 
Ne dites rien. Say nothing (do not say anything). 

Personne ici ! — Personne. No one here ! — No one. 

Qu'a-t-il dit ? — Rien. What did he say? — Nothing. 

a. If the context contains or implies negation, personne, rien, as- 
sume affirmative force (= quelqu'un, quelque chose): 
II n'a rien dij k persoime. He said nothing to any one. 

Personne n'a jamais rien dit. Nobody has ever said anything. 

Je vous defends de rien dire. I forbid you to say anytliing. 

Je crains de parler k personne. I fear to speak to anybody. 

Impossible de rien faire ! 
H cessa de rien donner. 
Oft trouverai-je rien de pareil? 
Sans parler a personne. 

Impossible to do anything ! 
He ceased giving anything. 
Where shall I find anything like it? 
Without sp>eaking to anybody. 

b. The above rule does not apply to pleonastic ne, nor to double 
Je crains qu'il ne fasse mal k I fear he will hiirt somebody. 

Ne revenez pas sans voir quel- Do not come back without seeing 

qu'un. somebody. 

Note. — The pronoun personne is masculine (sometimes sylleptically 
feminine like on, 3, e, above); the noun personne is always feminine (cf. 
§ 303, 1, c). 

5. Quelqu'un (e) = somebody, some one, any one, etc., 
with its plural quelques-un(e)s = some, some people, any, 
a few, etc., is the pronoun corresponding to the adjective 
quelque (§ 404, 5) : 

H y a quelqu'un la. 

Y a-t-il quelqu'un Ik? 

A-t-il quelques-unes des fleurs? 

H en reste quelques-unes. 

Quelqu'une des dames viendra. 

Quelques-uns le croient. 

There is somebody there. 

Is there any one there? 

Has he some (any) of the flowers? 

A few of them remain. 

Some one of the ladies will come. 

Some (people) believe it. 


6. Quelque chose = something, anything, and is mascu- 
line, though formed from the feminine noun chose: 
Quelque chose est promis. Something is promised. 

A-t-il dit quelque chose? Did he say anything? 

A-t-il quelque chose de bon? Has he anything good? 

406. Adjectival or Pronominal Forms. 1. Aucun, nul, 

pas un, along with ne + a verb, or when alone, a verb being 

understood, = no, not any, not one, as adjective, and none, 

nobody, no one, not one, as pronoun: 

Aucun ^ 

Nul >• ecrivain ne le dit. No writer says so. 

Pas un ) 

Aucun ne le croit. No one believes it. 

Je n'en ai vu aucim(e). I saw none of them. 

Pas un de ses amis ne reste. Not one of his friends remains. 

A-t-il de I'espoir? — Aucun. Has he any hope? — None. 

a. Aucun, but not nul or pas un, becomes afiSrmative (= quelque 
or quelqu'un) when the context is negative (of. § 405, 4, a) : 
Sans aucune cause. Without any caiise. 

Rien pour aucun de nous. Nothing for any of us. 

Gardez-vous de faire auctme faute. Take care not to make any mistake. 

6. The plural adjective aucun(e)s may be used, especially before 
nouns with no singular, or before such as are preferably plural; (d')aa- 
cuns = quelques-uns is sometimes found: 
n ne me rend aucuns soins. He gives me no care. 

(D')auc\ms le croiraient. Some would beUeve it. 

2. Autre = other, is usually preceded in the singular by 
un or 1* : 

Une autre fois; d'autres livres. Another time; other books. 

En avez-vous un(e) autre? Have you another? 

Un autre dit le contraire. Another says the contrary. 

Les autres m'aideront. The others will help me. 

Entre autres choses. Among other things. 

a. Distinguish un autre = another (a different) from encore un = 

another (an additional): 

Donnez-moi une autre plimie. \ ^. ., 

_ . , f Give me another pen. 

Donnez-moi encore une plume. J 

170 THE PRONOUN §406 

h. Others, other people, = les autres or d'autres, sometimes autrui 
(cf. §405, 1): 

II se mefie toujours des autres. He always suspects others. 
D'autres pensent autrement. Others think otherwise. 

Bien d'autres. Many others. 

Obs.: The d' of d'autres is a partitive sign (cf. § 325, 1, b). 

c. Autres is often added famiharly to nous, vous: 
Nous autres peintres. We painters. 

Vous autres Franjais parlez tr§s You Frenchmen speak very fast, 

d. Observe the following expressions with autre: 
Autre part; de part et d'autre. Elsewhere; reciprocally. 
C'est un (tout) autre homme. He is a very different man. 
Parler de choses et d'autres. To speak of this and that. 
L'autre jour. The other day. 

Autre est promettre, autre est It is one thing to promise, and 

doimer. another to give. 

Tout autre que lui. Any one but him. 

De temps k autre. From time to time. 

A d'autres (familiar). Tell that to the marines (familiar). 

e. For I'un . . . l'autre, les uns ... les autres, see § 406, 7, (2). 

3. Meme varies in meaning and form according to its 
position and function: . . 

(1) Preceding its noun or as a pronoun, meme = same, 
and nearly always has the article: 

La (les) meme(s) chose(s). The same thing(s). 

Les miens sont les memes. Mine are the same. 

Donnez-moi des memes. Give me some of the same. 

Une meme affaire. One and the same business. 

Des plantes de la meme espece. Plants of the same species. 

(2) Following the noun or pronoun qualified, meme = 
self, very, even, and agrees, but has no article: 

Dieu est la bonte meme. God is goodness itself. 

Moi-meme; elles-memes. I myself; they themselves. 

Celameme; celui-ia meme. That itself ; that man himself. 

Les enfants memes. The very (even the) children. 




a. MSme is also used as an adverb (invariable) : 
D nous a meme insultes. He even insulted us. 

Quand meme 11 le dirait. Even if he should say so. 

6. Meme forms a nimiber of highly idiomatic locutions: 
Cela revient au meme. That amounts to the same thing, 

fites-vous i meme de faire cela? Are you in a position to do that? 
II en est de meme de . . . It is the same with . . . 

4. Plusieurs = several; it is sometimes used lq the sense 
of beaucoup = many: 
Plusieurs hommes (femmes). 
Apporte plusieurs des plumes. 
Pen ai plusieurs. 
Plusieurs I'ont era. 

Several men (women). 
Bring several of the pens. 
I have several of them. 
Many (people) beUeved it. 

5. Tel, as adjective, = such, like; un tel = such a; tel, 
as pronoun, = many a one, he, som£, etc. : 
Ne crois pas \me telle histoire. 
Tels sont mes malheurs. 
n n'y a pas de tels animaur. 
A telles et telles conditions. 
Telle qu'xme tigresse. 
Tel qui rit vendredi dimanche 

pleurera (proverb). 

Do not believe such a story. 

Such are my misfortunes. 

There are no such animals. 

On such and such conditions. 

Like (as) a tigreas. 

Some (many a one, he) who 

laugh (s) on PViday will weep on 

Examples of more idiomatic uses are: 

Tel pgre, tel fils. 

Tel rit, tel pleure. 

Monsieur un tel (Mme une telle). 

De la musique telle quelle. 

Votre argent tel quel. 

Like father, like son. 

One laughs, another weeps. 

Mr. So-and-eo (Mrs. So-and-so). 

Music such as it is. 

Your money intact. 

Note. — Such, as adverb, is si or tellement (not tel): Dne « belle 
€toile; Un homme teUement cruel. 

6. Tout (singular) = all, every, any, whole, etc.; tous 
(plural) = aU: 
Toutemavie; tous les hommes. All my (my whole) life; all (the) 

Tout homme; toute creature. Every (any) man; every creature. 

Tous (toutes) sont venu(e)s. All have come. 

172 THE PRONOUN § 406 

C'est tout; de tous c6tes. That is all; on all sides. 

Tout m'efiraie. Everything frightens me. 

a. Tout is often adverb = quite, wholly, very, very much, etc., and 
agrees like an adjective, when immediately preceding a feminine adjec- 
tive with initial consonant or h aspirate, but is elsewhere invariable: 
Elles etaient toutes pales et tout They were quite pale and very 

agitees. much excited. 

But: Us etaient tout pales et tout agites, etc. 

Note. — So also, in the compound tout-puissant, e.g., Elle est toute- 

6. Observe the following idiomatic expressions: 
Toutlemonde (cf. le monde entier). Everybody (c/". the whole world). 
Tous les mois; pas du tout. Every month; not at alL 

Tous les deux jours. Every other (alternate) day. 

Tous (les*) dexix or les deux. Both. 

Tout a I'heure. Presently {or a httle while ago) 

Tout beau; tout doux. Gently (slowly); softly. 

(Pour) tout de bon. Seriously. 

* Tous deux (trois, etc.) — without les — usually denotes ' simultane- 
ousness ' ( = both together, etc.) ; les is obligatory above ten, and usual from 
five to ten. 

c. For the distinction between tout and chaque see § 404, 2, a; for 
tout . . . que = however, see § 404, 5, h, note. 

7. Un is used either alone or as correlative to autre: 

(1) Un, as adjective, = a, an (cf. § 320), one, a certain; 
un, as pronoun, = one: 

"La. maison est d'un c6te. The house is on one eide. 

Un monsieur A. l*a dit. A (certain) Mr. A. said so. 

Une des dames I'a dit. One of the ladies said so. 

Void un crayon. — J'en ai un. Here is a pencil. — I have one. 

Les uns sont de cet avis, les au- Some are of this opinion, (the) 
tres n*en sont pas. others are not. 

a. Un as a pronoun is often preceded by 1*, especially with a de clause: 
L'un des consuls est arrive. One of the consuls has come. 

(2) L*un Pautre, so also the feminine and plural, are 
combined into various correlative phrases^ as follows: 




I'un I'autre = each other, one another; pi. ditto 

I'un et I'autre = both ; pi., both, aU 

I'un ou i'autre = either; pi., ditto 

ni i'un ni I'autre (. . . ne) = neither; pi., neither, none 

Elles se flattent Tune I'autre. 
lis parlent les uns des autres. 
Us se parlent I'un k I'autre. 
L'une et I'autre occasion. 
Les uns et les autres parlent. 
Dites ceci aux uns et aux autres. 
Je prends l'un(e) ou I'autre. 
Parle 4 l'une ou Ik I'autre. 
Ni les un(e)s ni les autres ne 

sont pour vous. 
Ni potir l'un(e) ni pour I'autre. 

They flatter each other. 

They speak of one another 

They 8f>eak to one another. 

Both occasions. 

All of them speak. 

Say this to all. 

I take either. 

Speak to either. 

Neither (none of them) is for 

For neither. 


Indefinite Relatives 

2. Pronominal: 
Quiconque, whoever 

Qui que...(+ subjunctive of 

etre), whoever 
Quoi que... (4- subjunctive), 

a. Quelconque takes -s for the plural, and always follows its noun; 
quiconque is invariable; the other forms are made up from quel, quel- 
que, qui, quoi, + que: 

1. Adjectival: 

Quelconque, any (whatever, at 

Quel que (+ subjunctive of 
etre), whatever 

Quelque . . . que (+ subjunc- 
tive), whatever 

Un (deux) point (s) quelconque (s). 
Une raison quelconque. 
Quiconque parle sera puni(e). 
Quels que soient (puissent etre) 

vos desseins. 
Quelle que fiit la loi. 
Quelques efforts qu'il fasse. 
Qui que tu sois (puisses etre). 
Quoi que vous fassiez. 

Any (two) point (s) whatever. 
Any reason whatever (at all). 
Whoever speaks will be punished. 
Whatever be (may be) your designs. 

Whatever the law was. 
Whatever efforts he makes. 
Whoever you be (may be). 
Whatever you do. 

Obs.: For the use of the subjunctive, see § 270, 4: 
b. Qui que and quoi que are also used with ce before soit: 
Qm que ce soit qui le dise. Whosoever says it. 

Quoi que ce soit qu'il dise. Whatsoever he says. 



§§ 40&-409 


408. Simple Adverbs. The following list contains the 
commoner simple adverbs: 

ailleurs, elsewhere 
ainsi, thiis, so 
alors, then * 
aprds, afterwards 
assez, enough, rather 
aujourd'hui, to-day 
auparavant, before 
aussi, also, too, as 
aussitot, directly 
autant, as much 
autrefois, formerly 
beaucoup, mu/;h 
bien, well, very, much 
bientot, soon 
cependant, however 
certes, indeed 
combien(?) howmuch{f) 
comme, as, like 
comment (?) how{f) 
davantage, more 
dedans, inside 
dehors, outside 
d^ik, already 
demain, to-^morrow 
derri^re, behind 
d^sormais, henceforth 
dessous, under 
dessus, above 
devant, before 
dor^navant, henceforth 

encore, stiU 

enfin, at last 

ensemble, together 

ensuite, then 

environ, aboui 

expres, on purpose 

fort, very 

hier, yesterday 

ici, here 

jadis, formerly 

jamais, ever, never 

Ih, there 

loin, far {off), a long 

longtemps, (a) long 

lors, then 

maintenant, now? 

mal, badly 

mdme, even 

mieux, better 

moins, less 

ne . . ., not 

n^anmoins, neverthe- 

non, no 

oW) where{f) 

oui, yes 

parfois, sometimes 

partout, everywhere 

pas, not 
peu, little 
pis, worse 
plus, more 
plutot, rathe)' 
point, not 
pourquoi(?) why {7) 
pourtant, however 
prSs, near {by) 
presque, almost 
proche, near {by) 
puis, then, there- 
quand(?) when{f) 
que ! how{ !) 
quelquefois, sometimes 
si, so; yes 
souvent, often 
surtout, especially 
tant, so much 
tantot, soon, recently 
tard, late 
tot, soon 

tou jours, always, still 
tout, quite, entirely 
toutefois, however 
tr^s, very 
trop, too {much) 
vite, quickly 
volontiers, willingly 

409. Adverbs from Adjectives. Most adjectives become 
adverbs by the addition of -ment to the feminine singular: 









purement, purely 


doucement, sweetly 


strictement, strictly 


follement, madly 


activement, actively 


facilement, easily 


s^hement, dryly 


autrement, otherwise 

a. Adjectives ending in a vowel, other than -e, drop the -e of the 
feminine on adding -ment: 

Adj. Adv. Adj. Adv. 

poli(e), poliment, polUdy d6cid6(e), d6cid6ment, decidedly 

ab8olu(e), absolument, absolutely etc. etc. 

Note. — The omitted e is denoted by a circumflex accent in assidti- 
ment, contin(iment, criiment, (in)d{iment, gaiment (better, gaiement), 

h. The following adjectives in -« change e to e on adding -ment: 



















uniform e. 


c. The following adjectives change the added -e of the feminine to 6: 

























d. Adjectives in -ant, -cnt (except lent, present, vehement) as- 
similate -nt to m and add -ment to the masculine form: 

Adj. Adv. Adj. Adv. 

constant, constamment, constarMy prudent, prudemment, prudently 

616gant, 61^gamment, elegantly etc. etc. 

But: Lentement, slowly; prfeentement, presently; v4h6mentement, te- 

e. Gentil gives gentiment, nicely; the adverb to bref is brievement 
(from a parallel form), briefly; the adverb to im|mni is impunement 
(probably from L. impune, cf. b, above), with impunity. 

f. The adverbs corresponding to bon, (jood, and mauvais, bad, are 
bien, well, and mal, badly. From bon comes regularly bonnement = 

176 THE ADVERB §§410-411 

410. Adjectives as Adverbs. Adjectival forms are not 
uncommonly used as adverbs, and, as such, are regularly 
invariable : 

1. A number of adjectives serve as adverbs in certain 
fixed expressions: 

Cette sottise lui co6te cher. That folly is costing him dear, 

EUes parlent bas {haut). They speak low (loud). 

Such expressions are: 

cofiter bon, cost dear arr^ter court, stop short coiiter gros, cost dear 

sentir bon, smell good filer doux, ' sing small ' viser haut, aim high 

tenir bon, stand firm aller droit, go straight chanter juste, sing in tune 

acheter cher, buy dear viser droit, aim straight frapper juste, strike straight 

coftter cher, cost dear chanter faux, sing out of sentir mauvais, smell bad 
vendre cher, sell dear tune 6crire serr6, write small 

voir clair, see clearly frapper ferme, strike hard (h) vrai dire, speak truly 

prouver clair, prove parler ferme, speak firmly etc. etc. 

2. An adjective sometimes modifies another adjective: 

Des dames haut placees. Ladies of high rank. 

Un veritable grand homme. A truly great man. 

3. Besides the above, a few adjectival forms serve also 
as adverbs: 

Je I'ai dit expres. I said it purposely. 

Soudain nous vimes I'ennemi. Suddenly we saw the enemy. 

Such forms are: 

bref, in short mfime, even tout beau, not bo fast 

exprSs, purposely proche, near (by) tout doux, gently 

fort, very, hard, loud, etc. soudain, suddenly t vite, quickly 

juste, exactly, etc. * tout, quite, very, etc. 

* For the inflection of tout as adverb, see § 406, 6, a. 
t The adverb vitement = quickly, is familiar. 

a. For certain adverbs used adjectivally, see § 358, h. 

411. Adverbial Locutions. Phrases with adverbial func- 
tion are numerous: 

Je viendrai tout h I'heure. I shall come presently. 

Venez de bonne heure. Come early. 




Further examples are: 

h bon march6, cheap 
h c6t6, near, near by 
k droite, to the right 
ii jamais, forever 
h la fois, at once 
k ravenir, in future 
h peine, hardly 
k peu prfes, nearly 
au juste, exactly 
au moins, at least 
autre part, elsewhere 
d'abord, at first 

d'ailleurs, beside* 

d^ lors, since 

d'ordinaire, usually 

d'oil, whertce 

d'oti? whence t 

du moins, at least 

en avant, forward 

en bas, below, down stairs 

en effet, in fact 

en haut, above, up stairs 

lA-bas, yonder 

l^-dessus, thereupon 

nuile part, nowhere 
plus tot, sooner 
quelque part, somewhere 
tant mieux, so much the 

tdt ou tard, sooner or later 
tour k tour, in turn 
tout k coup, suddenly 
tout de suite, at once 
tout d'un coup, all at once 

412. Comparison of Adverbs. 1. Adverbs are regularly 
compared like adjectives (cf. § 345) by the use of plus, 
moins, aussi; que = than, cts: 

Plus, moins facilement que Jean. More, less easily than John. 
Aussi facilement que Jean. As easily as John. 

a. Further examples, illustrating §345, a, b, c, d, as applied to 

n ne marche pas aussi (si) vite. 
Vite comme un eclair. 
II marche plus vite que je ne pen- 

De plus en plus vite. 
Plus je le connais (et) moins je 


He does not walk as (so) fast. 

As quick as hghtning. 

He walks faster than I thought. 

Faster and faster. 
The more I know him the less I 
esteem him. 

b. More than, less than, as adverbs of quantity = plus de, moins 
de, respectively; they must be carefully distinguished from plus 
(moins) que = more (less) than in an elliptical sentence: 
J'al plus (moins) de dix francs. I have more (less) than ten francs. 
En moins d'une demi-hetu'e. In less than half an hour. 

But: Un elephant mange plus An elephant eats more than six 

que six chevatix (ne mangent). horses (eat). 

2. The following are irregularly compared: 

bien, well 

B.1, badly, m [^^ 

mieux, better 
.us mal, worse 

beaucoup, much 
peu, little 

plus, more 
moins, less 

178 THE ADVERB §413 

a. Beaucoup = much {many) or very much (many), and is never 
modified by another adverb, except pas. 

3. The superlative is formed by placing le, which is in- 
variable, before' the comparative of inequality: 

Le plus souvent (moins souvent). (The) most frequently (least f .). 
Elle parle le plus (mieux, moins). She speaks (the) most (best, least). 

413. Position. 1. An adverb regularly stands immedi- 
ately after its verb, rarely between the subject and the verb: 

Charles porta souvent ma caime. Charles often carries my cane. 

On devrait lire lentement. One should read slowly. 

Se levant tard, se couchant t6t. Rising late, going to bed early. 

Us I'ont bien refu. They have received him well. 

Obs.: Hence the adverb regularly comes between the auxiliary and the 
participle in compound tenses, except when it is in a stressed position: 
Je I'avais rencontre dejd = / had met him already. 

a. The adverbs aujourd'hui, hier, demain, autrefois, t6t, tard, ici, 
la, ailleurs, partout, never come between the auxiUary and the par- 

II est parti hier. He went away yesterday. 

Je I'ai cherche partout. I looked for it everywhere. 

h. Long adverbs in -ment not uncommonly stand after the past 
II a parle eloquemment. He has spoken eloquently. 

c. Most adverbs of quantity, such as peu, beaucoup, trop, etc., and 
a few short adverbs like bien, mal, mieux, etc., as also adverbs of nega- 
tion, regularly precede the infinitive: 

Tu ne devrais pas trop lire. You should not read too much. 

II ne saurait mieux faire. He cannot do better. 

H parle de ne pas y aller. He speaks of not going (there). 

d. Interrogative adverbs head the phrase, as in English; other 
adverbs are not uncommonly placed first for emphasis (cf . § 237, 3) : 
Quand allez-vous revenir? When are you going to come back? 
Aujourd'hui je vais me reposer. To-day I am going to rest. 
Malheureusement tout est perdu. Unfortunately all is lost. 

2. Adverbs usually precede the nouns, adjectives, ad- 
verbs, and phrases modified by them: 

§§ 414-415 NEGATION 179 

Assez de livres, et assez chers. Books enough, and dear enough. 
Bien mal k propos. Very unseasonably. 

a. For combien ! comme ! que ! tant ! and plus . . . plus, moins . . . 
moins, with adjectives or adverbs, cf . § 350, o. 

3. Adverbial phrases follow the same rules as adverbs, 
except that only the shorter ones may usuallj^ come between 
the auxiliary and the verb: 
Nous etions & peine partis. Hardly had we gone. 


414. Negation without Verb. Non = no, not, apart from 
a verb; it is often emphasized by pas, point: 

L'avez-vous dit? — Non. Did you say it? — No. 

Vous viendrez? — Non pas (point). You will come? — Certainly not. 

Non, non, je n'irai pas. No, no, .1 shall not go, 

Non content de dire cela. Not satisfied with saying that. 

Ricbe ou non, il ne I'aura pas. Rich or not, he shall no*t have it. 

A-t-il, oui ou non, du talent? Has he talent, yes or no? 

Des idees non moins vastes. Ideas not less vast. 

Une maison non meublee. A house not furnished. 

Non seulement . . . mais encore. Not only . . . but also. 

o. For the use of que non, see § 420, 1, a. 

415. Negation with Verb. 1, Along with a verb, a 
negation consists regularly of two parts, ne (n', see § 19) 
together with some other word or words; the principal cor- 
relative expressions of this kind are: 

aucunement 1 not at ne . . . rien, nothing 
. nuUement f all ne . . . ni( . . . ni) neither 
. aucun 1 ... nor 

. nul > no, none 
. pas un J 
, personne, nobody 

Notes. — 1. Point is usually more emphatic than pas, and is less com- 
mon in ordinary language. 

2. Negation is often denoted by pas, without ne, in familiar language: 
Ai-je pas dit cela? (= N^sd-je pas dit cela?) 


. . pas, not 


ne. . 

. . point, not 


ne . 

. . guere, hardly 


ne . , 

. . jamais, never 


ne . , 

. . plus, no more 


ne. . 

. . que, only 


180 THE ADVERB §416 

2. Other forms of less frequent use are: 

a. Ne . . . quelconque = no . . . whatsoever {at all), ne . . . qm que ce 
soit = nobody whatsoever {at all), ne . . . quoi que ce soit = nothing 
wfiatsoever {at all). 

Je n'ai dit quoi que ce soit. I said nothing at all. 

b. Ne brin (lit. blade), or mie (lit. crumb), or goutte (lit. drop), 

or mot (lit. word) = ne . . . rien, in certain phrases: 

H n*y en a brin. There is none of it. 

Je n'y entends goutte. I understand nothing of it. 

c. Ne . . . fime vivante, or homme qui vive, or Suae qui vive, etc. = 
ne . . . personne : 

II n'y avait ame vivante dans la ' There was not a living soul in the 
maison. house. 

d. Ne . . . de + an expression of time, e.g., la (ma) vie, de huit 
jours, etc. 

Je ne I'oublierai de ma vie. I shall not forget it while I live. 

416. Position. Ne always precedes the verb, and its 
conjunctive objects, if any; pas, point and other adverbs 
immediately follow the verb, and its conjimctive pronouns, 
if any; indefinites have their usual place. 

Je ne le leur ai pas (point) dit. I did not tell them it. 

Je n'en ai guere. I have hardly any of it. 

Ne les a-t-il jamais vus? Did he never see them? 

Je n'y resterai plus. I shall stay there no longer. 

II ne le veut nuUement. He does not wish it at all. 

II ne prend aucun soin. He takes no care. 

Personne ne pent le dire. Nobody can say (it). 

D n'a pas mal du tout. He has no pain at all. 

Je ne I'ai dit & qui que ce soit. I have told it to nobody at all. 

a. Pas, point, usually, and plus, often, precede the simple infinitive, 
and its conjunctive objects; they may precede or follow avoir, gtre, 
either when alone or in a compound infinitive: 
II parle de ne pas vous voir. He speaks of not seeing you. 

fitre ou ne pas gtre. To be or not to be. 

J'etais fache de ne vous avoir pas I was sorry not to have seen you. 

vu {or de ne pas vous avoir vu, 

or de ne vous pas avoir vu). 

§§ 417-418 NEGATION 181 

b. Rien as object is treated as an adverb; it may also precede an 
infinitive like an adverb: 

II promet de ne rien dire. He promises to say nothing. 

c. The que of ne. . . que immediately precedes the word it modi- 

Je n'en ai vu que trois. I saw only three of them. 

II n'y a pas ^'eux qm en aient. It is not they only who have some. 

d. To denote neither . . . nor, ni is placed before each coordinate 
word, and, when verbs are expressed, ne stands before the auxiliary 
or other leading verb. When principal verbs are coordinated, ne 
stands before each of them, while ni also must stand with the last, 
but may not stand with the first, and is optional with others: 

Qui le sait? — Ni lui ni moi. Who knows it? — Neither he nor I. 

n n'a ni parents ni amis. He has neither relatives nor friends. 

Je ne I'ai ni vu ni entendu. I neither saw nor heard it. 

n ne sait ni lire ni ecrire. He can neither read nor write. 

Je ne veux ni qu'il Use ni qu'il I neither wish him to read nor to 

ecrive. write. 

II ne le bldme ni ne le loue. He neither blames nor praises it. 

Je ne pouvais, (ni) ne devais, ni I neither could, nor should, nor 

ne voulais ceder. would yield. 

417. Ellipsis of the Verb. If the verb be omitted, but 
understood, ne is also omitted, and the correlative itself 
denotes negation: 

Est-il venu? — Pas encore (=11 Has he come? — Not yet (= He 

n'est pas encore venu). has not yet come). 

Qui est la? — Personne. Who is there? — Nobody. 

Plus de larmes; plus de soucis. No more tears; no more cares. 

0. Pas, when so used, may not stand alone: 

Non (pas); pas encore; pas lui; No; not yet; not he (him); not 
pas du tout; pas ce soir, etc. at all; not this evening, etc. 

418. Ne alone as Negative. Negation with verbs is 
expressed by ne alone in certain cases, as follows: 

1. After que = pourquoi? and usually after que, qui in 
rhetorical question or exclamation: 

182 THE ADVERB §418 

Que ne le disiez-vous plus tot? Why did you not say so sooner? 
Que ne ferais-je pour lui? What would I not do for him? 

Qui ne voit cela? Who does not see that? 

2. After condition expressed by inversion: 

N'efit ete la pluie. Had it not been for the rain. 

a. Sometimes also in conditions regularly expressed with si: 

Si je ne me trompe (m'abuse). If I am not mistaken. 
Qtxi, si ce n'est vous? Who, if not you? 

3. In dependent sentences after negation, either fully 
expressed or implied : 

Je n'ai pas (j'ai peu) d'amis qui I have no (I have few) friends who 

ne soient les v6tres. are not yours. 

II n'y a rien qu'il ne sache. There is nothing he does not know. 

Non que je ne le craigne. Not that I do not fear him. 

Impossible qu'il ne vienne ! Impossible that he will not come ! 

Ai-je un ami qtii ne soit fidele? — Have I one friend who is not faith- 

Non. ful? — No. 

a. More obscure cases of implied negation are prendre garde que = 
take care that not, etc., and such expressions as il tient = it depends on, 
used interrogatively: 

Prenez garde qu'il ne tombe. Take care he does not fall. 

Gardez qu'il ne sorte. Take care he does not go out. 

A quoi tient-il qu'on ne fasse What is the cause of that not be- 

cela? ing done? 

4. Sometimes with savoir, bouger, and with pouvoir, 
oser, cesser + an infinitive, expressed or implied: 

Je ne sais (pas). I do not know. 

Ne bougez (pas) de Ik. Do not stir from there. 

Je ne puis (pas) repondre. I cannot answer. 

II n'oserait (pas) le dire. He would not dare to say so. 

Elle ne cesse (pas) de pleurer. She does not cease weeping. 

a. Always ne alone in je ne saurais and je ne sais quoi: 
Je ne saurais vous le dire. I cannot tell you. 

Ne sauriez-vous m'aider? Can you not help me? 

Un je ne sais quoi de terrible. Something indefinably terrible; 

5. In a few set expressions, such as; 

§ 419 NEGATION 183 

ITimporte; n'avoir garde. It does not matter; not to care. 

Ne vous en deplaise. By your leave. 

N'avoir que faire de. To have no use (whatever) for. 

n n'est pire eau que I'eau qui Still waters run deep, 
dort (proverb). 

419. Pleonastic ne. In a que clause ne is often pleo- 
nastic, as compared with English; thus, ne stands: 

1. After empecher = prevent, eviter = avoid, k moins 
que = unless, or que so used: 

Empechez qu'il ne sorte. Prevent him from going out. 

J'evite qu'on ne me voie. I avoid being seen. 

A moins que je ne sois retenu. Unless I be detained. 

a. This ne is often omitte(f after empecher and €viter, after em- 
p^her mostly when n^ative or interrogative. 

6. Ne may also stand after avant que : 
Avant qu'il (ne) parte. Before he goes away. 

2. After expressions of fearing, such as craindre, redouter, 
etc., avoir peur, etc., when not negative, or when negation 
is not implied by interrogation expecting negative answer, 
or by condition: 

Je Grains qu'il ne vienne. I fear he will come. 

Craignez-vous qu'il ne vienne? Do you fear he will come? 

But: Je ne crains pas qu'il vienne. Sans craindre qu'il vienne. Crai- 
gnez-vous qu'il vienne? — Non. Si je craignais qu'il vint. 

a. What it is, or is not, feared will not happ)en, has the full negation 
ne . . . pas in the que clause: 

Je crains qu'il ne vienne pas. I fear he will not come. 

Je ne crains pas qu'il ne vienne pas. I do not fear he will not come. 

6. Negation and interrogation or condition neutralize each other, 
and ne stands: 
Ne craignez-vous pas qu'il ne Do you not fear he will come? 

Si je ne craignais (pas') qu'il ncvtnt. If I did not fear he would come. 
Quand meme je ne cralndrais Even though I did not fear he 

pas qu'il ne vint. would come. 

3. With a finite verb in the second member of a compari- 

184 THE ADVERB 5 419 

son of inequality, when the first member is not negative, 
or does not imply negation as above: 

II est plus riche qu'il ne I'etait. He is richer than he waa. 
Est-il plus riche qu'il ne I'etait? Is he richer than he was? 
II gagne moins qu'il n'esperait. He earns less than he hoped. 
But: II n'est pas plus riche qu'il I'etait; est-il plus riche qu'il I'etait? — 

a. A negative interrogation implies aflBrmation, and ne stands: 
N'est-il pas plus riche qu'il ne Is he not richer than he was? 

Note. — Autre, autrement, plutdt, plus tdt, similarly take ne: II est tout 
autre que je ne pensais. 

4. Usually after expressions of doubt, denial, such as 
douter, nier, disconvenir, ete., Sften desesperer, when 
negative, or when negation is implied as above: 

Je ne doute pas qu'il ne vienne. I do not doubt that he will come. 
Doutez-vous qu'il ne vienne? — Do you doubt whether he will 

Non. come ? — No. 

But: Je doute qu'il vienne; doutez-vous qu'il vienne? ( — question for 


5. After il s'en faut negatively, interrogatively, or with 
peu, guere, etc.: 

II ne s'en fallut pas (de) beaucoup He came very near being killed. 

qu'il ne fM tue. 
H s'en faut de peu que ce vase ne This vessel is nearly full. 

soit plein. 
Peu s'en est fallu que je ne vinsse. I came very near coming. 

6. With compound tenses after il y a, voila, depuis: 

n y a (voiia) trois jours que je ne It is three days since I saw him (I 
I'ai vu. have not seen him for, etc.). 

II avait grandi depuis que je ne He had grown since I saw him. 
I'avais vu. 

Depuis que je ne vous ai vu. Since I saw you. 

a. In a simple tense (§§ 257, 2; 258, 4) negatively, ne . . . pas, etc., 
must be used: 

VoiU un an qu'il ne buvait plus. He had drunk none for a year. 





420. Distinctions. The following are especially liable to 
be confounded in use: 

1. Oui, Si. Yes in affirmation or assent is oui; yes is usually si 
in contradiction, in correction, in dissent: 
L'avez-vous dit? — Oui, monsieur. Did you say it? — Yea, sir. 

Venez. — Oui, oui, j'y vais. 

D ne s'en va pas. — Si, monsieur, 

il s'en va. 
n ne s'en va pas? — Mais si. 
Je n'irai pas. — Si, si, venez. 

Come. — Yes, yes, I shall go. 

He is not going. — Yes, (sir), he is 

He is not going? — Yes, certainly. 
I shall not go. — Yes, yes, come. 

Nom. — The use of si, as also of the intensive si fait, etc., though very 
conunon. is classed as familiar by the Acadimie; it is often avoided by 
pardon, etc., or other expressions: D ne va pas. — Pardon, monsieor (il va). 

a. Oui, si, and non are often preceded by que, really with ellipsis 
of a whole que clause, and are then variously translated by yes, so, 
no, not, etc., or by a clause: 

Je dis que oui (non). 

Je crois que oui (non). 

Vous ne I'avez pas? — Oh ! que sL 

Le fera-t-il? — Je crois que ouL 

Je dis que non. 

Peut-etre que non. 

I say yes (no). 

I think so (not). 

You haven't it? — Oh yes I 

WiU he do it? — I think he will. 

I say it is not so. 

Perhaps not. 

2. Au^ant, Tant. As mttch {many) = autant; so much (many) 

Je gagne autant que vous. 
n but tant qu'il en mourut. 

Pai tant d'amis; j'en ai autant 
que vous. 

I earn as much as you. 

He drank so much that he died 

from it. 
I have so many friends; I have as 

many as you. 

3. Plus, Davantage. Plus is used in all senses of m^yre, most (see 
below); davantage (strengthened sometimes by bien = mtich, encore 
= «<tZZ) = more, is regularly used only absolutely, and usually stands 
at the end of its clause: 

rren parle pas davantage. ) 
ITen parle plus. > 

Say no more about it. 

186 THE NUMERAL § 421 

Ne restez pas davantage. ) t-» ^ • i 

„ , , r Do not remain any longer. 

Ne restez plus. ) jo 

Cela me plait encore davantage That pleases me still more. 

Jesuisriche; il I'est bien davaiv- I am rich; he is much more so. 

tage (plus). 
But only: J'en ai plus que lui; il est plus habile; plus de dix francs; 
c'est ce qui le flatte le plus, etc. 

4. Ne . . . que, Seulement. Seulement must be used, (1) when no 
verb is present, (2) when only refers to the subject, (3) or to the verb, 
(4) or to a que clause, and (5) it may be used to strengthen a ne . . . 
que; otherwise only = ne . . . que or seulement; 

Seulement les braves. Only the brave. 

Seulement mon frere le sait. Only my brother knows it. 

ficoutez seulement. Only listen. 

H dit seulement qu'il viendrait. He only said he should come. 
H n'a (seulement) qu'S venir. He has only to come. 

But: Nous ne serons que trois {or trois seulement); je ne veux que 
voir son pSre {or je veux seulement voir son pere), etc. 

a. Only, referring to the subject, may be turned also by il n*y a 
que, il n*y a pas que : 

II n'y a que les morts qui ne re- The dead only do not come back. 

viennent pas. 
n n'y a pas qu'elles qui le sachent. It is not only they who know. 

421. Cardinal Ntimerals 

1 un, une 

[«, yn] 

2 deux 


3 trois 


4 quatre 


6 cinq 


6 six 


7 sept 


8 huit 


9 neuf 


10 dix 


11 onze 


12 douze 


13 treize 


14 quatorze [katorz] 





70 soixante-dix 



71 soixante et onze 



80 quatre-vingts 



81 quatre- vingt-un 



90 quatre-vingt-dix 



91 quatre-vingt-ODze Ckatravgoiz] 


100 cent 



101 cent un 



200 deux cents 



201 deux cent un 



1000 mille 



1001 mille un 



2000 deux mille 


15 quinze 

16 seize 

17 dix-sept 

18 dix-huit 

19 dix-neuf 

20 vingt 

21 vingt et un 

22 vingt-deux 

30 trente 

31 trente etun 
40 quarante 
50 cinquante 
60 soixante 

Nouns of Number: 1,000,000 = un million [de miljs]; 2,000,000 = 
deux miUions [d0 miljs]; 1,000,000,000 = un milliard [ce miljair]. 

Observe: 1. The hyphen unites together compound numerals under 
100, except where et occurs. 2. Et stands r^ularly in 21, 31, 41, 51, 
61, 71, omitted in 81, and elsewhere. 

Notes on Pronunciation: 1. The final consonant of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
10, 17, 18, 19, is silent before initial consonant or h aspirate of a word 
multiplied by them, not elsewhere: Cinq livres [sg hivr]. but le cinq 
mai Qa sSik me]. 2. No elision or liaison occm^ before huit, onze: 
Le huit Da qit]; les huit livres Qe qi U:vt]; le onze Da 5:z]; les onze 
francs De 5:z fra]. 3. The t is sounded in vingt, in 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 
27, 28, 29, is sounded with the d in 22, is silent from 81 to 99, is 
silent in cent tm, deux cent un, etc. ■ 

o. Un (f. ime) is the only cardinal which varies for gender: 

Une (deux, trois, etc.) plume(s). One (two, three, etc.) pen(s). 
\^ngt et une vaches. Twenty-one cows. 

6. Cardinals are invariable for number, except that -s is added to 
quatre-vingt and the multiples of cent, but only when immediately 
preceding a noun, or an adjective + a noun, or when they themselves 
serve as nouns of number: 

Quatre-vingts francs. 
Trois cent* (bonnes) plumes. 
Deux cent5 millions de francs. 
Trois cents hommes. 
Les cinq cents. 

Eighty francs. 
Three hundred (good) pens. 
Two hundred million francs. 
Three hundred men. 
The five hundreds. 

188 THE NUMERAL § 422 

But: Trois cent irn francs; les cent hommes engages; quatre-vingt- 
une plumes ; deux cent mille ; trois mille milles (miles) , etc. 
N.B. — They are not nouns of number in dates (c. below) or when used 
as ordinals (§ 427): L'an quatre cent; page deux cent; page qu&tte-vingt. 

c. The form mil (not mille) is used in dates of the Christian era 
from 1001 to 1999: 

En mil huit cent quatre-vingt- In eighteen hundred and ninety- 

onze. one. 

(En) l'an mil six. (In) the year 1006. 

But: L'an mille (sometimes mil) ; l'an deux xrulle trois cent; l'an mille 
cent du monde, etc. 

d. From 1100 onward dates are often expressed by hundreds, as so 
frequently in English: 

Onze cent (s); treize cent (s). Eleven hundred; thirteen hundred. 

Quinze cent cinquante. Fifteen hundred and fifty. 

e. A (or one) hundred = cent; a (or one) thousand = mille: 
Mille soldats. A (one) thousand soldiers. 

Note. — Septante = 70, octante = 80, nonante = 90, six-vingt(s) = 120, 
and quinze-vingt(s) = 300, are now obsolete in the literary language, 
although sometimes heard in certain French-speaking regions. 

422. Ordinal Numerals. The ordinal numerals denote 
order or place in a series relatively to the first; they are 
formed, from 'third' up, by adding -ieme to the last conso- 
nant of the corresponding cardinal, cinq adding u, and f 
of neuf becoming v before -ieme: 

1st premier Cpr^nije] 7th septiSme Qsetjem] 

„ J f second Cs^gaD 8th huiti^me CuitJEm] 

deuxieme Cd0zi£m] 9th neuviSme [noevjem] 

3rd troisieme [trwazjem] 10th dixieme [dizjem] 

4th quatriSme [katriem] 11th onzieme Cozjsm] 

5th cinqui^me [sgkjem] 21st vingt et uni6me[vgteynjem] 

6th sixiSme Qsizjem] 22nd vingt-deuxieme [vetd0zjem] 

Notes. — 1. Besides the ordinary forms, tiers (f. tierce) = third, 
quart(e) = fourth, are used in a few expressions and in fractions: Le tiers 
etat, The commoners; En maison tierce, In the house of a third party; Une 
fievre quarte, A quartan ague. 

2. Quint = fifth is used only in Ch&iles-Quint, Charles V {the Em- 
peror); Sixie-Qidnt, Sixtus V (the Pope). 


a. Ordinals are like ordinary adjectives in inflection and agreement, 
and regularly precede the noun: 

La (les) preniiere(s) maison(s). The first house(8). 
NoTis sommes arrives les premiers. We arrived first. 

b. Deuxieme instead of second is more usually employed in a series 
of more than two, and always in compounds: 

Le second volume. The second volume (of two). 

Le deuxieme volume. The second volume (of three, etc.). 

La cent deiudeme fois. The hundred and second time. 

423. Collectives. The following nouns are used with 
collective force: 

un(e) couple, a couple (tux>) une quarantaine, about forty, 

une paire, a pair quarantine 

une huitaine, about eight une cinquantaine, about fifty 

une dixaine, about ten une soixantaine, about sixty 

une douzaine, a dozen une centaine, about a hundred 

une quinzaine, about fifteen, a un cent, a hundred 

fortnight un millier, {about) a thousand 
une vingtaine, about twenty, a score un million, a million 

une trentaine, about thirty un milliard, a billion, etc. 

a. They take -s in the plural, and have the construction of ordinary 

H y a une centaine d'eleves. There are about 100 pupils. 

D y en a deux cents. There are two hundred of them. 

Des milliers de gens. Thousands of people. 

Deux millions de francs. Two million(8 of) francs. 

424. Fractions. The numerator is regularly denoted by 
a cardinal and the denominator by an ordinal; half = moitie, 
f., as a noun, and demi as an adjective or a noun: 

un demi i un quart ^ trois seiziSmea 

une moiti6 i trois quarts t^ s^pt centiemes 

I deux demia I un cinquidme WV dix cent uniemes 

J un tiers i un septi^me i^hf o^ze millilmes 

I deux tiers -^ un onzi&me etc. 

a. Demi, before its noun, is invariable and joined by a hyphen, but 
agrees elsewhere; as a noun, demi is hardly used, except in arithmetical 
calculations; see also § 429: 

190 THE NUMERAL §§ 425-426 

Une demi-heure; xrne heure et Half an hour; an hour and a 
demie. half or half past one. 

Trois quarts d'heixre. Three quarters of an hour. 

Quatre demis = deux. Four halves = two. 

La moitie de la somme. Half the sum. 

6. The definite article is required before fractions followed by 

de + a noun when the noun is determined by the definite article, a 

possessive, or a demonstrative, and similarly for pronominal substi- 
tutes for such constructions: 

La moitie du temps. Half the time. 

Les trois quarts de ces (ses) biens. Three-fourths of those (his) goods. 

J'en prends les cinq sixiemes. I take five-sixths of them. 

425. Multiplicative s. 1. The following are used as adjec- 
tives, or absolutely as nouns: 

double, dovble septuple, sevenfold 

triple, triple octuple, eightfold 

quadruple, quadruple nonuple, ninefold 

quintuple, fivefold decuple, tenfold 

sextuple, sixfold centuple, hundredfold 

As nouns, le double, the double, etc. : 

La triple alliance. The triple alliance. 

Payer le double. To pay twice as much. 

a. Double is sometimes adverb: 

n voit double. He sees double. 

2. Once, twice, three times, etc. = une fois, deux fois, 
trois fois, etc.: 

Dix fois dix font cent. Ten times ten make a hundred. 

Deux fois autant (plus). Twice as much. 

426. Numeral Adverbs. They are formed from the 
ordinals by -ment, according to rule (cf . § 409) : 
premifirement, first, firstly troisi^mement, thirdly 

secondement \ ,, etc. etc. 

, . ^ , > secondly 

deuxiftmement J 

a. Substitutes for them, of very frequent use, are: d'abord = at first, 
puis = then, after that, ensuite = then, next, en premier lieu = in the first 
place, en second lieu, etc. = in the second place, etc. ; or the Latin adverb 
forms prime, secundo, tertio, etc., abbreviated to 1°, 2°, 3°, are used. 

What day of the month is this? 



427. Cardinals and Ordinals. 1. Premier = first is the 
only ordinal used to denote the day of the month or the 
numerical title of a ruler; otherwise, cardinals are employed: 

Le premier (deux, dix) mai. The first (second, tenth) of May. 

Le onze de ce mois. The eleventh of this month. 

Napoleon (Gregoire) premier. Napoleon (Gr^ory) the First. 

Henri (Catherine) deux. Henry (Catherine) the Second 

2. Observe the following date idioms: 

Quel jour du mois est-ce aujour- 

Quel jour du mois sommes-nous 

Quel quantieme du mois est-ce 


C'est aujourd'htii le quinze. To-day is the fifteenth. 

Ce sera demain le seize. To-morrow will be the sixteenth. 

Le six Janvier. On the sixth of January, 

lis sont arrives lundi. They came on Monday. 

D'aujourd'hui en huit. A week from to-day (Jutvare). 

II y a quinze jours. A fortnight ago. 

3. Other numerical titles, book, chapter, scene, page, etc., 
are expressed as in English, ordinals being used before nouns, 
and either cardinals or ordinals after nouns: 

Tome troisieme ^ois). Volume third (three). 

La dixieme scene du second arte. The tenth scene of the second act. 

a. The first of two ordinals joined by et or ou is not imcommonly 
replaced by a cardinal: 
La quatre ou cinquieme page. The foiulh or fifth page. 

h. Cardinals must precede ordinals in French: 
Les deux premieres scSnes. The first two scenes. 

428. Dimension. The various methods of indicating 
dimension may be seen from the following: 




(1) Une table longue de deux metres. 

(2) Une table de 2 m. de longueur. 

(3) Une table de 2 m. de long. 

(4) Une table d'une longueur de 2 m. 

(5) La table est longue de 2 m. 

(6) La table a 2 m. de longueur. 

(7) La table a 2 m. de long. 

(8) La table a ime longueur de 2 m. 

A table two meters long. 

The table is two meters long. 

Obs.: 1. Dimension after an adjective is denoted by de, cf. (1), (5). 

2. Substitutes for the adjectival construction of (1) are seen in (2), (3), 

3. The verb to be is gtre, as in (5), or avoir, as in (6), (7), (8). 

4. Haut, large, long (but not epais, profond) may be used as nouns 
instead of hauteur, largeur, longueur, cf. (3), (7). 

a. By, of relative dimension = sur; by, after a comparative = de: 
Cette table a deux metres de This table is two meters long by 

longueur sur un de largeur. one wide. 

Plus grand de cinq centimetres. Taller by 5 cm. (=2 inches). 

429. Time of Day. The method of indicating the time 
of day may be seen from the following: 

Quelle hetire est-il? 

D est une (deux) hexire(s). 

11 est trois heures et demie. 

Trois heures (et) un quart. 

Quatre heures moins un (le) quart. 

Trois heures trois quarts. 

Trois heures dix (minutes). 

Six heures moins cinq (minutes). 

Cinq heures cinquante-cinq. 

II est midi et demi. 

II est minuit (et) xm quart. 

A hmt heures du soir. 

A quelle heixre? 

A trois heures precises. 

Vers (les) trois heures. 

What time (o'clock) is it? 

It is one (two) o'clock. 

It is half-past three. 

A quarter past three. 

A quarter to four. 

A quarter to four. 

Ten minutes past three. 

Five minutes t^ six. 

Five fifty-five. 

It is half -past twelve (noon). 

It is a quarter past twelve (night). 

At eight o'clock in the evening. 

At what o'clock? 

At three o'clock precisely. 

Towards (at about) three o'clock. 

Obs.: 1. It is (was, etc.) = 11 est (4tait, etc.). 

2. Heure(s) is never omitted. 

3. £t is essential only at the half hour. 




4. Deim(e) agrees with heure (f.) or with midi (m.). minuit (m.). 

5. Minutes id often omitted. 

6. A quarter to, minutes to is moins before the following hour. 

7. Twelve o'clock is never douze heures. 

430. Age. Idiomatic expressions denoting age are: 

Quel fige avez-vous? 
J'ai vingt ans. 
Je suis ige de vingt ans. 
Une fillette de six ans. 
Plus dg6 de deux ans. 

How old are you? 
I am twenty (years old). 
I am twenty (>'ears old). 
A little girl of six. 
Older by two years. 

Oba.: I. The construction with avoir is the more common. 

2. An(s) may be omitted in specifying age. 

3. By = de, after a comparison. 


431. Simple Prepositions. The following list contains 
the commoner simple orepositions: 

k, to, at, iri, on, etc. 
aprds, after, next to 
avant, before 
avec, tnth 
chez, with, at — '» 
contre, against 
dans, tn(to) 
de, of, from, toith, etc. 
depuis, since, from 
derriere, behind 
dds, from, as early as 
devant, b^ore 

durant, during 
en, in, to 

entre, between, among 
envers, towards 
hormis, except 
jusque, till, uniU 
malgr6, in spite of 
moyennant, by means of 
nonobstant, notwith- 
outre, besides 
par, by, through 

parmi, among 
pendant, during 
pour, for 
sans, without 
sauf , save, except 
selon, according to 
sous, under 
suivant, according to 
sur, on, upon 
vers, towards 
voici, here is {are) 
voil^ there is (are) 

432. Prepositional Locutions. Phrases with preposi- 
tional function, mostly ending in de or a, are numerous: 

A cflte de I'eglise.^ Beside the church. 

Jusqu'4 la semaine prochaine. Until next week. 

A travers la foret Through the forest. 

194 THE PREPOSITION §§433-435 

Such locutions are: 

h cause de, on account of au-dessus de, above faute de, for want of 

k c6t6 de, by the side of au lieu de, instead of jusqu'^, as far as, untU 

h force de, by dint of autour de, around par del^, beyond 

h regard de, vnth regard to au moyen de, by means of par-dessous, U7ider 

& I'exception de, except auprds de, near by par-dessus, over 
k I'insu de, unknown to au travers de, across, through pr^s de, near 

k travers, across, through d'apr^s, according to quant h., as for 

au del^ de, beyond en degh de, on this side {of) vis-a-vis de, opposite 

au-dessous de, under en d^pit de, in spite of etc., etc. 

433. Position. Prepositions regularly precede the gov- 
erned word, as in English: 

Je parle de Jean (de lui). I speak of John (of him). 

a. Conjunctive personal pronouns governed by voici, voila, precede: 

Me voici; les voilS. Here I am; there they are. 

En voici quelques-uns. Here are some of them. 

6. Durant is' sometimes placed after its noun: 
Durant sa vie {or sa vie durant). During his life. 

434. Repetition. The prepositions a, de, en, are regu- 
larly repeated before each governed substantive; the rep- 
etition of other prepositions is regular in contrasts, but is 
elsewhere optional, as in English: 

II aime h. lire et & ecrire. He likes to read and write. 

Le pere de Jean et de Marie. The father of John and Mary. 

En France ou en Italie. In France or Italy. 

Sur terre et sur mer. By land and sea. 

Par la persuasion ou par la force. By persuasion or force. 

But: Pour lui et (pour) son frdre, etc. 


435. Prepositions vary greatly as to idiomatic force in 
different languages. In the following sections are given 
some of the various French equivalents of the commoner 
English prepositions. 


436. About 

1. In the sense of around = autour de: 
Regardez autour de vous. Look about you. 
AutouT de la place. About the square. 

2. In the sense of concerning, of = de,k: 

De quoi parlez-vous? What are you talking about? 

A quoi pensez-vous? What are you thinking about? 

3. In the sense of with, about {the person) = sur: 

Avez-vous de I'argent sur vous? Have you any money about you? 

4. Denoting approximation = environ, pres de, UpeuprSs, vers: 
Environ (pres de, k peu prfes) About two thousand francs; about 

deux mille francs; vers (sur ten o'clock; about 1830. 
les) diz heures; vers 1830. 

437. After 

1. Denoting time, rank, order, position = aprds: 

Apres diner; le premier apres le After dinner; the first after the 
roi; on met I'adjectif apres le king; the adjective is placed 

nom; courez aprds lui. after the noun; run after him. 

2. In the sense of at the end of = au bout de: 

Au bout de trois siecles. After three centuries. 

3. Unclassified: 

De jour en jour; dessine d'aprds Day after day; drawn after Raph- 
Raphael; le lendemain de son ael; the day after his return; he 

retour; il tient de sa mdre. takes after his mother. 

438. Among 

1. In the sense of in the midst of, surrounded by = parmi, some- 
times entre: 

Une brebis parmi les loups. A sheep among wolves. 

n fut trouve entre les morts. He was found among the dead. 

2. Among (distributively or reciprocally) = entre: 

n le partagea entre ses amis. He divided it among his friends. 

lis parlaient entre eux. They spoke among themselves. 

3. Unclassified: 

C'etait ainsi chez les Grecs. It was so among the Greeks 

196 THE PEEPOSITION §§439-441 

439. At 

1. Denoting place, time, = d, sometimes en: 

Ai'ecole; aDouvres; a table; H At school; at Dover; at table; at 
cinq heures; k I'age de; en five o'clock; at the age of; at 
tete de; en (au) meme temps; the head of; at the same time; 
H la fin (enfin). at last. 

2. In the sense of at the house, etc., of, at — 's = chez: 

J'ai ete chez vous; il est chez I was at your house; he is at Mr. 
Monsieur Ribot. Ribot's. 

3. Unclassified: 

A mes depens; i tout prix; At my expense; at any price; at 

d'abord; sous la main; entrer first; at hand; come (go) in at 

par la fenetre; en haut (bas) ; the window; at the top (bottom); 

aumoins; surmer; en guerre. at least; at sea; at war. 

440. Before 

1. Denoting place, in the sense of in front of, in the presence of = 

Mettez cela devant le f eu ; le jar- Put that before the fire; the gar- 
din est devant la maison; il den is before the house; he 
precha devant le roi. preached before the king. 

2. Denoting time, order = avant: 

Avantmidi; jel'aivu avant vous; Before noon; I saw him before 
mettez I'article avant le nom. you; put the article before the 


3. Unclassified: 

Sous mes yeux; la veille de la Before my eyes; the day before 
bataille; comparaitre par-de- the battle; to appear before the 
vant le juge. judge. 

441. By 

1. Denoting the agent after the passive = par, de (cf. § 240): 

EUe fut saisie par le voleur; ils She was seized by the robber; they 
sont aimes de tous. are loved by all. 

2. Denoting means, way, etc. = par (usually) : 

Parlaposte; par chemin de fer; By post; by railway; by this 
par ce moyen; par tm ami. means; by a friend. 




3. Denoting measure = de; relative dimension = sur: 

Plus grand de la tete; plus Sge Taller by a head; older by ten 
de dix ans (de beaucoup) ; plus years (by far); heavier by a 

lourd d'une livre; moindre de pound; less by half; ten^meters 

la moitie ; dix metres sur six. by six. 

4. Unclassified: 

De jour (nuit) ; il'annee; goutte 
k goutte; il est midl k ma 
montre; connaitre de vue; de 
vive voix; im tailleur de son 
£tat ; vendre au poids ; fait k la 

By day (night); by the year; drop 
by drop; it is noon by my watch; 
to know by sight; by word of 
mouth; a tailor by trade; to sell 
by weight; made by hand. 

442. For 

1 . In the sense of for the sake of, instead of, (in exchange) for = pour : 

Mourir pour la patrie; je le fais To die for one's country; I do it 
pour vous; donnez-moi ceci for you; give me this for that, 

pour cela. 

I leave for France; a letter for 

2. Denoting destination: 

Je pars pour la France; une let 
tre potir vous. 

3. Denoting a period of time (future) = potir: 

Je resterai (pour) huit jours; I shall stay (for) a week; I have 
j'en ai pour dix ans. enough of it for ten years. 

Note. — For, of time not future, is variously rendered: Petals huit jours 
absent or Petals absent pendant huit jours, / tpas absent for a week; U y 
a (void, voili) deux heures que je lis or Je lis depuis deux heures, / fuite 
been reading for two hovra. 

4. Unclassified: 

Mot k mot or mot pour mot; un 
remede centre (pour); trem- 
bler de crainte; par eiemple; 
quant k moi ; vendre dix francs 
or laisser (donner) pour dix 
francs; remercier (punir) de; 
changer pour (centre) ; c'est k 
vous de dire; malgre tout cela. 

Word for word; a remedy for; to 
tremble for fear; for example; 
as for me; to sell for ten francs 
or to give for ten francs; to 
thank (punish) for; to change 
for; it is for you to say; for 

198 THE PREPOSITION §§ 443-444 

443. From 

1. Usually = de: 

II vient de Paris; de trois k He comes from Paris; from three 
quatre hetires; je I'ai appris to four o'clock; I heard it from 
de lui. him, 

2. In the sense of because of, out of, through = par: 

Cela arriva par negligence; par That happened from carelessness; 
experience (amitie). from experience (friendship). 

3. In the sense of dating from = des, depuis, k partir de : 
Des (depuis, k partir de) ce jour; From that day; from 1820 (on). 

k partir de 1820. 

4. Unclassified: 

D'aujourd'hui en huit; dessine A week from to-day; drawn from 
d'apres nature ; boire dans un nature; to drink from a glass; 

verre; 6tez cela k I'enfant. take that from the child. 

444. In, into 

1. Denoting place or time specifically, i.e., in the sense of 
within, inside of, in{to) the interior of = dans (cf. § 333, 3): 

Dans ce paquet (champ); dans In this parcel (field); in (to) the 

lamaison; dans I'Afrique aus- house; in South Africa; in the 

trale; dans toute la ville; whole city; in the same year, 
dans la meme annee. 

Note. — The governed noun usually has the definite article. 

2. Denoting place or time generally = en, k (cf . § 333, 2, 3) : 
En Afrique; a la maison; aux In Africa; in the house (at home) ; 

champs; au Canada; a Lon- in the fields; in Canada; in Lon- 

dres; a la campagne (ville) ; en don; in the country (city); in 

hiver; au printemps; en paix. winter; in spring; in peace. 

Note. — The governed word after en has but rarely the definite article 
(mostly in fixed expressions before initial vowel sound): En /'air; En 
rhonneur de, etc. ^ 

3. In the sense of at the end of (time) = dans; in the course of 
(time) = en: 

Le train part dans uneheure; on The train leaves in an hour; one 
peut aller k L. en tme heure. can go to L. in an hour. 




4. Denoting place, after a superlative = de: 
La plus grande ville du monde. The largest city in the world. 

6. Unclassified: 

Par la pluie; le matin; de nos 
jours; par le passe; il'avenir; 
d'avance ; antra las mains de ; 
k mon avis; sous le regne 
da; sous prasse; de catte 
maniera ; un sur diz. 

445. Of 

1. Usually = de: 

Le toit da la maison; la ville de 
Paris; tm homma d'influance; 
una livra da the ; digna dTion- 
naur; il parle d'aller k Paris. 

2. Denoting material = en: 

Un pent en bois (f er) ; las pieces 
de diz francs sont en or. 

3. Unclassified: 

C'est aimable k vous; sur loo 
parsonnes 50 sont echappees; 
docteur en medecine; un de 
mes amis; majeur. 

In the rain; in the morning; in 
our day(s); in the past; in the 
future; in advance; in the hands 
of; in my opinion; in the reign 
of; in (the) press; in this way; 
one in ten. 

The roof of the house; the city of 
Paris; a man of influence; a 
poimd of tea; worthy of honor; 
he speaks of going to Paris 

A bridge of wood (iron) ; ten-franc 
pieces are (made) of gold. 

It is kind of you; of 100 persons 
50 escaped; doctor of medicine: 
one of my friends; of age. 


1. Usually = sur: 

On, upon 

Le livre'ast (ja mats le livre) sur 
la table. 

The book is (I put the book) on the 

2. Is omitted in dates before specified days: 

Ledizmal; je viendrai mardi; il 
arriva le lendemain. 

On the tenth of May; I shall come 
on Tuesday; he arrived on the 




3. Unclassified: 

Par une belle joumee d'ete ; met- 
tre au feu; pendre contre 
le miir; dans la rue; dans 
I'ile; dansl'escalier; en (dans 
un) voyage; en visite (conge); 
en chemin (route) ; d'un cote ; 
tomber par terre; k genoux; 
dans cette occasion; k cheval 
(pied); k droite (gauche); k 
son arrivee; au contraire; 
pour affaires. 

On a fine summer day; to put on 
the fire; to hang on the wall; 
on the street; on the island; on 
the stairs; on a journey; on a 
visit (a hoUday) ; on the way (the 
road); on one side; to fall on 
the ground; on one's knees; on 
that occasion; on horseback 
(foot); on the right (the left); 
on his arrival; on the contrary; 
on business. 

447. Out of 

1. Unclassified: 
Boire dans tin verre; copier dans 
un Uvre; regarder par la fene- 
tre; un sur diz. 

To drink out of a glass; to copy 
out of a book; to look out of the 
window; one out of ten. 

448. Over 

1. In the sense of above = au-dessus de: 

Au-dessus de la porte etaient 
ecrits ces mots; les nombres 
au-dessus de mille. 

Over the door were written these 
words; the numbers over one 

2. Denoting motion above = sur, par, par-dessus: 

Passez la main sur ce drap ; par 
monts et par vaux; il sauta 
par-dessus la hale. 

3. Unclassified: 

Au deia de la riviere; I'emporter 
sur (triompher de) ; se rejouir 
de; veiller sur. 

Pass your hand over this cloth; 
over hill and dale; he leaped 
over the hedge. 

Over the river; to triumph over; 
to rejoice over; to watch over. 

449. Through 

1. Denoting motion across = d. travers (au travers de), par: 

Je passai k travers (au travers I passed through the forest; to pass 
de) la foret; passer par Paris. through Paris. 


2. In the sense of because of, owing to = par: 
Par negligence. Through careleesnesB. 

460. TiU, unta 

1. Unclassified: 

Jusqu'i demain; pas avant I'an- Till to-morrow; not till next year; 
nee prochalne; jusqu'ici; du till now; from morning till 

matin au soir. night. 

451. To 

1. Denoting the indirect object = i (cf. §362, 2): 
Je I'ai donne k im ami. I gave it to a friend. 

2. Denoting motion to = ft, en (cf. §333, 2, 3); in the sense <rf 
to the house, etc., of, to 's = chez: 

II va & Paris (i I'ecole ; aujapon; He goes to Paris (to school; to 

k un bal; en France; en Por- Japan; to a ball; to France; to 

tugal; chez euz; chez mon Portugal; to their house, etc.; 

ami). to my friend's). 

3. In the sense of towards = vers (physical tendency), enters 
(moral tendency) : 

Levez les yeux vers le del; il est Raise yoxu- eyes to heaven; he is 
juste envers tous. just to all. 

4. In the sense of as far as = jusqu'ft: 

Venez jusqu'au bout de la rue. Come to the end of the street? 

5. Unclassified: 

Le voyage (train) de Montreal; The journey (train) to Montreal; 
Icrire sous dictee ; dans ce but. to write to dictation; to this end. 

462. Towards 

See §451,3. 

453. Under, tmdemeath 

1. Usually = sous: 

Sous la table; sous la loi; sous Under the table; under the law; 
peine de mort. under (on) pain of death. 


2. Denoting lower than, less than = au-dessous de: 

Au-dessous du coude; vendre Under the elbow; to sell a thing 
une chose au-dessous de sa under its value. 

3. Unclassified: 

Fouler aux pied s; S. cette condi- To tread under foot; under this 
tion; dans les circonstances; condition; under the circum- 

dans la necessite de; mineur. stances; under the necessity of; 

under age. 

454. With 

1. In the sense of along with, in company with = avec: 

Dinez avec moi a I'hStel ; unoffi- Dine with me at the hotel; an offi- 
cier avec des soldats. cer with some soldiers. 

2. In the sense of at the home, etc., of — chez: 
II demeure chez nous. He lives with us. 

3. Denoting instrument, manner = avec (usually) : 

Frapper avec un marteau; ecrire To strike with a hammer; to write 
avec une plume; avec courage with a pen; with coinage (force), 

4. Denoting a characteristic = d: 

Un homme k la barbe noire. A man with a black beard. 

5. With of accessory circumstance is usually turned by an 
absolute construction: 

D parla les yeux baisses. He spoke with downcast eyes. 

6. In the sense of from, on account of, and after many verbs and 
adjectives = de: 

Elleplevuradecolere; couvrirde; She wept with anger; to cover 
content de. with; satisfied with. 

7. Unclassified: 

A I'exception de; k haute voix; With the exception of ; with a loud 

k bras ouverts; de bon appe- voice; with open arms; with a 

tit; k I'oeil nu; de tout mon good appetite; with the naked 

coeur. eye; with all my heart. 





455. Conjunctions. The following table contains most 
of the conjunctions and conjunctive locutions in use: 

fi Ga) condition quQ,' on condi- 
tion that 
*afin que,* in order that, «o that 

alnsi, therefore, hence 

ainsi que, as voeU as, as 

alors que, when 

k mesure que, as, JMst as 
*k moins que . . . ne,* unUss 

aprte que, after 

k proportion que, in proportion as 

attendu que, considering that 
tau cas oil,' in case {that) 
*au cas que,» in case {that) 

aussi, hence, therefore 

auasitdt que, as soon as 
*avant que,' before 
*bien que,* though, although 

car, for 
*ce n'est pas que,* not that 

cependant, however, yet 

oomme, as 

f dans le cas oil,' in case {that) 
*de crainte que . . . ne,* for fear 

fde fa5on que,* so that 
fde mani^re que,* so that 

de mSme que, as voeU, as 
*de peur que . . . ne,* for fear that 

depuis que, since 
fde (telle) sorte que,* so that 

dka que, as soon as, when, since 

done, now, then, therefore 
*en attendant que,* untU 
*en cas que,' in case {that) 

encore, yet, still 
•encore que,* though, although 

ten sorte que,* so that 

*en supposant que,' supposing thai 

et, and 

et . . . et, both . . . and 

excepte que, except that 
tjusqu'^ ce que,' untU 
*loin que,* far from 

lorsque, when 

mais, btU 
*malgre que,* though, although 

n^anmoins, nevertheless 

ni, nor ..(... ne), neither . . . 

•nonobstant que,* notwithstanding 

*non (pas) que,* not thai 

non aeulement . . . mais encore, nA 
only . . .but also 

or, now 

ou, or 

ou . . . ou, either . . .or 

outre que, besides that 

parce que, because 

partant, therefore, hence 

pendant que, while, whilst 

*pour peu que,* if ever so little 

•pour que,* in order that 

pourtant, yet, however 

*pourvxi que,' provided that 
puisque, since 
quand, when 

tquand m^me,* though, even if 

tque,' that, than, as 

•quoique,* though, although 

*sans que,^ without 

204 THE CONJUNCTION §§ 456-457 

selon que, according as *soit que . . . ou que,* whether ... or 
fsi,' t/ (§ 271, 3, a) suivant que, according as 

fsi bien que,'' so that *suppose que,* suppose that 
fsi peu que,* however little tandis que, whilst, whereas 

sinon, if not, or else tant . . . que, both . . . and 

sitot que, as soon as tant que, as long as 

soit . . . soit, whether . . . or ftelleinent . . . que/ so . . . that 
soit . . . ou, whether . . . or toutefois, yet, nevertheless 

*8oit que . . . soit que,* whether une fois que, as soon as 
. . .or vu que, seeing thai 

* Followed by the subjunctive. 

t Followed by the indicative or, subjunctive. 

N.B. — Conjunctions without * or t in the table are followed by the 

^ See § 271, 1 (time before which or up to which). 
' See § 271, 2 (purpose or result). 
» See §271, 3 (condition). 

* See § 271, 4 (concession). 

* See § 271, 5 (negation). 

* See §269, §271, 6, and §458. 


456. Et. 1. When repeated, et usually denotes both . . . 
and; otherwise it stands with the last only of two or more 

Je connais et le pere et le fils. I know both the father and son. 
Les femmes pleuraient, criaient The women wept, (and) screamed, 
et gesticulaient. and gesticulated. 

2. And after a verb of motion is usually untranslated: 
Allez leur parler. Go and speak to them. 

467. Ni. 1. A finite verb with ni or ni ... ni must be 
preceded by ne: 

H n'a ni or ni argent. He has neither gold nor silver. 

D ne mange ni ne bolt. He neither eats nor drinks. 

o. For the position of ni . . . ni . . . ne, see § 416, d. 


2. In sentences of negative force, and, or, are rendered 
by ni: 

Honnexirs ni richesses ne font le Honors and wealth do not consti- 
bonheur. tute happiness. 

3. Observe the following equivalents of neither, not 
either, nor either, nor, when not correlative: 

Je ne le f erai pas. — (Ni) moi I shall not do it. — Nor I either 
non plus. (or Neither shall I). 

D ne le fera pas non plus. He will not do it either. 

D ne I'a pas fait, et il ne le fera He has not done it, nor will he 
pas. (do it). 

458. Que. 1. Que = that is followed by the indicative 
or subjunctive according to the context: 

Je dis que vous avez raison. I say that you are right. 

Jesmsf&che quevousayezraison. I am sorry that you are right. 

2. Que often replaces another conjunction; when so 
used, it takes the same construction as the conjunction for 
which it stands, except that que instead of si = t/ always 
requires the subjunctive: 

Quand vous aurez fini, et que When you have finished, and (when 

vous aurez le temps, you) have time. 

Venez que ( = afin que, pour que) Come that I may see you. 
je vous voie. 

Si vous venez demain, et que If you come to-morrow, and (if 

vous ayez le temps. you) have time. 

3. Que may not be omitted before a finite verb, as that 

often is in English: 

Je crois qu'il viendra et qu'il I think (that) he will come and 
restera. (that he will) stay. 

459. Distinctions. The following conjunctions are espe- 
cially liable to be confounded in use: 

1. Quand, Lorsque. They are equivalents in the sense of 
when, but quand (not lorsque) serves also as an interrogative 
adverb in direct or indirect questions: 




Quand est-il arrive? 
Dis-moi quand il est arrive. 
Quand {or lorsque) je I'ai vu. 
Nous partirons lorsque {or quand) 
la lettre arrivera. 

When did he come? 
Tell me when he came. 
When I saw him. 

We shall leave when the letter 

2. Pendant que, Tandis que. Pendant que = while, whilst, 
during the time that; tandis que = while, whilst, during the time 
that, and also, whilst, on the contrary, whereas: 

Lisez le journal pendant que 

j'ecris ce billet. 
Pendant (Tandis) que vous Ites 

Le pere travaille, tandis que le fils 

ne fait rien. 

Read the newspaper while I write 

this note. 
Whilst you are here. 

The father works, while the son 
does nothing. 

3. Depuis que, Puisque. Depuis que denotes time; puisque 

denotes cause assigned: 

Je suis bien seul depuis que men 

frere est parti. 
D me faut rester, puisqu'il n'y a 

pas de train ce soir. 

I am very lonely since my brother 

went away. 
I must remain, since there is no 

train this evening. 


460. Interjections. The commoner interjections and ex- 
pressions used as such are: 

1. Joy, admiration, approval: 

ah! ahl 

ha, ha! or hi, hi! {to denote 

bon! good! 
bien! good! 
h merveille! capital! 

k la bonne heure! weU done! that's 

right ! 
bis! encore! 
bravo! or bravissimo! wdl done! 

hourra! or vivat! hurrah! 

2. Disgust, disapproval, indifference: 


fi done! /or shame! 


foin de! a plague upon! 
pouah! disgusting! faugh! 
oh! oh! 




bah! or ah! bah! nonsense! pooh- 
baste! enough! pooh! nonsense! 

3. Grief, fear, pain: 
oh! oh! 
h^Ias! alas! 
aie! oh! oh dear! 

4. Surprise: 
ehl ah! 
comment! what! 

5. Encouragement, reproof: 
allons! come! 
courage! cheer up! 
voyons! come now! 
Q^! or or 9^! or sus! or or sus! 

now then! 

6. Warning: 
gare! look out! take care! 

7. Calling: 
h6! or oh6! or holA! ho! hoy! 

hem! ahem! 

8. Calling for aid: 
k moi! or au secours! help! 
k I'assassin or au meurtre! murder! au feu ! fire! 

9. Silencing, stopping: 

chut! or St! /lus/i/ tout doux or tout beau! gently! 

silence ! silence ! not so fast ! 

motus! Cmotyis] not a word! halte-lS,! stop there! 

Note. — Akin to interjections are imitations of sounds: Cric crac ! break' 
ing: drelin, drelin ! or drelin, din, din ! ringing; pan pan ! bang; pif paf I 
gunshots; bourn I cannonading; rataplan ! drum; dare dare ! quick move' 
ment; cahin-caha, jogging along; clopin-clopant, hobbling; tic tac, ticking, etc. 

par exemple! dear me! 
zest! pshaw! 
zut! pshaw! 

mis^ricorde! mercy! 
ouf ! (to express suffocation, or rdief 
and exhaustion) 

quoi! what! 

vraiment! indeed! 

tiens! indeed! hallo! 

par exemple! you don't say aot 

mis^ricorde! mercy! 

en avant ! forward ! 
ferme! steady! 
prcste! quick! 

attention! look out! take caret 

8t! hi there! 

qui vive! who goes there! 

au voleur! stop thief t 





461. French Abbreviations. The following are the com- 
moner abbreviations used in French: 

c.-i.-d. = c'est-^-dire, that is 

C* or C® = compagnie, company 

etc. = et caetera 

fr. or i. = francs, francs 

h. = henre, hour 

in-f° = in-f olio, /oZio 

J.-C. = J^aus-Christ, Jesus Christ 

M. = Monsieur, Mr. 

MM. = Messieurs, Messrs. 

M. R. or M. R . . . = Monsieur R. 

or Monsieur R * * *, Mr. R. 

or Mr. R — . 
M*^ = marchand, merchant 
M* (pi. M*^) = maltre, is -used 

wUh ruimes of lavryers instead of 

Mgr (pi. NNSS.) = monseigneur, 

my lord 
M"« (pi. M"«8) = Mademoiselle, 


M'^e (pi. M"^«s) = Madame, Mrs. 

M" = maison, house, firm 

ms. (pi. mss.) = manuscrit, manu- 

N.-D. = Notre-Dame, Our Lady 

N.-S. = Notre-Seigneur, Our Lord 

n° = num^ro, number 

R.S.V.P. = R^pondez s'il voua 
platt, an answer is requested 

S. A. R. = Son Altesse Royale, His 
Royal Highness 

s.-ent. = sous-entendu, understood 

S. Exc. = Son Excellence, His Ex- 

S. M. (pi. LL. MM.) = Sa Majesty, 
His (Her) Majesty 

S. S. = Sa Saintet^, His Holiness 

s. V. p. = s'il vous plait, if you 

V® = veuve, undow 

P' (in titles) = premier, the First 
II (in titles) = deux, the Second 
Le XV® siScle, etc. = le quin- 
zi6me siecle, the 15th century 

1^^ (fern. 1**) = premier, first 

2® = deuxieme, second 

1° = primo, firstly 

7bre _ septembre, September Etc. 

EXERCISES i-ii a 209 


[The references at the head of the exercises are to the sections in the 
Grammar on which they are based.3 

I a (§§ 156-161) 
Complete the following: appelle-les, je I'envoie, je I'amdne. 
1. What are you eating? 2. We are eating apples. 3. It 
was necessary that they should eat. 4. Who is caUing? 
5. We are caUing. 6. The general leads his army. 7. We 
shall lead the horses. 8. Who is throwing stones? 9. It 
will freeze. 10. He is buying a coat. 11. We never yield. 

12. They will never yield. 13. The sen-ant is peeling apples. 
14. When will he pay? 15. They never pay. 16. The serv- 
ant is cleaning the kitchen. 17. We shall clean our gun. 
18. The little girl wipes the dishes. 19. The farmer sows the 
seed. 20. It is freezing. 21. We are going to school. 22. We 
went home. 23. They used to go to market on Saturdays. 
24. He will send it. 

I b 

1. The servant is bringing the horses. 2. I send him there. 
3. I shall go to school. 4. Let them go to the city. 5. It 
was necessary that you should go there. 6. They will buy a 
box. 7. Let us bring the children. 8. Bring the children. 
9. Let him not throw stones. 10. We have led the horses to 
the stable. 11. Let us trace a Une. 12. We are advancing. 

13. They were eating. 14. We ate. 15. They will eat. 
16. Let us advance. 17. Let us never yield. 18. Let us 
call the children. 19. Let us not go there. 20. The queen 
has been reigning a long time. 21. The children were throw- 
ing stones. 22. He led the horse to the stable. 23. He paid 
the money. 24. The servant wiped the dishes. 25. The 
child traced a line. 

n a (§§ 162-166) 
Complete the following: je lea accueille, je pars, je courrai. 
1. He is running. 2. Shall we run? 3. Run fast, my little 
Doy. 4. He is acquiring a fortune. 5. It was necessary that 

210 EXERCISES II b-iii a 

we should run. 6, They will conquer that city. 7. The 
general has acquired glory. 8. He gives him consecrated 
bread. 9. They acquire knowledge. 10. We shall acquire 
property. 11. There is holy water. 12. Let us not run. 
13. Let them acquire it. 14. We are gathering apples. 

15. It was necessary that they should gather flowers. 16. He 
welcomed me. 17. We shall gather them. 18. Let us not 
start with (de) fear. 19. He will assail his enemy. 20, He 
is sleeping. 21. Let us not sleep. 22. He must sleep. 
23. We shall soon sleep. 24. They fall asleep. 

n b 

1. He is leaving for France. 2. He left yesterday. 3. If 
he were asleep, I should call him. 4. He will go out. 5. Let 
him not go out. 6. The water boils.. 7. The water was 
boiling. 8. When he speaks, he lies. 9. He makes use of it. 
10. He will feel it. 11. If he were here, we should not sleep. 
12. The water will soon boil. 13. He has run. 14. It was 
necessary that we should sleep. 15. I have not slept. 16. He 
never lies. 17. The horses would run if they were not tired. 
18. They ran, 19. We acquired it. 20. The horses run over 
the field. 21. He does not consent to it. 22. He will never 
.consent to it. 23. Let him not make use of it. 24. We were 
running. 25. We fell asleep. 

Ill a (§§ 167-179) 
Give principal parts of: fuir, mourir, tenir. 

1. He failed on (en) that occasion. 2. It is a prosperous 
country. 3. He flees. 4. Let us not flee. 5. They fled. 
6. He will not flee. 7. Here lies a hero. 8. Here lie the 
remains of the great Napoleon. 9. I hate evil. 10. Men 
hate their enemies. 11. Let us not hate our enemies. 12. He 
hates his father. 13, Let him not hate his father, 14, Was 
it necessary that he should hate his father? 15, She dies. 

16. They will die, 17. Let us not die. 18. It was necessary 
that he should die. 19. He died. 20. She will die, 21, Let 
him not die, 22. If they died, we should be sorry for it. 
23. That tree is dying away. 24. Open the door. 

EXERCISES III b-iv b 211 

m b 

1. We have opened the box. 2. He offers me his book. 
3. She used to suffer a great deal. 4. If we had any, we should 
offer you some. 5. Columbus discovered America. 6. We 
held it. 7. Let him not hold it. 8. I hold it. 9. Let us 
hold it. 10. We are coming. 11. We shall come. 12. We 
should come if you would come. 13. If I should come, I 
should find it. 14. They are coming back. 15. It is neces- 
sary that he come. 16. It was necessary that he should come. 
17. Hold it. 18. He has held it. 19. The purse contains 
money. 20. If he comes, we shall be glad (of it). 21. They 
will come back. 22. He is ill clad. 23. He clothes himself 
well. 24. He will clothe his child. 25. It is necessary that 
he clothe his child. 

IV a (§§ 180-188) 

Give principal parts of: reproduire, m6connaitre. 

1. We beat the horse. 2. He fells the tree. 3. It is 
necessary that he fight the enemy. 4. We drink water. 
5. They drink milk. 6. They were drinking wine. 7. We 
shall drink water. 8. Let him drink milk. 9. He has drunk 
the wine. 10. It was necessary that we should drink wine. 
11. We shall not drink wine. 12. He incloses his garden. 
13. He will close the bargain. 14. Those flowers will soon 
open. 15. He is concluding his argument. 16. Let us con- 
clude the bargain. 17. The bread is baking well. 18. If he 
were there, he would conclude the affair. 19. He drives the 
cows to the field. 20. They destroyed their books. 21. They 
will construct houses. 22. Let us translate this phrase. 

23. It was necessary that we should translate that book. 

24. He led his horse to the stable. 

IV b 

1. We were translating our exercise. 2. We constructed a 
house. 3. Let him translate his lesson. 4. I have translated 
a book. 5. I translated a book. 6. She was preserving 
plums. 7. We are preserving cherries. 8. That suf&ces. 

212 EXERCISES V a-v b 

9. That will be sufficient. 10, Let that suffice. 11. Five 
francs a day are sufficient for him. 12. I know that gentle- 
man. 13. It is necessary that we should know him. 14. Let 
him appear. 15. The cows eat the grass. 16. It was neces- 
sary that we should know him. 17. It was necessary that he 
should appear. 18. He will not disappear. 19. We used to 
know him. 20. When he appears, we shall conclude the affair. 
21. Let him recognize them. 22. You know him, do you not? 
23. You will know him. 24. He reappeared 

V a (§§ 189-193) 
Complete the following: je I'ai cousu, n'y crois pas. 
1. The little girl is sewing. 2. We were sewing. 3. They 
will sew. 4. She sewed. 5. They had sewed. 6. Let us 
sew. 7. Let her not sew. 8. Let us not fear. 9. They fear. 

10. Let him not be afraid. 11. We shall not fear. 12. Men 
fear death. 13. They pity us. 14. He was painting a pic- 
ture. 15. Put out the fire. 16. Let him put out the lamp. 
17. It was necessary that we should rejoin our friends. 18. I 
feared the rain. 19. I believe you. 20. We shall not be- 
lieve it. 21. Let us believe it. 22. I used to believe it. 
23. It is necessary that he should believe it. 24. He did not 
beUeve it. 

V b 

1. It was necessary that he should believe it. 2. We did 
not believe it. 3. Do not believe it. 4. The flowers are 
growing. 5. The tree grows. 6. That tree will grow fast. 
7. We grew. 8. It was necessary that we should grow. 
9. The trees were growing fast. 10. Let it grow. 11. He 
has believed. 12. The tree has grown. 13. Do not say so 
(Je). 14. We say so. 15. We should not say so if we did 
not believe it. 16. Is it necessary that he should say so? 
17. They used to say so. 18. Let him not say so. 19. Was 
it necessary that we should say so ? 20, Do not say so again. 
21. Do not slander, 22, They do not say so, 23. Cain was 
cursed by (de) God, 24, We do not curse our enemies. 25. If 
I should say so, would you believe me ? 

EXERCISES vi-vn a 213 

VI a (§§ 194-200) 
Complete the foUouxing: je ne radmeta pas, je le d6cris. 
1. I was writing when he came. 2. Let us write our exer- 
cise. 3. We wrote a letter. 4. Write your lesson. 5. Let 
him write. 6. We shall write our letter. 7. It was neces- 
sary that you should write. 8. He has described his travels. 
9. They are writing. 10. Would you write if I should write? 
11. Do what I say. 12. He did not do it. 13. He has not 
done his work. 14. Let us do our work. 15. Let him do 
what I said. 16. It was necessary that you should do so. 
17. I shall do so when you come. 18. If you do that, we shall 
do this. 19. If you should say so, we should do it. 20. I was 
doing my work when he came. 21. It is necessary that we 
do that. 22. If I do this, will you do that? 23. I was 
reading when he came. 24. He will never read that book. 

VI b 

1. Read that letter. 2. They are reading their book. 
3. Did you not read the newspaper? 4. If I should read 
this book, would you read that one? 5. Is he reading the 
newspaper? 6. Let him not read that book. 7. Did they 
not read this book ? 8. I placed the book on the table. 9. Do 
not commit that crime. 10. It is necessary that he put on 
his coat. 11. We shall put on our clothes. 12. They have 
placed their books on the table, 13. We shall not permit it. 
14. Does he permit it? 15. It was necessary that he should 
not permit it. 16. What would you say if we should permit 
it? 17. The miller grinds the wheat. 18. We are grinding 
wheat. 19. We ground the wheat. 20. Let him grind the 
wheat. 21. The prophet said that a child would be born. 
22. We are born weak. 23. We were born [on] the same 
day. 24. Let a young nation arise! 25. Was it necessary 
that hatred should arise between them? 

Vn a (§§201-211) 
Complete the following: je I'apprends, je le suivais. 
1. That does not please him {lui). 2. You please me. 
3. Come when it pleases you. 4. Do so if you please. 5. May 

214 EXERCISES VIII -b-ix a 

it please you. 6. Take your places. 7. He takes his hat 
'from (sur) the table. 8. If I should take it, what would you 
do? 9. Let him take his book. 10. It is necessary that I 
should please him. 11. We took our places. 12. Have you 
learnt your lesson ? 13. He will not undertake that. 14. Fire 
resolves wood into (en) smoke. 15. We have resolved to (de) 
do it. 16. He solved the difficulty. 17. He will solve the 
difficulty. 18. Let us not laugh at (de) him. 19. Why is 
he laughing? 20. If I should laugh, what would you say? 
21. Was it necessary that he should laugh? 22. We laugh 
at them. 23. Follow me. 24. The dog follows his master. 

vn b 

1. Let him follow us. 2. It is necessary that we should 
follow you. 3. We followed him. 4. If I should follow 
him, it would please him. 5. We shall never follow him. 
6. Is he not milking the cow ? 7. When we were in the coun- 
try, we used to milk the cows. 8. Let him milk the cow. 
9. That distracts him from his work. 10. The general con- 
quers his enemies. 11. We conquer our passions. 12. If 
you were to conquer your passions, you would be happy. 
13. Our army will conquer. 14. We have conquered our 
enemies. 15. Let him conquer his passions. 16. He is not 
selUng his house. 17. He will never sell it. 18. Horses live 
on (de) hay. 19. He fives only for himself. 20. Let us five 
in (en) peace. 21. He will live yet [a] long time. 22. Louis 
XIV lived in the 17th century. 23. Long five the King I 
24. Hurrah for fiberty! 

Vra a (§§ 212-222) 
Give principal parts of: recevoir, mouvoir, pouvoir. 
1. We receive our friends. 2. He has received the letter. 
3. Let us not receive the money. 4. If they should receive 
us, we should be glad. 5. We owe him (lui) money. 6. We 
shall owe him something. 7. If they receive it, we shall tell 
(it to) you. 8. Let him not receive it. 9. We received the 
money. 10. Sit down. 11. He sits down. 12. They will 

EXERCISES VIII b-ix a 215 

sit down. 13. Let us sit down, 14. It was necessary that 
we should sit down. 15. If we should sit down, would you 
tell (raconter) us a story? 16. Let them not sit down. 

17. That does not become him (lui). 18. That will not be- 
come us. 19. We sit down. 20. The payment falls due. 

21. It will be necessary to do it. 22. It is necessary to be there. 

23. Passion moves men. 24. Steam and water drive (mouvoir) 

vin b 

1. His story moved (emouvoir) the audience. 2. Such a 
story must move men. 3. We shall go out if it does not rain. 

4. It was raining when we came. 5. It will rain. 6. I did 
not think it would rain. 7. It has rained. 8. I shall come 
if I can. 9. I shall come when I can. 10. They cannot go 
away. 11. I should do so if I could. 12. I wish that he 
may not be able to do so. 13. I could do that if I were rich. 

14. You may do so if you desire. 15. Could (condl.) you not 
give me some? 16. We know our lesson. 17. Do you know 
how to do that? 18. That child cannot write; he is too 
young. 19. I cannot write; I have a sore finger. 20. Do 
you know that gentleman? 21. I used to know how to swim. 

22. Your father must not know that. 23. We knew it. 

24. We shall know it to-morrow. 

IX a (§§ 223-225) 

1. That horse is worth one hundred dollars, 2. Virtue is 
worth more (mieux) than riches. 3. Those houses are worth 
more (plus) than these, 4. That was worth more last year. 

5. That will be worth more next year. 6. If that were worth 
more, I should take it. 7. He has nothing (which is) of value 
(subj.). 8. We shall not see him again. 9. Do you see 
him? 10. I saw him. 11. We saw him. 12. If we should 
see him, we should tell (it to) him. 13. When we see him, 
we shall speak to him about it. 14. We must see our parents. 

15. It was necessary that we should see our children. 16. I 
have seen him. 17. If we wished to do it, we could do it. 

18. You may come when you wish. 19. He will be willing to do 


that when he can. 20. Be so good as to sit down. 21. If 
you will sell your house, I shall buy it. 22. Will you be so 
kind as to give me some? 23. We do not wish to do that. 
24. Should you like to see him? 25. I should like to see him 
if I could. 26. I could do this if I wished. 27. If it rains, 
we cannot go out. 28. If they were willing, they could do it. 
29. If they are not willing to tell (it to) you, you will not 
know how to do it. 

X a (§§ 227-229) 

Qu'est devenu son frere ? What has become of his brother ? 

Je sais ce qu'il est devenu. I know what has become of him. 

Elle est nee. She was born. 

Elle est morte. She died. 

Elle est montee. She has gone up {or up stairs). 

1. Your mother has come, has she not? 2. No, madam, 
she has not yet come; she will come to-morrow. 3. Our 
friends have gone to church; let us go (there) too. 4. The old 
gentleman who lived in that house died last night. 5. (The) 
Queen Victoria was born (past def.) on the twenty-fourth of 
May. 6. My little sister was born (past indef .) [on] the tenth of 
March. 7. How old is your father? 8. He is seventy; he was 
born before the death of Napoleon. 9. What has become of your 
brother? 10. He has gone to (partir pour) France. 11. When 
did he go? 12. He went yesterday morning. 13. Is your 
father out? 14. No, sir, he is in. 15. When did your father 
return? 16. He has not yet returned; he will return next 
week. 17. The servant has brought down the trunk. 
18. Where is your sister? 19. She has gone down for (art.) 
breakfast. 20. Where are the children? 21. They have 
gone up stairs. 22, Why did they not come down when I 
was there? 23. What is the matter, my child? 24. It was 
slippery, and I fell. 25. My father has gone into the house. 
26. Although he was born rich, he is now poor. 27. He died 
poor, although he was once rich. 28. I have not seen him 
to-day; what has become of him? 29. I don't know what 
has become of him. 30. Have you taken up the gentleman's 
trunks ? 31. Not yet, but I shall take them up immediately. 

EXERCISES XI a-xii a 217 

32, At what time did your sister go out this morning? 

33. She went out at half-past nine. 34. Where is my sister ? 
35. She has gone up stairs; she has gone to get her books. 

XI a (§ 230) 

Si vous vouliez bien me le dire. If you would kindly tell me. 
Faites-Ies entrer. Show them in. 

1. We do not wish to leave this country; we should hke to 
remain here, but if we cannot, we shall go away. 2. You 
ought to go home, (my) children; it is late. 3. We cannot go 
home; it is dark, and our father told us to (de) wait for him. 
4. We cannot go away before six o'clock; we are to wait here 
till our friends come. 5. We could have written the letter if 
we had known that you desired it. 6. That beggar could 
have had work if he had wanted it, but he was too lazy; he 
would not work, and now he must beg. 7. Those children 
cannot read yet; they are too youn^;. 8. If they had been 
able to read, they would not have believed all that was said to 
them. 9. You ought to let them go away, for their father 
told them that they were to leave before (the) night. 10. You 
might have seen them if you had been willing to come with 
me. 11. Our teacher told us that we were to write this exer- 
cise. 12. We are to have a house built next year. 13. Their 
teacher made them write their exercise. 14. We should have 
a house built if we were rich enough. 15. We said to the 
innkeeper, "Will you be so kind as to have our horses saddled ? 
We are going to start." 16. Opium makes [us] sleep. 17. It 
is very warm; if this great heat continues, it will kill the crops. 

Xn a (§ 230 carUinued) 
1. Those children make a great deal of noise; they talk too 
much; make them be silent. 2. That (little) girl could write 
if she wished (it). 3. If you would kindly tell me where the 
doctor lives, I should send for him. 4. Do you know Daudet's 
La BeUe-Nivemaise ? 5. Oh, yes, it is a charming book; I 
liked it so much that I had my pupils read it. 6. That is a 
beautiful picture. 7. Yes, I have just been showing it to your 


mother and sister. 8. When did you see my father? 9. I 
had just been speaking with him when you came. 10. What 
are you going to do to-morrow? 11. To-morrow we are going 
to see the Invalides and the Arc de Triomphe, and the day after 
to-morrow we are to see Notre-Dame and the Louvre (m.). 
12. We ought to have visited the Louvre when you were with 
us; you could have shown us the fine pictures. 13. May I 
go with you when you visit (fut.) the Louvre next time? I 
should like to have explained to me some of the beauties of 
the finest pictures. 14. That gentleman must have been in 
Paris, for he speaks French like a Parisian. 15. Why did you 
not make those ladies sit down (§ 245, 2) when they were here ? 

16. They said they would not stay, because you were out. 

17. There are ladies at the door. 18. Very well, show them 
in. 19. Your son ought to write his exercises. 20. Very well, 
make him write them. 21. If I had made him study his 
lessons when he was at school, he would have become a better 

XIII a (§§ 231-234) 

L'un et I'autre viendront. Both will come. 

1. The French people are brave and gay; they (il) have 
their (ses) defects, but also their good qualities. 2. Few 
people believe that the earth is not round. 3. Most people 
believe that the earth will be destroyed. 4. The greater part 
of his friends abandoned him. 5. Many think that our friends 
will not succeed. 6. A great number of men were killed. 

7. The Swi^s people are brave, they (t7) will always be free. 

8. More than one house was burnt. 9. Is it your friends who 
live in the house on the hill? 10. Yes, it is they; they have 
lived (§ 257, 2) there for two years. 11. You and he were 
there, were you not ? 12. Yes, he and I were there, and your 
brother too. 13. Will you and your brother come and see us 
when you are in London? 14. We shall be very happy to 
(de) visit you. 15. Do you see those two children? Both 
were born [on] the same day. 16. You or I (add: nous) shall 
speak. 17. There happen many misfortunes here below. 

18. There arose a great quarrel between them, 19. Who went. 


for the doctor? 20. It was (pres.) I who went for him. 
21. Do you see those two gentlemen? Both have had 
houses built this year. 22. ReUgion, truth, honor, all was 
abandoned. 23. Many think that you will never be able to 
build your house. 24. If there happened such misfortunes 
to me, I should leave the country. 25. Were it only a few 
lines, I should like you to write to me. 26. If you and I were 
young, fine things would be done (reflex, impers.). 27. Who 
can have done that, if not our friends? 28. Neither he nor 
his brother can go away; both must stay. 

XIV a (§§ 235-238) 

Je youdrais qu'fl ffit (soit) id. I wish he were here. 

1. Is that book yours (d vous) or your brother's? 2. How 
much did these books cost ? 3. I do not know how much they 
cost. 4. Does that merchant provide you cheap with what you 
need? 5. What is the matter with that boy this morning? 
6. I do not know what is the matter with him. 7. Do I say, 
or can I say, the half of what he has done? 8. Whatever 
(§ 407, 1, a) men may do, they cannot escape (d) death. 

9. What books did your father buy when he was in the city? 

10. Your father told me what your brother had done. 1 1 . Your 
brother told me what he had done. 12. Will you tell me where 
those men were when you saw them? 13. I cannot tell you 
where they were. 14. We have more books than that gentle- 
man has. 15. We have more books than you have. 16. Vir- 
tue is a beautiful thing, hence we love it. 17. My father is 
here; perhaps he will come to see you. 18. However good 
men may be, they are sometimes poor. 19. Such are my 
reasons for doing so. 20. You have told me that my friend 
has gone; I did not know (impf.) it, but perhaps you are right. 

21. I wish you were here, were it only to encourage us. 

22. That man does not respect himself, hence he cannot be good. 

23. " Come and see us," said he, " as soon as you can " (fut.). 

24. "If I do this," thought he, "I shall be punished; hence I shall 
not do it." 25. I do not know where that man died. 26. To 
whom did your friend give his gold watch? 27. I do not 

220 EXERCISES XV a-xvi a 

know; perhaps he gave it to his brother. 28. I cannot do 
(de) such things; am I not [an] EngUshman? 29. Do I not 
tell you that 1 shall be there, and that I shall see you ? 

XV a (§§ 239-241) 
On lui obeit. 

„ ,,. , He is obeyed. 

n est obei. J 

On me I'a pardonnS. I have been pardoned (for) it. 

1. America was discovered by Christopher Columbus. 
2. The first steamboat was built by Fulton. 3. We have 
been deceived by that scoundrel. 4. We have been deceived. 
5. That gentleman has been mistaken in that affair. 6. Where 
is that said ? 7. Oh, that is said everywhere, 8. Who com- 
mitted that crime? 9. It was our neighbor's brother. 
10. Will he not be punished? 11. No, he has been pardoned 
for it. 12. I have often seen it done. 13. I have been told 
that you had it done. 14. Is that not done everywhere? 

15. Oh, no, that is never done amongst respectable people. 

16. How unfortunate he is! He is a good fellow, but he is 
deceived and suspected everywhere. 17, How Uttle it is! 
It can hardly be seen. 18. That man is not a good teacher; 
he is not obeyed by his pupils. 19. There is a house to be 
sold. 20. There is an exercise to be done. 21. That beggar 
was given bread and milk. 22. We were made to read our 
lesson. 23. That is a man to be feared. 24. They were 
told that you were not here. 25. Why were we not told that 
our friends had gone away? 

XVI a (§§ 242-247) 

*EIle s'est rappele ce que j'ai dit 1 g^^ ,,^,^bered what I said. 

*Elle s'est souvenue de ce que ]'ai dit. J 

JemelerappeUe.| I remember it. 

Je m'en souviens. J 

Je me le rappelle, \ j remember him. 

Je me souviens de lui, J 

lis se souviennent de moi. They remember me. 

Je m'en sers, I use it (I make use of it). 

* In se rappeler, se is indirect, in se souvenir, se is direct. 


Je me passe de vin. I do without wine. 

II s'en passe. He does without it. 

Elle s'est fait mal k la main. She (has) hurt her hand. 

Elle s'est casse le bras. She has broken her arm. 

Elle s'est tue. She became silent. 

^1. They have not yet gone away; they will remain here till 
to-morrow. 2. When you are (fut.) in front of Mr. Jackson's 
(house), be good enough to stop. 3. How have you been this 
long time? 4. I am always well. 5. How has your mother 
been since she has been Uving in Boston ? 6. " How unfortunate 
I am!" she exclaimed, " my friends remember me no longer." 
7. When the door opens, we can go in. 8. Where is my 
book? I cannot do without it. 9. Why do you not make 
use of that pen? 10. It is not a good pen; I cannot use it. 
11. There are some ladies in the parlor; very well, have 
them sit down, and ask them to wait a Uttle. 12. Why are 
you crying, my little girl ? 13. I have fallen and hurt myself. 
14. Did you hurt yourself? 15. I hurt my hand. 16. Why 
did those ladies not sit down? 17. They would not sit down, 
because they could not stay. 18. If you wish to use ink 
and paper, I shall give you some. 

XVI b 

*d. It was very slippery this morning, and my mother, in 
going down the street, fell and broke her arm. 2. If you can- 
not do without this book, I shall lend it to you. 3. I can do 
without it now, but I shall need it next week. 4. Do you 
remember what was told you last evening? 5. No, I do not 
remember (it). 6. Did that little girl hurt herself badly when 
she fell? 7. Yes, she hurt herself very badly; she broke her 
arm. 8. Have those young ladies written letters to each 
other? 9. They have written many; they have been writing 
to each other for two years. 10. I am not well this morning; 
I hurt my head. 11. Are you using your pen now ? 12. No, 
I am not using it; you may have it if you need it. 13. Do you 
remember the gentleman who lived in that large house on the 
hill? 14. Yes, I remember him very well. 15. One cannot 



do without money; it is useful everywhere. 16. 1 remem- 
bered what he had said, as soon as I saw him, 17. Be silent, 
(my) children, you are speaking too loud. 18. As soon as I 
came, he became silent. 

Comment vous appelez-vous ? 
Je m'appelle Jean. 

XVn a (§§ 242-247 continued) 

What are you called ? 

What is your name ? 
I am called John (my name ia 

To take a walk (a ride). 
To take a drive. 

Se promener k pied {k cheval). 
Se promener en voiture (automo- 

Se promener en bateau (canot). 
Elle s'est couchee a dix heures. 
Elle s'est levee a six heures. 

Elle ne s'y est pas attendue. 
Le pretre les a maries. 
Elle a epouse mon cousin. 
Elle s'est mariee k (or avec) mon 

Elle s'est mariee hier. 
n est alle se promener en bateau. 
Aliens nous promener. 
Elle s'est endormie. 
Se coimait-il en tableaux? 
U s'y connait assez bien. 
Vous ennuyez-vous ici? 

1. What is that little boy's name? 2 
3. What are you going to do to-day? 

To take a row or sail. 

She went to bed at ten. 

She rose at six. 

Wait for me. 

She did not expect it. 

The priest (has) married them. 

She (has) married my cousin. 

She was married yesterday. 

He has gone for a row {or sail). 

Let us go for a walk. 

She fell asleep. 

Is he a good judge of pictures ? 

He is a pretty good judge of them. 

Are you tired of being here ? 

His name is Henry. 
4. We are going to 

go for a drive. 5. We are not going for a drive; we prefer 
to go for a walk. 6. Let us go to bed now, and then we shall 
get up early. 7. Is your brother out? 8. Yes, he has gone 
for a drive. 9. While we were out for a drive, we met your 
brother on horseback. 10. While they were out for a ride, 
they met us on foot. 11. Let us go for a walk in that beauti- 
ful forest. 12. Has he gone for a ride or a walk? 13. He 
has gone for a sail. 14. The children went to bed at eight 
o'clock, and they will get up at six. 15. We shall wait for 

EXERCISES XVII b-xviii a 223 

him here; he has gone for a walk. 16, That does not sur- 
prise me; I was expecting it. 17. I was not expecting to see 
him there. 

xvn b 

1. M. Jonnart has married his eldest daughter to a very 
rich man. 2. Who married them? 3. It was the priest who 
lived in the httle village. 4. My cousin was married yesterday. 
5. To whom was she married? 6. She was married to the 
gentleman who Uved here last year. 7, When are you going 
to get married? 8. I shall never get married. 9. What is 
the name of the gentleman who married your cousin? 10. If 
the children had not gone early to bed last night, they would 
not be able to rise early this morning. 11. That surprises my 
mother; she was not expecting it. 12. We went to bed, and 
(we) fell asleep immediately. 13. Are you not a pretty good 
judge of books ? 14. Yes, I am a pretty good judge of them. 
15. Is your mother not tired of being here? 16. I think so; 
I shall ask her to go for a walk with us. 17. Do you ever get 
tired (of being) in the country ? 18. No, I never tire of being 
there; I love the fields and trees. 

XVm a (§§ 248-253) 
It is dark. 

D fait obscur. 1 

n fait noir. / 

H fait nuit. It is night. 

D se fait tard. It is getting late. 

D fait jour. It is day (daylight). 

D fait du soleil. The sun is shining. 

D fait du brouillard. It is foggy. 

II fait bon. 

On est bien 

D tombe de la neige. It is snowing 

It is comfortable (pleasant) 

H fait doux. It is mild. 

1. If the weather is fine, we shall go for a row this after- 
noon. 2. It was raining this morning, but now the sun is 
shining. 3. It is not comfortable here; let us go out for a 
walk. 4. It is getting late; let us go home. 5. It was rain- 
ing last evening, then it froze, and now it is {faire or itre) 

224 EXERCISES XVIII b-xix a 

slippery. 6. It is not comfortable in those countries where it 
is very (Jaire bemicoup de) foggy. 7. It is too windy; we shall 
not go for a row. 8. It is getting late; the children will have 
to go to bed. 9. What time is it ? 10. I do not know, but it 
is already daylight. 11. Is it? Well then, we shall have to 
get up immediately. 12. It had been snowing (§ 258, 4) for 
two days, and we couldn't go for a drive. 13. It has been 
raining since yesterday morning, and it will be better to remain 
here. 14. My sister is very ill; her life is at stake (§368, o). 

xvin b 

1. We did not enjoy ourselves at all; it was raining all day. 
2. If it is very dark this evening, we shall not go to see our 
friends. 3. Yes, it will be better to stay at home; we can 
easily amuse ourselves. 4. How long have you been in this 
city? 5. I came here three years ago. 6. What sort of 
weather will it be to-morrow? 7. I do not know; I am not 
a good judge of such things. 8. It has been raining for two 
days; we are tired of being here. 9. In winter it is generally 
mild in Italy, but it is often cold in the United States. 10. Those 
two men are disputing; what is the matter? 11. It is about 
(s'agir de) the price of a horse which one sold to the other. 
12. It was very warm yesterday, but it rained in the night, 
and now it is very comfortable. 13. I think (that) it will 
rain, but it may be that I am mistaken. 14. We need another 
house; this one is too small. 15. Their number is far from 
being complete (§ 251, 5). 16. Letters have come which tell us 
that there has been a great storm in Canada. 17. How far is 
it from Paris to Marseilles? 18. People say that it is 863 

XIX a (§§ 254-267) 

C'est k peine s'il sort k present. He hardly ever goes out now. 
A peine le soleil fut-il (etait-il) Hardly was the sun up, when the 
leve, qu'on apetf ut I'ennemi. enemy was seen. 

U fait bon marcher. 

f The walking is good. 
\ It is good walking. 

•exercise XIX b 225 

1. When that man is working, he will often stop to (pour) 
speak with his companions. 2. How long have you been 
reading ? 3. I have been reading for an hour. 4. It was at 
your house that we met those gentlemen. 5. We shall be 
glad if you are there. 6. We shall be glad when you are 
there. 7. We often used to go for a walk when we lived at 
your house, but here it is not good walking, so we hardly ever 
go out now. 8. When we were young, our mother would 
often tell us fairy stories which interested us very much. 
9. We remember them yet, and we hope (that) we shall never 
forget them. 10. I had been there ten days when he came. 
11. He had been reading an hour before his sister rose. 12. He 
asked me where I came from, and where I was going. 13. I 
answered him that I came from Montreal, and (that I) was 
going to Boston. 14. He wrote me a letter saying that he 
wished to see me. 15. He said in his letter that he had been 
ill, but that he was better now. 16. When he lived with us, 
we would often go out for a walk before (art.) breakfast. 
17. The eldest of the miller's sons received (§ 260, a) the mill, 
but the youngest received only the cat. 

XIX b 

1. As soon as he learned that I was to go out for a walk, he 
wished to go also. 2. If he had seen it, he would have told 
me (it). 3. When I had finished my lessons, I would always 
go out for a walk. 4. When he had finished his dinner to-day, 
he went out. 5. Hardly had he finished his work when his 
friend came. 6. We do not know whether our friends will 
come. 7. Our father did not know whether he would come. 
8. Why is that work not done? 9. I told my brother to (de) 
do it, but he will not do it. 10. Will you buy my horse? 
11. No, I shall not buy him; I do not need him. 12. Good 
morning, gentlemen, will you walk in? 13. No thank you, 
we shall not go in. 14. As long as we live, we shall not forget 
your kindness. 15. As soon as he comes, I shall tell him. 
16. We shall do as we please. 17. You may start when you 
will. 18. He may come when he Ukes. 

226 EXERCISES XX a-xx b 

XX a (§§ 254-267 continued) 

1. We shall soon have finished our work. 2. When you 
have finished your lesson, you may go out for a walk. 3. Every- 
body should learn the ten commandments. 4. They tell us: 
Thou shalt not (point) have any other gods. 5. Thou shalt 
not take the name of thy God in vain. 6. Thou shalt not 
steal (d^rober). 7. That poor child is very weak; it can 
hardly walk; it must have been ill. 8. My brother told me 
that you were not well. 9. You must have made a mistake, 
for I am very well; I never was better in (de) my life. 10. We 
should be sorry if you should do so. 11. You should be 
virtuous if you wish to be happy. 12, I told him (that) he 
ought to obey his teacher, but he would not Usten to me. 

13. Men should love their enemies, but generally they do not. 

14. The httle boy must have broken that stick; I saw him 
there. 15. I often used to go to see him when he lived in 
our city. 16. He says (that) it will rain. 17. He said (that) 
it would rain. 18. We cannot go away; it is raining. 19. No 
matter; I do not fear the rain. 20. How did you enjoy your- 
self yesterday? 

XX b 

1. Can it be possible that my father's watch is stolen (use: 
on) ? 2. I could do that if I wished. 3. I could do that 
when I was young. 4. Could you tell me where le Boulevard 
des Italiens is? 5. I could not tell you (it); I have not been 
long in Paris. 6. Can it be true that he has done that? 
7. One would say that you are [a] Parisian, you speak French 
so well. 8. Even if that were true, I should not go. 9. Even 
if it should not rain, I shall not go for a drive. 10. According 
to the newspapers, a great quantity of money was stolen (use: 
on). 11. By what he says, his neighbors are poor. 12. When 
I was in Europe, I saw a horse as big as an elephant. 13. Non- 
sense! You are joking. 14. Come! Come! (my) children, 
you are making too much noise. 15. Let us go away. 16. Go 
away. 17. I did not think he would know it. 18. If you will 
not do it, we shall not do it. 

EXERCISES xxia-xxii a 227 

XXI a (§§ 254-267 continued) 

The two kings met (each other) on the 13th of July in a 
vast plain between Warsaw (Varsovie) and Cracow (Cracovie). 
Augustus had nearly twenty-four thousand men; Charles had 
only ten thousand. At the first volley, the Duke of Holstein, 
who commanded the Swedish cavalry, received a cannon-shot 
in the back. The king asked if he was dead ; he was told (use 
on) that he was {que oui); he made no reply; (some) tears /eZ/ 
from his eyes; he (se) hid his (le) face [for] a moment with his 
(les) hands; then he rushed into the midst of the enemy at the 
head of his guards. 

The king of Poland did all that one should expect from a 
prince who was fighting for his crown; he himself brought back 
his troops three times to the charge; but he fought with his 
Saxons only; the Poles, who formed his right wing, fled at the 
beginning of the battle. Charles won a complete victory. 
He did not stay on the field of battle, but (et) marched direct 
to Cracow, pursuing the king of Poland, who kept fleeing before 

XXn a (§§ 268-273*) 

Je tiens ft ce que vous appreniez I am (most) anxious that you shall 

le latin. learn Latin. 

Nous n'aimerions pas qu'on se We should not like to be made 

moqu&t de nous. sport of. 

n me tarda que cela soit fait. I am longing for that to be done. 

.... , - . f I wish you would do it. 

Je voudrais bien que vous le fassiez. < _ , ,j ,., * j m 

•' ^ (I should like you to do it. 

1. Our teacher said that he wished us to write our exercise. 
2. If you wish to go to the city, you may (pouvoir) go (there), 
but if you wish us to go (there), we tell you plainly that we 
cannot. 3. I wish you to do your work before (the) breakfast. 
4. Our friends wish us to stay with them this week. 5. My 
father is most anxious that I should learn Latin, but I don't 
like it. 6. Would you prefer that I should go to church this 
morning ? 7. We should not hke our friends to be made sport 

♦ The impf. Bubj. is of limited use in the language of everyday life. 


of. 8. You say that you are going to buy a house from (d) 
that man; take care lest he deceive you. 9. I am longing for 
my house to be finished. 10. I am anxious that he should 
come to see us when he visits Boston. 11. My teacher told 
me that I should write my exercise. 12. My father told me 
that he had seen you. 13. The law forbids that to be done. 
14. Thes6 children must stay in; their parents have forbidden 
them to go out. 15. I shall give orders not to admit them 
(use on). 16. I did not ask that I should be answered (use 
on) before the others. 17. I shall avoid her speaking to me 
about it. 


1. The doctor ordered that he should be given no wine. 
2. We do not ask that you should pay the money. 3. The rain 
hinders people (on) from going out to-day. 4. I wish you to 
know that he is my friend. 5. You approve of my coming 
back, do you not? 6. Yes, I did not wish you to go away. 
7. It is better for the children to go to school. 8. What shall 
I say to that man? He has insulted me. 9. That makes 
no difference, he is not worthy of being answered (use on). 
10. The doctor gave orders that my father should go out 
for a drive every day. 11. He has torn his book; he deserves 
to be punished (use on). 12. I should like you to go for a 
walk with me. 13. Weakness often hinders good intentions 
from being fulfilled. 14. I long for his return. 15. There is 
no more bread; I should like you to go and get some. 16. That 
man is most anxious that his children should go to school, 
but he is too poor to (pour) buy them books. 17. Take care 
that the dog does not bite you; he is very cross. 18. That 
young man is not very amiable; we should not like him to treat 
iSas he has treatod^his father. 

XXni a (§§ 268-273 continued) 

1. It is fitting that children should obey their parents. 

2. It is good that men should sometimes undergo misfortunes. 

3. It may be that he has returned, but I have not seen him. 

4. It is natural that we should hate our enemies. 5. It is 

EXERCISES XXIII b-xxiv a 229 

getting late; it is time that we should go home. 6. He had 
to learn French, for he Uved in France. 7. We are very glad 
that you have come. 8. We are very sorry that you did not 
come. 9. I am surprised that he said so, because he told me 
that he would not say so. 10. It is a pity that we cannot 
always be happy. 11. It is a shame for those young men to 
be so ignorant. 12. It is sad that a man like him should be 
80 poor. 13. I fear he^ will commit some crime. 14. I am 
glad you are so well. 15. I am afraid my father is not well 
enough to (pour) go with us. 16. I wonder he did not come 
last night. 17. 1 know why he did not come; he was afraid 
it would rain. 

xxm b 

1. He was not afraid it would rain; he was afraid a certain 
person would be there whom he did not wish to see. 2. I do 
not fear he will not go. 3. Are you not afraid he will be able 
to prevent your intentions from being fulfilled? 4. I doubt 
whether he will be able to come. 5. I do not deny that I am 
glad of your ill-fortune. 6. Do you doubt that he is an honest 
man? 7. Not at all; I know that he is an honest man; I 
have known him for twenty years. 8. I do not doubt that 
you will be able to fulfill all your intentions. 9. It seems he 
has not received C^ny] of my letters. 10. It cannot be that 
you are ignorant of his intentions. 11. How is your father? 
12. He is very well;" he is rarely ill. 13. It seems to me it 
will be dangerous if we do not follow his advice. 14. That 
child is afraid you will hurt him. 15. I am glad j^ou did not 
hurt yourself when you fell. 16. We regret very much that we 
did not see you when you were in Paris. 17. Are you not 
afraid that you will tire of being in the country? 18. I am 
not afraid that I shall tire of being in the country. 

XXIV a (§§ 268-273 continued) 

1. Our neighbor is an honest man; I hope he will succeed. 

2. I do not think he will succeed; he has not much ability. 

3. We thought he would come to-day. 4. You told me that 

230 EXERCISES XXIV b-xxv a 

you did not think he would go away, did you not? 5. Do 
you think we must believe what he says? 6. It is probable 
that we shall go away to-morrow. 7. It is not certain that 
our friends will come to-morrow. 8. Is it probable that you 
will go away to-day? 9. We are sure that we saw them 
yesterday. 10. Are you not sure that you saw them yester- 
day? 11. Do you think your father will go to France this 
summer? 12. It is probable he will go there. 13. It is 
certain that all men will die. 14. Is it certain that our friends 
will be there this evening? 15. Is it not certain that your 
neighbor will buy your house? 16. Does he imagine we 
shall do that merely to (pour) please him? 17. We are not 
sure that will please him. 


1. Do you think you will go for a walk this evening ? 2. Yes, 
I think I shall go out with my brother. 3. Give me the book 
which contains that beautiful story of which you were speak- 
ing. 4. Give me a book which contains some beautiful stories. 
5. I should like to buy a house which would suit me better 
than this one. 6. I am looking for a grammar in which I 
can find better exercises. 7. I have a grammar which has 
better exercises. 8. Send me some clothes which I can wear 
in the house. 9. Has he a single friend who is true to him? 
10. He has not a single friend who is true to him. 11. There 
is nobody here who can speak French. 12. I have nothing 
which is of value. 13. There are no houses here which are 
as large as those in the city. 14. There are few people here 
who have learned French. 15. It is the finest thing one can 
see. 16. That is the largest ship I have ever seen. 17. What- 
ever you do, you will not be able to persuade me that you are 
right. 18. Whoever you are, you will have to obey the law, 
as long as you are in this country. 

XXV a (§§ 268-273 continued) 
Que veut-il dire? What does he mean? 

Onsefieaiui. f Men trust him. 

[ He 18 trusted. 


Faites-moi savoir. Send me word Get me know). 

Je ne rejois plus de ses nouvelles. I never hear from him now. 

U est tres occupe. He ia very busy. 

D s'occupe de cela. He takes an interest in that. 

1. I have told him nothing which could influence him. 2, I 
know no book which pleases me better. 3. I want a house 
which will suit me better. 4. M. Jonnart is the richest man 
I know. 5. However good men may be, they do not escape 
(d) misfortune. 6. Let us go out for a walk before your father 
returns. 7. We rose this morning before the sun rose. 8. Will 
you not stay here until the weather is warm? 9. Oh, no; 
we must leave before it begins to be warm. 10. We are going 
to work until we go to bed. 11. You must always act so that 
men may respect you. 12. Tell the truth always, so that 
men may trust you. 13. He insulted me so that I put him 
out of doors. 14. That gentleman made a speech, but he 
spoke in such a way that one could not understand him. 15. I 
did not trust him, for fear that he might deceive me. 16. He 
passed our house before we had finished our breakfast. 17. I 
explained it to him, for fear he might not know what you meant. 

XXV b 

1. I cannot trust you, unless you explain to me what you 
mean. 2. In case you cannot come, will you be kind enough 
to send me word. 3. We shall send you our carriage, in case 
you need it. 4. In case what he says is true, we shall send you 
word. 5. Although the children have gone to bed, they have 
not yet gone to sleep. 6. Although you may not like that 
man, -you must confess that he is an honest man. 7. Although 
we used to be good friends, I never hear from him now. 8. Not 
that he has forgotten me, but he is so much occupied with his 
business. 9. Far from his sa3dng that he hates you, I assure 
you that he will say he loves you. 10, He gave her the money 
without my knowing it. 11. Even if he had told me that he 
liked me, I should not have believed it. 12. I cannot go out, 
without my dog following me. 13. If we are there and see 
him, we shall tell him what you say. 14. Although he is far 

^Z% EXERCISES xxvi a-xxvi b 

away, I hear from him occasionally. 15. Not that we take iio 
interest in your enterprise, but we are so busy with our own 
work that we can't think of anything else. 16. We are at 
the wrong door; would you be kind enough to tell us where 
we are, so that we can find where our friends live? 17. We 
shall rise early to-morrow morning, so as to be at the station 
before our friends start. 

XXVI a (§§ 268-273 continued) 

1. Would to God he were here ! 2. Let her be silent if she 
cannot explain what she wishes. 3. The Frenchmen shout 
"Hurrah for France!" 4. He doubted whether there is a 
God. 5. I should like you to write me a letter when you are 
absent. 6. If his father should say so, he would have to do 
it. 7. I was most anxious that he should succeed in his enter- 
prise. 8. We were not willing that you should go away with- 
out our seeing you. 9. His father gave orders that he should 
be taken to school. 10. The doctor forbade that the patient 
should go for a walk. 11. I was longing for that to be done. 
12. He would not permit it to be done. 13. The rain hin- 
dered us all day from going out. 14. It was necessary that 
we should go away before the others came. 15. It was better 
that we should be here without their knowing it. 16. I was 
afraid that he had said too much. 17. I doubted whether he 
would be able to pay that price. 18. I was very sorry that 
we had not been able to go for a walk together; I am sure we 
should have enjoyed ourselves. 


1. Our friends were glad that you had visited them before 
they left for France. 2. He told me he would go away unless 
he succeeded better. 3. We did not say you should write the 
letter; you may do as you wish. 4. Did you fear he would go 
away without coming to see you ? 5. My father thought you 
would come, but my mother thought you would not come. 
6. It was impossible that he should not be mistaken; he trusts 
those who are not worthy of confidence. 7. We are not sure 

iUXERcisE xxvn a 233 

they will come. 8. We waited until they came. 9. We have 
taken care that they should not see us. 10. No man has ever 
lived who could equal him in prudence. 11. He was the 
noblest man I have ever known. 12. I left Russia when I 
was a boy; I sought a country where I might be more free. 

13. Did he ever have a friend who was faithful to him? 

14. Show me a house which will suit me better than this one. 

15. I have never seen anything which suited me better. 

16. Why did your father come? 17. He came in case I 
should be ill. 18. Although he was very ill, he would not go 

xxvn a (§§ 274-275) 

Je loi ai dit son fait. I (have) told him what I thought 

of him. 
Nous nous plaisons h la ville. We like it (like to be) in the city. 

n se plait k la campagne. He likes it (likes to be) in the 


Qu'il fasse beau, ou qu'U pleuve. 1 Whether it is fine, or whether it 

3'il fait beau, ou qu'il pleuve. J rains. 

., . f Even if it were true. 

Ouand meme ce serait vrai. s „ -x . 

vu<uiu liit y Even were it true. 

n s'en plaint. He complains of it. 

1. If it does not rain, will you go for a walk to-morrow 
morning? 2. No, even if it should not rain, I must go down 
town to-morrow morning on business. 3. If it were to rain 
to-day, we should not go down town. 4. If I had known that 
you were in town, I should have gone to see you. 5. Had it 
not been so warm to-day, I should have gone away. 6. If 
the Germans had not taken Alsace, the French would not 
have hated them so much. 7. If I come here next year, I 
shall bring my brother with me. 8. If I were you, I should 
tell him what I think of him. 9. If I am present when he 
arrives, I shall tell him what I told you. 10. If it is cold in 
winter, we go to (en) Florida; if it is mild, we remain in (dans) 
the north. 11. If my father likes it in the country, he will stay 
there till (the) autumn. 12. If I should Uke it in the city, I 
shall stay there always. 13. I can never trust that boy; if 
he should tell me anything, I should not believe him. 

234 EXERCISES XXVII b-xxviii a 

14. Whether it rains or is fine, we shall come. 15. He is a 
good (brave) man, if there ever was one. 16. If that man were 
as rich as Croesus, he would not be satisfied. 17. See what 
that man has done to me! He is a scoundrel, if there ever 
was one. 


1. If I should go to sleep before you come, be good enough 
to wake me. 2. Will you not go down town with me ? 3. I 
cannot go, I am not well; if I were better, I should go willingly. 
4. If he had risen at six o'clock, he would not have missed 
the train. 5. Yes, he would (si! si!). He would have been 
late, even if he had risen at half-past five, for the train left at 
a quarter past five. 6. I have been told that your friend 
has offended you ; is it true ? 7. No, but even if it were true, 
I should pardon (it to) him. 8. Did our friend tell you last 
evening whether he was coming to-morrow? 9. Yes, he told 
me that he would come. 10. That man told me that he had 
a thousand dollars. 11. Were he to swear it on his honor, I 
should not believe it. 12. If you meet him, and he should 
ask you where I am, do not tell (it to) him. 13. Whether he 
comes or not, (that) makes no difference to me, 14. If I 
were he, I should tell that scoundrel what I thought of him. 

15. If we liked it in the country, we should stay there. 16. If 
he had insulted me like that, I should have kicked him out. 

17. Even were you to hate me, I should not complain (of it). 

18. I should have liked it in the country if it had not rained 
without cease (sans cesse). 

XXVIII a (§§ 276-285) 


- . ^ . J une promenade. 1 , • i. n 

Jevaisfaire< . , , > I am going for a walk. 

■^ [ un tour de promenade. J * ^ 

Je voudrais le faire. I should like to do it. 

T J . .Mir /~xN J I should like him to do it. 

Je voudrais qu'ille fasse (fit). { t • i. i. •. j -x 

1 wish him to do it. 

U fait beau marcher (se promener). 
Vous avez beau dire (parler). 

The walking is good. 

It is good walking. 

It is useless for you to speak. 

You may say what you like. 


Pai cru voir passer quelqu'un. I thought I saw some one go by. 

Je les ai ecoutes chanter. I Ustened to them sing(mg). 

D a pense mourir. He was near dying. 

Je pense (songe) k le faire. I am t hinkin g about doing it. 

n ne fait que de venir (arriver). He has just come. 

II veut faire k sa tete. He will have his own way. 

J'aimerais autant m'en aller. I would as soon go. 

Faites-le monter. Send (show) him up (stairs). 

1. Let us go for a walk this morning; the walking is good, 
and it is cool. 2. Living is always dear in Paris. 3. Are 
the children coining? 4. Yes, I saw them coming when I 
was on the hill. 5. I should like to speak to the doctor when 
he comes. 6. I should like you to speak to my father when 
you see him. 7. When do you expect to be there? 8. I 
expect to be there in a fortnight. 9. He might say what he 
liked, nobody would believe him. 10. It was useless for us 
to speak, nobody would listen to us. 11. I like better to live 
in the country than in the city. 12. My friends have left me, 
and I know not what to do. 13. I think it is going to be warm 
to-day. 14. My father thought he heard some one go by, 
but I think he was mistaken. 15 My father was very ill last 
year; he was near dying. 16. My brother's little boy fell into 
the water, and was near being drowned. 17. I was thinking 
about going to see you. 

xxvm b "-^ 

1. I hope I shall see you when you come. 2. I hope he will 
come to see me when he is here. 3. Did you see my sister at 
the ball ? 4. I thought I saw her, but I am not sure (of it). 
5. I am thinking about writing him a letter, but I do not like 
writing letters, and so I delay (it) from week to week. 6. I 
should like better to go than to stay. 7. It would be better 
to go than to stay. 8. Come and see us whenever you wish. 
9. My master has just come; after he has dined I shall tell 
him that you are here. 10. I hope I shall be able to go for a 
walk with you to-morrow. 11. I hope you will not go away 
before I have seen you. 12. We ought to go and see your 
father before he leaves. 13. It is useless for you to say any- 

236 EXERCISES XXIX a-xxix b 

thing; he will have his own way. 14. You may say what you 
like; young people will have their own way. 15. I would as 
soon go as stay. 16. I am not very well this morning; I am 
going to send for the doctor. 17. The doctor has just come; 
shall I send him up ? 18. We thought we heard some one go 
by but we must have been mistaken. 

XXIX a*t§§ 276-285 continued) 

H est a travailler. He is busy working. 

J'y suis accoutume. I am used to it. 

II finira mal. He will come to a bad end. 

Se plaire a mal faire. To delight in evil- (wrong-) doing. 

II tarda k venir. He is long in coming. 

Tenez-vous (beaucoup) k y aller ? Are you (very) anxious to go there ? 

Je n'y tiens pas. I am not anxious (for it). 

1. Continue reading until you are called. 2. We are busy 
writing our exercises. 3. I have my work to do. 4. Our 
teacher taught us to do that. 5. Will you help me to do my 
work? 6. I should like to help you, but I have work to do 
also. 7. I have difficulty in believing that he has done that. 
8. How old is that child? 9. He is two years old; he is be- 
ginning to talk. 10. The servant is busy washing dishes in 
the kitchen. 11. We are occupied to-day in writing to our 
friends. 12. He spends his time in reading novels. 13. He 
is not lazy; he sets about writing his lesson as soon as his 
teacher tells (it to) him. 14. Do you not get tired (in) read- 
ing those difficult works? 15. A little, but I am rather used 
to it. 16. He lost a great deal in selling his house. 17. That 
boy persists in reading bad books; he will come to a bad end. 
18. The wicked delight in evil-doing. 


1. Our friends invited us to stay with them. 2. I should 
like to know where my mother is; she is long in coming. 3. I 
wish she would come; I long to see her. 4. Are you anxious 
to have it to-day? 5. Oh no, I am not anxious for that; but 
I must have it to-morrow. 6. Are those apples good to eat? 

i<;,fl,^^^*^5t-«-v^^^**- ^Us^Z^ 

7. We are looking for a maid of all work. 8. That young lady 
sings and dances charmingly. 9. There are five bedrooms in 
that house. 10. That poor little girl has hurt her hand; she 
is crying pitifully, 11. Our neighbor has died; his family is 
to be pitied. 12. That young man seems to dehght in wrong- 
doing. 13. Are you not very anxious to see your friends? 

14. Yes, I should like to see them; I have not seen them for 
a long time. 15. That is very diflScult to do; I should like 
you to help me. 16. I am always ready to help you. 17. I 
am glad to know that you are not the only one to say so. 

15. That scoundrel did not succeed in deceiving us. 

XXX «-(§§ 276-285 continued) 

D fait semblant de dormir. He pretends to be asleep. 

Bien faire, mal faire. \ m j n i 

Faire le bien, faire le mal. / ^° ^° ''^"' ^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 

Attention! Look out ! Be careful ! 

1. Our teacher tells us that it is easy to read that book. 
2. I am ashamed to say that we are mistaken. 3. He pretends 
to be asleep. 4. She pretends to be reading. 5. It is diflBcult 
to say whether we are right or wrong. 6. He is wrong to 
believe that we are his enemies. 7. Will you permit me to 
go to bed? 8. Promise us not to go away without telling 
us (it). 9. I am very glad to say that I shall be able to 
come and see you at once. 10. We are sorry to tell you that 
we cannot come. 11. Cease to do e\'il; learn to do well. 
12. Hasten to finish your work before leaving. 13. Let us 
hasten to leave, or we shall be late. 14. I am afraid to speak, 
although I know it is my place to tell them that they have 
done wrong. 15. He commenced by telling me that he was 
a rich man's son, and he finished by asking me to lend him 
five dollars. 16. Be careful ! Don't fall ! 17. If you should 
happen to see him, tell him that I shall not go away before 
seeing him. 18. I have just seen him, and he told me to tell 
you that he would come to-morrow. 19. Although he promised 
me to stop reading such books, he only deceived me. 20. He 
pretends to be good, biit he knows (that) he is not (it). 

238 EXERCISES XXX b-xxxi a 

XXX b 

1. We (on) should not live to eat. 2. It is too cold to go 
for a walk. 3. It is not cool enough to go for a walk. 4. I 
rose early this morning in order to be able to do my work before 
going down town. 5. We learn French in order to be able to 
read French books. 6. After writing our exercises we went 
for a walk. 7. That httle boy was punished for having hed. 
8. That young girl is much to be pitied; her father and mother 
are dead. 9. Before going we should like to see you. 10. We 
should Uke to see you before you go. 11. We saw those houses 
being built. 12. He did that without telUng us (it). 13. We 
went away without his seeing us. 14. It was very windy, and 
we would not go out for a sail for fear of being drowned. 
15. Although he made me many compliments at first, he finally 
insulted me. 16. Your father has just come; shall I tell 
him to wait here, or should you like to see him at once ? 17. I 
have not time to see him now; I shall try to see him to-morrow. 
18. We cannot hinder him from doing so. 

XXXI ar§§ 286-287) 

Cette femme me fait pitie. .;^ I am sorry for that woman. 

D s'est fache contre moi. He got angry with me. 

fetre bien portant. To be well, j 

1. Knowing so many things, those gentlemen must be very 
learned. 2. The field of battle was covered with the dead and 
dying. 3. I am sorry for that poor woman; she is always ill. 
4. In neglecting her duties, she shows herself careless. 5. Their 
misfortunes went on increasing from day to day. 6. Don't 
you see them coming? 7. Yes; there they come! 8. Man 
is the only speaking creature. 9. Frenchmen will say (pres.) 
that, generally speaking, Frenchmen are better than English- 
men. 10. How happy those peasants are ! They are always 
singing their beautiful songs as they work. 11. One's appetite 
comes while eating; " but," said the Gascon, " I have been eating 
two hours, and it has not come yet." 12. I like reading, but 
I prefer hunting and fishing. 13. Where are the children? 

EXERCISES XXXI b-xxxii a 239 

14. There they are, playing under the trees. 15. Our neigh- 
bor's son has made astonishing progress at (the) college. 
16. The sewing-machine is an American invention, but there 
are many of them in Europe now. 17. Our friends were very 
much astonished at our coming; they thought we were in 

XXXI b ^^ 

1. As we were taking a walk this morning, we met the old 
gentleman who used to Uve next door. 2. Our neighbors arc 
speaking of going away, but I do not think they will. 3. That 
young man went away without saying good-bye; he must 
have got angry with me. 4. That prince has powerful ene- 
mies. 5. That lady, being ill, has not come to-day. 6. Those 
children, having finished their work, have gone out. 7. Those 
so-called learned men, who really know nothing, are very tire- 
some. 8. Who is that man going past ? 9. That is the would- 
be nobleman. 10. That country has the most powerful fleet 
in the world. 11. That Uttle girl, having been ill, cannot go 
to school. 12. Our friends, being tired, have gone to bed. 
13. Seriously speaking, that young man is not worthy of being 
respected. 14. Those children appear to be well. 15. If 
the population of the towns goes on increasing, and that of the 
country diminishing, we shall probably have great misfortunes. 

16. I saw him coming down the street before I met you. 

17. While traveUng, I saw many astonishing things. 18. Did 
you not see my brothers going out ? 

XXXn ^§ 288-292) 

Elle s'y est plu. She liked it there. 

Vous etes-vous bien amuse ? Did you have a good time ? 

Ellas se sont domie la main. They have shaken hands. 

Elles se sont brouillees. They have fallen out, 

Les grandes chaleurs qu'il a fait. The great heat that there has been. 

1. That is the old lady whom I saw fall in the street yester- 
day. 2. She fell in front of Mr. Simon's, but she did not hurt 
herself much. 3. Our friends have gone away but they will 


come back to-morrow. 4. Your mother has been in the 
country; did she like it there? 5. She enjoyed herself (there) 
very much; she intends to go back again soon. 6. Your 
sister and mother have come. 7. You will find inclosed [a] 
copy of the contract which we have signed, 8. The ten hours 
that he has slept have not been enough to rest him. 9. The 
children had a good time to-day at the picnic. 10. Where 
is the servant? 11. I have let her go to see her friends. 
12, Those are the three miles that I ran to (pour) fetch the 
doctor. 13. Those are the dangers we have incurred to save 
our country. 14, She remembered the dangers I had in- 
curred. 15. Did those two ladies shake hands? 16. No; 
they did not even look at each other. 17. Those ladies have 
written each other many letters. 18. There are the letters I 

xxxn b*^ 

1. Those young ladies have fallen out, and have burnt the 
letters they wrote to each other. 2. They have said good-bye 
to each other. 3. They have lost what they have given each 
other. 4. The great heat that there has been has killed the 
crops. 5. The person I asked (prier) to sing will not sing. 
6. What difficulty we have had to remember what you told 
us! 7. The crops are poor this year; the great heat has killed 
them. 8. That is the house which we had built. 9. How 
many houses they have built! 10. How many beautiful 
houses they have had built! 11. That is the lady we heard 
sing at the concert last evening. 12. Those are the children 
we saw playing this morning. 13. Those are the beautiful 
songs we heard sung at the concert. 14. Do you remember 
the houses we saw being built last year? 15. There is a letter 
which I forgot to put in the post. 16. He has read all the 
books he could. 17. There are the books we sent for. 18. We 
have told them to go out. 19. Those are the books which I 
thought he would read. 20. The doors were kept closed while 
the festivities were held. 21 . What a fine day it was ! 22. The 
more people arrived, the better the king enjoyed himself. 23. The 
generals (that) he sent for were all there. 

EXERCISES XXXIII a-xxxiii b 241 

XXXm a (§§ 293-299) 

II se croit honnete homme. He thinks he is an honest ma.n. 

D ne s'en est pas aperju. He did not notice it. 

Ce chapeau ne lui va pas. That hat does not fit him. 

n n' (ne nous) est pas permis de . . . We are not permitted to . . . 

Je le lui ai paye. I paid him for it. 

Je Pen ai remercie. I thanked him for it. 

Je pense k vous. I am thinking of you. 

Que pensez-vous de cela? What do you think of that? 

1. We shall make them do their work. 2. They (on) have 
made her suffer great ills. 3. Show them upstairs when they 
come. 4. I have seen the children play. 5. We have seen 
him play that part. 6. He was born [^a] poet. 7. He has 
become [a] soldier. 8. What will become of us ! 9. I believe 
he is an honest man. 10. He thinks he is Qa] scholar. 11. I 
know he is [a] scholar. 12. We should not slander our neigh- 
bors. 13. I perceived their dejection as soon as I came in. 
14. I did not notice it. 15. We cannot do without our books; 
we are going to use them to-morrow. 16. I remember the 
sorrows you made me undergo. 17. These gloves do not fit 
me. 18. That young lady's gloves do not fit her. 19. I shall 
look for a house which suits me better (see § 270, 1). 20. That 
house does not suit our friends. 21. I cannot trust him; he 
often lies. 22. The son resembles his father. 23. We are 
not permitted to leave the city. 24. The law does not per- 
mit children to marry. 25. The king pardons him his crime. 

xxxm b 

1. Did you pay the tailor for your coat ? 2. I have not paid 
him for it yet. 3. What are you looking at ? 4. I am look- 
ing at those men working in the field. 5. Wait for me till I 
come. 6. I think of my friends who have gone away. 7. Do 
you think of the money you have lost ? 8. I do not. 9. Shall 
you be at the ball this evening? 10. I do not know; that 
depends on you. 11. Did you thank him for having lent 
you his book? 12. I did. 13. He stole that watch from his 
father; what do you think of that? 14. He is laughing at us. 

242 EXERCISES XXXIV a-xxxv a 

15. Those men were playing cards. 16. Those young ladies 
play on the violin. 17. You believe me, do you not? 
18. Yes, I beUeve you. 19. That old lady believes in ghosts. 
20. He loves and obeys his parents. 21. He missed the train, 
did he not? 22. I am short of money this morning; I cannot 
pay you. 23. He fails in his duty when he does not pay his 
debts. 24. Have you asked your father for money? 25. I 
have not asked him for any. 

XXXIV a (§§ 300-306) 

1. Tell the servant to put the frying-pan on the stove. 
2. That man is a regular dupe. 3. He is not a friend; he is a 
mere acquaintance. 4. He was received with all the honors. 
5. That poet is always singing of his first love. 6. The errors 
of men are numerous. 7. The old man has (faire) a nap after 
dinner. 8. He paid me a large sum of money. " 9. My 
merhory is not good; give me a memorandum of that affair. 
10. Steam makes the stQamer go. 11. That man and his 
wife make a happy couple. 12.1 have Hugo's works at home. 
13. The works of the sculptor Barye were exhibited in Paris 
in 1889. 14. Old people are generally less thoughtless than 
young people. 15. Those people are not all good. 16. All 
those people were present. 17. All good people are worthy of 
respect. 18. All the clever people in (de) the town were 
present at the ball. 19. Happy [are] the people who do not 
love vice. 20. All the young men of the village were present 
at the celebration. i 

XXXV a (§§ 307-314) 

Tomber a genoux. To fall on one's knees. 

Cela ne vaut rien. That is useless. 

Le petit bonhomme. The brave Uttle fellow, 

1. That man has broken his two arms. 2. The 'ifs' and 
the 'huts' are often convenient words. 3. The criminal fell 
on his knees before the king. 4. That little boy Ukes to pick 
up pebbles, 5. The generals have good horses. 6. We read 
the newspapers before going down town [in] the morning. 


7. Frenchmen like carnivals and balls. 8. Our neighbor has 
some beautiful corals at home. 9. The Minister of PubUc 
Works ordered railways to be constructed. 10. His grand- 
fathers are dead. 11. Our ancestors were great men who 
left [behind them] many noble works. 12. The poor boy 
had tears in his (aux) eyes when he was told that his bird was 
dead. 13. That painter makes beautiful skies. 14. Several 
Te Deums were sung this year in that church. 15. Give me 
two postage stamps, if you please. 16. We had some dehght- 
ful private interviews. 17. These corkscrews are useless. 
18. Those lamp shades are very pretty. 19. Give me a 
toothpick, if you please. 20. Do not condemn me on rumors. 
21. The two Corneilles were dramatic authors. 22. All the 
Ribots were present. 23. I have two MoliSres at home. 

24. The Bourbons have been very unfortunate; I pity them. 

25. I saw the school-boys marching yesterday; the brave little 
fellows were really fine-looking. 26. The noblemen of France 
have suffered much during this century. 27. There are two 
gentlemen and two ladies waiting for you. 28. Good morn- 
ing, ladies; how do you do? 29. I have visited all the county 
towns of that part of France. 30. Many of Moli^re's works 
are masterpieces. 

XXXVI a (§§ 315-335) ^— ^^ 

1. He showed remarkable courage in struggling with his 
difficulties. 2. We used to enjoy good health when we lived 
in France.^ 3. Do you not hke music? 4. I do, when it is 
good. 5. Gold and silver are abundant in that country. 
6. The rich have much gold and silver. 7. Does that young 
lady know Greek? 8. She does not, but she knows French 
and German well. 9. Does your mother speak French? 
10. Yes, she speaks French and German well. 11. We have 
French and German books in our library. 12. Have you 
any good sugar for sale, sir ? 13. Have you any of my books 
in your library? 14. Have you any of the good wine you 
bought last year? 15. We have no pens and no paper. 
16. They have no more money, and so they must stay at 
home. 17. That is not wine; it is water. 18. It is not 

244 EXERCISES XXXVI b-xxxvii a 

money I ask you for, but friendship. 19. Why do you com- 
plain; have you not friends? 20. I should hke to buy a 
pound of tea; have you any of the good tea which you ordered 
from China ? j 

XXXVI b ^ 

1. I shall give you something good if you come to see me. 
2. He promised me something very beautiful, but he never 
gave it to me. 3. Many people beUeve that he will come to 
a bad end. 4. Many others beUeve that he will succeed well. 
5. Most people are ignorant of their true interests. 6. We 
were absent most of the time. 7. Silk dresses and gold watches 
are not always necessary. 8. Horses are animals which are 
useful to men. 9. Queen Victoria had then been reigning a 
long time. 10. The President of the French Republic has 
signed the treaty. 11. King Louis XIV is often called the 
Great. 12. That old man has a long beard. 13. Give me 
your hand, and I shall help you to rise. 14. We shook hands 
before we parted. 15. She has not taken off her hat and gloves; 
she says she cannot stay. 16. I have toothache and earache, 
so I cannot go out. 17. That little girl has blue eyes and 
blond hair. 18. I had my hair cut before starting, 19. What 
is the matter with you, my little boy? 20. My hands and 
feet are cold. 

XXXVII a (§§ 315-335 continued) 

Combien les avez-vous payes? How much did you pay for them ? 

Je les ai payes dix francs la dou- I paid ten francs a dozen for them, 


n part pour la France. He is starting for France. 

Dans le nord de la France. In the north of France. 

1. You have some very fine pears; how much did you pay 
for them ? 2. I paid two cents apiece for them. 3. That is 
not dear; I thought that pears would not sell so cheap this 
year. 4. Carpenters are earning fifteen francs a day at present, 
5. We do not go to school on Thursdays. 6. He will come on 
Saturday. 7. You were wrong to come on Wednesday; you 

EXERCISES XXXVII b-xxxviii a 245 

should always come on Thursday. 8. Did I step on your 
toe? I ask your pardon. 9. Are you going on horseback or 
on foot? 10. How we love spring! 11. In spring nature 
awakes from its long repose. 12. In winter there is some- 
times much snow in France. 13. Those gentlemen are French- 
men. 14. Our neighbor is a carpenter. 15. His son has 
become a distinguished physician. 16. Charles the First, 
King of England, was beheaded. 17. She was born at Mar- 
seilles, a city of Southern France. 

xxxvn b 

1. We were without friends and money. 2. Those children 
have neither father nor mother. 3. He will come home at 
Michaelmas. 4. Those ladies dress in French style. 5. Have 
you ever read Tasso's great poem? 6. Yes, and Ariosto's 
also. 7. We are to start for Europe to-morrow. 8. Nor- 
mandy is a province of France. 9. Did you ever live in Paris ? 

10. Yes, I lived a long time in France, and in England too. 

11. My brother has Uved in China, but he is living now in 
Japan. 12. The United States is the most important coun- 
try in North America. 13. Havre is an important seaport of 
the north of France. 14. New Orleans is a large city of the 
United States. 15. French wines are celebrated in all parts 
of the world. 16. That traveler comes from Africa, and is 
going to South America. 17. My cousin is in (d) Madagascar. 
18. Ladies, you are welcome; we are always glad to receive 
you. 19. Our neighbor goes to the city every other day. 

XXXVm a (§§ 336-358) 

1. That little boy's grandmother has given him a knife. 
2. That Uttle girl is very fooUsh. 3. I know those old ladies 
well; they are our old neighbors. 4. What a fine-looking 
man! Do you know him? 5. There are some beautiful 
trees! 6. The prince addressed him most flattering words. 

7, That statesman is celebrated for (par) his hberal principles. 

8. There are, according to Catholic doctrine, seven capital 
sins. 9. The man and his wife were both old. 10. The 

246 EXERCISES XXXVIII b-xxxix a 

French and Italian nations are often called Latin nations. 
11. Those flowers smell sweet, do they not? 12. That large 
building is the school for (de) deaf-mutes. 13. He left the 
door wide open when he went out this morning. 14. The 
newly married couple had just left the church. 15. My 
mother had blue eyes and light auburn hair. 16. When I 
was young, I used to go barefoot to school. 


1. That lady looks kind. 2. A pound sterling is worth 
twenty-five francs. 3. He is getting richer and richer. 4. He 
is richer than people (on) believe. 5. The older one is, the 
wiser one should be. 6. My brother is older than I by (de) 
four years. 7. The richer one part of the population becomes, 
the poorer the rest often become. 8. Your house is small, 
but ours is smaller still. 9. That man is bad, but his brother 
is still worse. 10. The dearer those articles are, the less of 
them we shall be able to buy. 11. Our house is good, but 
yours is better. 12. His most intimate friends knew nothing 
of his good fortune. 13. Men are often the most unhappy 
when they ought to be the most happy. 14. Is that not a 
splendid sight? 15. Yes, it is most beautiful! 16. The 
richest men in the world are not always the happiest. 17. She 
is shorter than I by three inches. 

XXXIX a (§§ 336-358 continued) 

1. You are all welcome, ladies; how kind you are to (de) 
come to see me ! 2. What a pretty little girl ! What is her 
name? 3. There were black horses and white ones in the 
procession. 4. Will you give me some cold water to (pour) 
drink? 5. Whose is that broken cane? 6. Our neighbor 
is not an educated man. 7. Our friends live in a beautiful 
white house behind the town. 8. The English language is 
spoken in all parts of the world. 9. I have just seen that 
pretended nobleman go by. 10. We have just been at a 
political meeting, where we listened to a very long speech. 
11. My dear child, you are too young to (§ 282, 2) wear dear 


dresses! 12. I love that gentleman; he is so kind to children. 

13. Are you not ready to start ? You are very slow in dressing. 

14. I am very glad to see you; when are you coming to see 
me ? 15. I am very sorry to say that I have no time to visit 
you before I go away. 16. We are charmed with the beautiful 
present you gave (faire) us. 17. You are not angry with me, 
are you ? 18. I do not hke that man; he is too severe with his 
children. 19. That is a nice little girl; she is so poUte to every- 
body. 20. That little boy is very clever at history and arith- 
metic. 21. That army is weak in numbers (en nombre). 
22. We must be charitable to everybody. 23. Li\dng lan- 
guages are more useful than dead languages. 24. We must 
not confound the verbal adjectives with the present participles. 
25. That young man is the living image of his father. 26. The 
more learned that man becomes, the less generous he becomes. 

XL a (§§ 359-373) 

1. Are there any good pens in the box ? 2. There are none. 
3. Do you know that old man? 4. I know him and his 
brother. 5. Do you know that man and his wife? 6. We 
know both him and her. 7. We know him only. 8. Did you 
see my father and mother? 9. We saw her only. 10. Are 
you going to give them some money? 11. I have already 
given them some. 12. Will you give me some apples ? 13. I 
shall give you and him some. 14. Have you spoken to my 
cousin of your plan? 15. I have spoken of it to her and her 
mother. 16. Will you have the goodness to introduce us to 
your mother? 17. I shall have great pleasure in introducing 
you to her. 18. I was thinking of you when you came in. 
19. Do you think of me when I am far away ? 20. Yes, I 
always think of you. 21. Whose is that house? 22. It is 
mine. 23. As soon as the child saw his mother, he ran to her. 
24. Are you that young man's sister? 25. I am. 

XL b 

1. Are you satisfied, madam? 2. I am. 3. Are you an 
American, sir? 4. I am. 5. Are you the gentlemen we met 


yesterday? 6. We are. 7. I shall go for the doctor if you 
wish. 8. I shall do the work if it is necessary. 9. That 
man is richer than we are. 10. Why do you tell me to be 
brave? I am so already. 11. He carried the day over all 
his rivals. 12. Tell me where he lives, if you know. 13. He 
is a Frenchman, and I am one ile) too. 14. Do you know 
the Robinsons? 15. Yes, they are very fastidious people, 
and I do not like to have [anything] to do with them. 
16. There is the box; put the pens into it. 17. Go there, my 
child; do not stay here. 18. Do not go there, my daughter; 
you will hurt yourself. 19. Give them some, my little boy. 
20. He is a bad man; I cannot trust him. 21. The earth 
about those flowers is dry; throw some water there, my 
daughter. 22. Let us not go away; let them laugh at us, 
if they will. 23. The children wish to go to the celebration; 
let us take them there. 24. That boy has apples and pears- 
let us ask him for some. 25. The boy has your knife; take 
it away from him. 

XLI a (§§ 359-373 continued) 

1. My father did not hurt himself, but he had a narrow 
escape. 2. Every one for himself is too often the maxim of 
men. 3. One should not always be thinking of oneself. 
4. The selfish live only for themselves. 5. Do you need 
money ? 6. I do. 7. Do you come from London ? 8. We 
do. 9. I cannot understand why he has a grudge against me. 
10. However that may be, it is all over with him. 11. Have 
you any money ? 12. I have, but I should like to have more. 
13. How many apples have you ? 14. I have six.' 15. Here 
are some fine pears; do you wish any? 16. Yes, I should like 
some, for I have none. 17. Switzerland is my country; I 
love its blue sky and free institutions. 18. I planted this 
apple tree; I hope I shall eat its fruit. 19. Do you ever 
think of your country when you are in foreign countries^ 
20. When I am far away, I always think of it. 21. My 
brother has gone home, and I am going too. 22. I see a crowd 
of people in the street; what is the matter? 23. Were you 
over in Europe? 24. I never was. 


XLI b ^ 

1. The doctor is at home; shall I send for him? 2. There 
they are; go and get them. 3. There is some water; give us 
some, for we are thirsty. 4. Do not give them any; they 
do not need any. 5. Where are the children? 6. They are 
coming up the street. 7. Do not hsten to them; they are 
making sport of you. 8. There is my hat; give it to me, if 
you please. 9. That is my hat; do not give it to him. 10. Let 
us go away; it is getting late. 11. If you have any money, 
give me some. 12. He gives himself some, but he will not 
give us any. 13. Take us there. 14. Give it to us; do not 
give it to them. 15. You bother me, naughty dog. Go away. 
16. I saw him, and gave him the money. 17. They are worthy 
people; I love and admire them. 18. Our duty to our parents 
is to love and obey them. 19. It is I who was there. 20. My 
father and I were not there. 21. What were you and he 
doing ? 22. He was writing, and I was reading. 23. He has 
a house of his own. 24. You and he were there, were you 
not? 25. There is the box; I should like to know whether 
there is anything in it. 

XLH a (§§ 374-377) 

On Itii a coups iin bras. They cut off one of his arms. 

Se couper i la mala. To cut one's hand. 

Elle lui a f erme la porte au nez. She shut the door in his face. 

Cela lui a fait venir Peau I la That made his mouth water. 


Cette nuit; de toute la nuit. Last night; all night. 

1. My father and yours will soon be here. 2. I have your 
books and my own. 3. Our friends are coming by the rail- 
way; yours are coming by the steamer. 4. My brother and 
sister have gone away; they will not be back till (avani) 
Wednesday next. 5. One should not fail to (de) pay one's 
debts. 6. I had my hair cut this morning; I am afraid I shall 
catch a cold. 7. The duke was presented to the queen, and he 
kissed her hand. 8. She has cut her finger. 9. I shall love 
him as long as my heart beats. 10. It was so warm that I 


could not close my eyes (de) all night. 11. Close your eyes, and 
open your mouth. 12. He shuts his eyes to the light. 13. He 
was walking [with] his eyes closed; he fell and broke his arm. 
14. I have my hands full; I cannot help you. 15. I went to 
see him, but he shut the door in my face. 16. It is a very 
cold morning; will you not warm your hands? 17. Thank 
you; my hands are not cold. 18. That clumsy fellow stepped 
on my toe, and he hurt me very much. 

XLH b 

1. My head aches this morning; I did not close my eyes last 
night. 2. The sight of those beautiful apples made my mouth 
water. 3. He stood there [with] his arms folded, awaiting 
his fate like a brave soldier. 4. As long as my heart beats, I 
shall never forget you. 5. If they come here, we shall shut 
the door in their face. 6. Did you see those poor children? 
Those beautiful pears made their mouths water. 7. Let us 
hope that the law has not lost its force in this country. 8. He 
has a watch of his own. 9. Whom do you mean; his father or 
her father? 10. I mean her father. 11. This house is his, 
not yours. 12. They lost their lives fighting for their (la) 
country. 13. Negroes have dark skins and large mouths. 
14. One of my friends who is a doctor told me the following 
story. 15. I am going to take away these books of yours. 
16. The difference between mine and thine is not always easy 
to determine. 17. I love very much these books of mine. 
18. They cut o£f my finger. 

XLHI a (§§ 378-388) 

1. I have never read that book, but I have read this one, 
and I like it very much. 2. These houses are not so fine as 
those. 3. You should not eat in that way. 4. Have patience, 
I shall be (pres.) there this moment. 5. Those who do wrong 
will be punished. 6. He of whom you were speaking yester- 
day has arrived. 7. Which (Lequel) of those horses do you 
like best? 8. I like the one you bought better than j'^our 
brother's, but I like my own best. 9. This house and the one 


in which our neighbors live will be sold to-morrow. 10. Our 
house and our neighbor's are both {en) brick [houses]. 
11. These facts, and those discovered since that time, prove 
that, although he was a great scholar, he was wrong. 12. I 
saw the man (celui) last evening who wanted to buy my horse. 
13. Who are those two gentlemen ? 14. This is Mr. Perrichon, 
and that is Mr. Poirier. 15. You are looking for apples; very 
well, will you take these or those? 16. I will take these; 
those are too small. 17. How (Comhien) is butter seUing 

XLm b 

1. That sells at two francs a pound, and this, which is finer, 
at two francs fifty centimes. 2. Gambetta and Hugo were 
distinguished men; the former was an orator, the latter a poet. 
3. That is a fine horse ! How much is he worth ? 4. Why do 
these people not reply when we speak to them ? 5. They are 
Russians; they do not understand you. 6. Who did that? 
7. It was John who did it. 8. What time is it? 9. It is 
half-past ten. 10. What day of the month is it ? 11. To-day 
is the tenth. 12. Is that the house of which you spoke to me ? 
13. No, it is the next one. 14. Who is that lady ? 15. She 
is the lady who Uves next door. 16. What I fear is that he will 
never come back. 17. It is not that he is losing (§271, 5) his 
money, but he is destroying his health also. 18. It is time to 
go home. 

XLIV a (§§ 378-388 continued) 

C'est una belle chose que de ^o- It is a fine thing to protect the 

teger les faibles. weak. 

Ce sont des q\ialites necessaires Mildness and firmness are neces- 

pour regner que la douceur et sary qualities for ruling. 

la fermete. 

n a cela de bon. He has this good thing about him. 

1. It is they who have done it. 2. It was kind of you to 
help (secourir) those poor people. 3. You can do it; it is 
easy. 4. That was not kind of you; you should have allowed 
me to do it. 5. You are rich; it is easy for you to say so. 


6. It is a pity that we did not know it sooner. 7. It is un- 
fortunate that he did not come yesterday. 8. My father told 
me you were here; that is why I came. 9. It is to be feared 
that the traveler has died of hunger. 10. It is to be desired 
that those misfortunes will never happen. 11. What we 
were speaking of has happened. 12. What I am thinking of 
is the way of preventing that misfortune. 13. What he says 
is true. 14, It's a fine thing, (is) money ! 15. It is not to 
you that I speak. 16. He has lost all his money, which is sad. 


1. What a beautiful thing is virtue! 2. It is money that 
he wishes. 3. He is a fine (brave) young man (is) John! 
4. It would be a good thing to go away. 5. It is a fine thing 
to love virtue. 6. Health and good sense are qualities neces- 
sary for succeeding in the world. 7. You are the one who did 
that. 8. Love is the strongest of all passions. 9. This does 
not belong to me, but that does. 10. Give me this; keep 
that for yourself. 11. He has this good thing about him, 
that he always tells the truth. 12. What a lazy beast; and 
yet he thinks that he works ! 13. Did he give you back your 
pencil? 14, No, but that does not matter; I have another 
here. 15. It is difficult to translate the word 'that' into 
French. 16. I am sure that that 'that' that that man uses is 

XLV a (§§ 389-402) 

1. Whom did you see yesterday? 2. I saw him who was 
with you the day before yesterday. 3. I told you already 
what my reasons are. 4. What sort of weather is it this 
morning? 5. I think it will be fine. 6. I do not know to 
which of those men we were speaking. 7. What fine weather ! 
I hope it will continue until we leave. 8. Who is that ? 9. It 
is the man I sold my house to. 10. What was the matter this 
morning? I heard a great noise in the street. 11. What were 
you speaking of to that man you met? 12. I was speaking to 
him of what we were discussing yesterday. 13. Scoundrel 


that you are, if I catch you, I'll give you what you deserve. 
14. What I complain of is that you make no progress in your 
studies. 15. I do not understand you; will you explain to 
me clearly what you mean? 16. What has become of that 
young gentleman with whom I saw you? 17. I don't know 
what has become of him; I have not seen him lately. 18. Which 
of those ladies did yc»i see ? 19. I saw the one that was here 
yesterday. 20. What are you thinking of? 21. I am think- 
ing of what we are going to do to-morrow. 22. What did 
your father ask you to do? 23. I have done what he asked 
me to do. 

XLV b 

1. The gentleman whose son was visiting us last year will 
come himself next year. 2. The lady whose daughter has 
just been married will spend some weeks with us next summer. 

3. The people of whom I speak would never do such a thing. 

4. I who am your friend tell you so, and you ought to believe 
it. 5. It was we who gave them their liberty, and yet to-day 
they are our enemies. 6. He has gone away and, what is 
worse, he has not paid his debts. 7. That is very strange ! I 
sent him a letter, and yet he says he never received it. 8. To 
whom are you speaking, sir? 9. It is to you I am speaking, 
and I want (voudrais) you to pay attention to what I say. 

10. The house they are coming out of belongs to my father. 

11. The people of the village from which he came were very 
glad to be rid of him. 12. The gentleman for whose house 
I ofifered such a high price has bought another. 13. The 
cause for which those soldiers fought was the deliverance of 
their country. 14. The man in whom I trust will not deceive 
me. 15. That child is deaf and dumb, which is a great pity, 
for he seems very intelligent. 16. I thank you very much. 
17. Don't mention it. 18. What I was expecting was that 
he would pay me. 19. That is not a poor man; he is well off. 
20. Where is the pen I made use of yesterday? 21. Take 
what you need; there will be enough for all. 22. Which way 
did you come this morning? 23. I came the way you came 


XLVI a (§§ 403-407) 

1. Certain people say the criminal has escaped. 2. Each 
day brings (amener) its labor. 3. We rise every morning at 
six o'clock. 4. I have seen him many a time. 5. I have no 
apples, but I have some pears arid peaches. 6. However 
great and rich we may be, we must die^ 7. Whatever your 
intentions were, your actions were not good. 8. However 
good your intentions were, you did not succeed in doing us 
good. 9. We should respect the rights of others. 10. Every 
one for himself is, happily, not a maxim which everybody 
practises. 11. If we do not love others, others will not love 
us. 12. Those children will receive, each one at his majority, 
their portion of their father's estate. 13. Mother, will you 
come down? You are wanted. 14. It is said that the 
robber has been caught. 15. It is not known whether the ship 
was wrecked or not. 16. When one is pretty (§ 405, 3, e), one 
is rarely ignorant of it. 17. People wonder why that young man 
associates with (frequenter) those scoundrels. 18. When one sees 
a noble action, it (cela) always gives one pleasure. 19. I have 
never seen any one who had so many noble qualities. 20. I 
am afraid to say anything about it to any one. 21. No one 
has ever done anything like that. 22. What a beautiful view ! 
Did you ever see anything like it? 23. He went away with- 
out visiting any one. 24. Did you find anything where you 
were looking yesterday? 25. I do not know any one of his 
friends. 26. I doubt whether any one of you will do so. 


1. If I can do it without any expense, I shall do it willingly. 
2. I do not like this book; give me another. 3. That little 
boy has had one apple, and now he wants another. 4. French- 
men often laugh at us (others), because we are less gay than 
they. 5. This man I have seen elsewhere, but that one I 
never saw anywhere. 6. These are the same people that 
were here yesterday morning. 7. That lady is goodness itself. 
8. Even if you were to say so, I should not believe it. 9. That 
is a young man in whom I have confidence; I shall put him in 


a position to make his fortune. 10. Were there any children 
at the meeting? 11. Yes, there were several. 12. I shall 
never accept such conditions. 13. I never saw such a foolish 
man. 14. If he were to say such a thing to me, I should put 
him out of doors. 15. He spent his whole life in doing good. 
16. Our neighbor's daughters have become quite tall. 17. He 
comes to town every other week. 18. Where are the children ? 
Both were here a little while ago. 19. I found two apples in 
the basket, but neither is good. 20. Any line being given, draw 
a straight line which shall be equal to it. 21. There is no 
reason whatever which can persuade me. 22. Whoever 
has stolen that poor woman's money ought to be punished. 

23. Whoever he is who told you that, he is mistaken. 

24. Whatever that man may do, he will never succeed. 

25. Whatever the reason may be, he never comes to see us. 

XLVn a (§§ 408-420) 

1. I will not sell it, cheap or dear. 2. You did it on pur- 
pose, did you not? 3. Not at all, it was quite accidental. 
4. A Christian ought to love not only his friends, but even his 
enemies. 5. Those poor people had scarcely any bread to 
eat when we found them. 6. We have said nothing at all 
about it. 7. That is a very complicated affair; I can under- 
stand nothing of it. 8. We did not see a living soul in the 
street when we rose that morning. 9. Whom did you see? 
I saw nobody at all. 10. I shaU be silent, so as not to hinder 
you from working. 11. He told me to do nothing until he 
returned. 12. I went away so as not to be punished. 
13. What is the matter with that little boy? 14. I do not 
know, sir; I neither did nor said an5i;hing to him. 15. Would 
you not be glad to see our old friend ? 16. No, I wish neither 
to see him nor to speak to him. 17. I have a headache this 
evening; I can neither sing nor play. 18. Neither he nor his 
father was there. 19. I saw neither him nor his brother. 
20. I have neither friend nor money, but I have strong arms 
and courage. 21. No more regrets; take courage, and forget 
the past. 22. Why did he not tell me co before leading me 


into this peril? 23. There is nobody here he does not know. 
24. Take care that you are not deceived. 25. There is noth- 
ing which does not please me better than that. 

XLVn b 

1. Not one of those we invited has come. 2. Do you know 
where Dr. B. lives? 3. I cannot tell you. 4. If you have 
no use for this book, lend it to me. 5. Unless you do what 
you said, I shall not pay you. 6. Do you not fear he-will g(T 
away ? 7. I do not fear he will go away. 8. I am afraid our 
friends will not be there. 9. If I were afraid he would do it, 

I should do something to hinder him (from it). 10. If I were 
not afraid he would hurt himself with the knife, I should let 
him have it. 11. That man writes better than he speaks. 
12. We do not wish more money than we have now. 13. I 
do not doubt that that is true. 14. Not much is lacking for 
the number to be complete. 15. We have not seen each 
other for three years. 16. It is more than three years since 
we were there. 17. I cannot go with you; I have no time. 
18. Yes, you have, you are not so busy. 19. You have stolen 
my apples. 20. I tell you I have not. 21. But I say yes, 
for I saw you. 22. He has as much money as you have, but 
he has not as much as I have. 23. Let us say no more about 
it. 24. We are in a hurry; let us not stay any longer. 25. I 
have more than fifty francs, but he has more than I, and his 
brother has still more. 

XLVm a (§§ 421-430) 

II a une vingtaine d'annees. He is about twenty (years old). 

II a una trentaine de mille francs. He has about thirty thousand 


1. Columbus discovered America in the year 1492. 2. The 
French national fete is celebrated on the fourteenth of July, 
because [on] that day the Bastille was taken. 3. My father 
left England on the first of May, 1824. 4. Napoleon the 
First was a greater man than Napoleon the Third. 5. Charles 
the First of England and Louis the Sixteenth of France were 

EXERCISES XLvin b-xLix a 257 

both beheaded. 6. The first train leaves at a quarter to five 
in the morning, and the second at twenty minutes past two 
in the afternoon. 7. We went to bed last night at half-past 
twelve. 8. The first two houses in (de) the street belong to 
us. 9. We have only the last two chapters in the book to 
read. 10. The carriage arrived at half-past one in the morn- 
ing. 11. The father gave his son a fifth of his property when 
the son was twenty-one. 12. How old would you say (What 
age would you give) that man is? 13. I should say he is 
about forty. 14. It is twenty years since I saw him. 15. That 
man is well off; he has an income of about twenty thousand 
francs a year. 16, The first volume of his works contains 
poetry, and the fourth two novels. 

XLVm b 

1. This house cost three times as much as that one. 2. Ten 
times ten make a hundred. 3. We paid (Ex. XXXIII a) a hun- 
dred and twenty dollars for that horse. 4. That carriage cost 
one thousand one hundred dollars. 5. That old man is eighty- 
five years old. 6. [On] what day of the month did that happen ? 
7. It happened on the twelfth. 8. That table is two meters 
long by one meter wide. 9. We are going to have a house 
built twenty meters long by ten wide. 10. What time is it ? 
11. It is just noon. 12. A boy ten years old was killed last 
evening by a carriage in the Boulevard des Italiens. 13. That 
girl is older than her brother by two years. 14. I am taller 
than my brother by two inches. 15. Will you come at two 
o'clock or at three? 16. I shaU be there precisely at three. 
17. Is that boy ten years old or eleven? 18. He is eleven. 

XLIX a (§§ 431-454) 

1. I was thinking of what you were talking about this morn- 
ing. 2. He paid about twenty francs for that hat. 3. He 
will be here about six o'clock in the evening. 4. The day 
after our arrival we went to see the museum. 5. That child 
has black eyes; he takes after his father. 6. The money was 
divided amongst the children. 7, Amongst all those people 


there is not one sensible person. 8. Art arrived at (la) per- 
fection among the Greeks. 9. He was at my house when I 
was at his. 10. They all laughed at my expense. 11. We 
all laughed at him. 12. The thief will have to appear before 
the court. 13. He will be here before a quarter past three. 
14. That is greater by half than what we expected. 15. That 
box is six feet long by two wide. 16. It is a quarter to four 
by my watch. 17. I know that man by sight only. 18. He 
will leave for France in a week. 19. We Uved in that city 
for twenty years. 20. I have been here for two years. 21. I 
traded my black horse for this white one. 22. I thanked him 
for his kindness. 23. From the fifteenth of May I shall live 
in that house. 24. They drank their wine from golden cups. 
25. That picture is painted from nature. 


1. In spring the weather is warm and the flowers open. 
2. There is not so much misery in the United States as in 
Russia. 3. Let us live in peace with everybody. 4. There 
are several nations in North America. 5. Not one in a hun- 
dred was good. 6. Is your house (in) brick or stone? 7. It 
was kind of you to aid me in my misfortune. 8. In rainy 
weather we stay at home. 9. We shall go away on Saturday. 
10. He is now on the road for England. 11. Our house is on 
this side of the street, and his is on that side. 12. When you 
come to the next street, turn to the right. 13. Instead of 
studying he is always looking out of the window. 14. His 
gun was hanging above the chimney. 15. The dog jumped 
over the fence. 16. He watched over my interests. 17. In 
passing through the forest we saw many rare plants. 18. We 
work from morning till night. 19. We are going to our friends' 
house. 20. The train for Paris will be here immediately. 
21. They sold those goods under their value. 22. Wicked 
men tread God's laws under foot. 23. If you will live with us, 
we shall treat you well. 24. Do you remember the man with 
the big nose whom we saw yesterday? 25. She told us her 
story with tears in her eyes. 

EXERCISES L a-Li a 259 

L a (§§ 455-459) 

1. For fear it should rain, we shall not go away to-day. 
2. He did his work so that all were pleased with him. 3. Un- 
less you come to-morrow, we shall not wait for you. 4. Both 
he and his brother were there. 5. Go and get us some bread. 
6. She neither laughs nor cries. 7. Those poor people are 
without bread or meat. 8. He does not beUeve what you say, 
nor I either. 9. We shall not be there, nor he either. 10. We 
have not gone away, nor shall we. 11. As soon as you are 
there and have the time, will you go and visit my brother? 
12. If he is there and we see him, we shall tell him what you 
say. 13. When bread is dear and the weather is cold, the 
poor suffer. 14. I think we shall go away the day after to- 
morrow. 15. If your friend comes to the meeting and I am 
there, I shall speak to him. 16. Since you went away, I have 
been writing letters. 17. Since you cannot do it, you must 
let me try. 18. Since you went away yesterday, he has done 
nothing but play. 19. Since every action brings its recom- 
pense [with it], we must pay attention to what we do. 

20, While I was doing my exercise, she was writing her letters. 

21. The good shall be rewarded, whilst the bad shall be pun- 
ished. 22. When I saw him, he was busy working in his field. 
23. As long as the world lasts, justice shall prevail over in- 
justice. 24. He did his work so that he was praised by all. 
25. He was kind to the poor so that he might be praised by 

LI a 

The largest clock in the world will be the one ^ which soon ' 
will adorn the city hall of P. The dial of this colossal clock 
will be ' ten meters in diameter, and will be placed and 
illuminated so as to be visible night and day (de) every- 
where in the city. The hands will be, one ^ four meters 
and the other three meters long; the bell of the striking part 
will weigh forty-six thousand pounds, and in order to wind the 
clock, a steam engine placed in the tower will be used daily 
( = one will use daily a steam-engine, etc.). 

» 8 381. » § 413. » § 428, oba. 3. * § 406, 7 (1), a. 

260 EXEECISES LII a-Liv a 

LII a 

Horses,^ birds, ^ and animals ^ of all (the) sorts speak a 
language as well as men,^ We cannot understand all ( = all 
that which) they say, but we understand enough of it to* 
know that they have thoughts ^ and feeUngs.' They are sad 
when they lose a companion, or when they are driven away * 
from home. They are pleased when they are well treated,* 
and angry when they are ill treated.* They have, so to speak, 
a conscience; they feel ashamed when they do what displeases 
us, and are very glad when they merit our approbation. Kind- 
ness ^ on our part towards them is as reasonable as love ^ and 
kindness ^ between brothers.^ 

1 § 321. 2 § 282, 2. » § 322. * § 241, 2, o. 


A rich ^ man, it is said,^ once ' asked * a learned man what 
was ^ the reason that scientific men were ^ so often ' seen at the 
doors of the rich, while ^ the rich were ^ very rarely seen * at 
the doors of the learned. "It is," replied* the scholar, "be- 
cause the man of science knows the value of riches,^ but the 
rich man does not always know the value of science. " ^ 

» §351. » §413. » §258,5. » 5 321. 

* § 241, 2, o. ■« § 260. « § 459, 2. 

LIV a 

MoH^re, the great French ^ author, was born ' in Paris in the 
year one thousand six hundred and twenty-two.' His father 
was the king's upholsterer, and was probably a rather rich * 
man. The son received ^ a good education, but not much is 
known ® of his youth. When he was about twenty years old,' 
he organized ^ a company of actors, which was ^ called L'lllustre 
Thedtre. But in this enterprise he did not succeed ^ very well. 
He soon ^ lost ^ all his money, and with his troupe was * forced 
to ' leave Paris and (to) make a tour in [the] province [s]- 
This tour lasted * from sixteen hundred and forty-six to sixteen 
hundred and fifty-eight. During these years he traveled ^ 


over nearly the whole of France, and played * in many of the 
large cities. After his return to Paris he became * the king's 
favorite, and produced* the masterpieces wiiich have ren- 
dered him so celebrated. At last, after fifteen years of great 
success, he died * in sixteen hundred and seventy-three at the 
age of fifty-one. 

1 §352, 1 (2). » §421, c. » §260. ' §430. • § 280 6. 

» Past Def. « 8 351. • § 241, 2, a. » § 413. 

LV a 

Speaking of the small world in which even the greatest live,* 
Lord Beaconsfield used to tell ^ that Napoleon I, a year after 
his accession to the throne, determined to ' find out if there 
was * anybody in the world who had never heard of him. Within 
a fortnight the police of Paris had * discovered a wood-chopper 
at Montmartre, in Paris itself, who had never heard of the 
Revolution, nor of the death of Louis XVI, nor of the Emperor 

M 237, 6. » § 258, 2. » § 280, 6. M 258, 5. » § 232, 1. 

LVI a 

Napoleon, the greatest general of modern times,* was born* 
at Ajaccio on the 15th of August, 1769. At the age of ten ' 
he was sent to the mihtary * school at Brienne, where he re- 
mained more than * five years. Then entering the French * 
army, he was, in 1796, appointed general of the army of Italy,« 
and soon succeeded in conquering ^ that country. He used so 
well the opportunities which were offered him by the weakness 
of the Republic that in less than ten years he was elected 
Emperor. The ten j'ears' struggle, in which he engaged with 
the purpose of subduing « Europe,' ended with the battle of 
Waterloo in 1815. Banished to (a) St. Helena (no art.) he 
died *" there on the 5th of May, 1821. Twenty years after 
his death, his remains were brought back to {en) France, and 
interred in the Hotel des Invcdides. ■-». 

» § 321. « § 430, ohs. 2. 5 § 412, 1, 6. M 279. 2. • § 333, 1. 

« Past Def. * § 362, 1 (2). « § 333, 2, note. « § 280, 2. " mourvX or esf vMrrt. 


LVn a 

Great Britain ^ and Ireland ^ are two large islands in (a) the 
west of Europe.^ Great Britain is the larger of the two and 
comprises England/ Scotland,^ and Wales. ^ The monarch of 
the United , Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland ^ for (pen- 
dant) many years was Queen Victoria ^ who was born * on the 
24th of May, 1819. She was the daughter of the Duke of Kent, 
son of George III. She ascended the throne on (d) the death 
of William IV in 1837. When she appeared before (le) parlia- 
ment at Westminster for the first time, she declared that she 
would place her trust in the wisdom of her parliament and the 
love of her people, and she did not fail to (de) keep this promise. 
Having thus early won the hearts of all her subjects, she re- 
tained their affection during a long reign of more than sixty 
years. Queen Victoria married Prince ^ Albert in 1840. He 
died in 1861. She died forty years afterwards, on January 22"*^, 
1901. Her son Edward VII succeeded her (lui) and died 
in 1910. The present king, son ^ of Edward VII, is called 
George V. 

1 § 333, 1. « § 333, 2, a, note. » § 327. * § 260. « § 330, 4. 

LVni a 

There was,^ in the city of Macon, a parrot which had learned 
to'^ say continually: "Who is there? Who is there?" This 
parrot escaped one day from its cage in the garden, and soon ' 
flew into a wood near by, where a peasant saw it, and began 
to ^ chase it. The peasant had never seen a parrot in (de) all 
his life. He approached * the tree where the bird was, and 
was going to * kill the poor bird with his gun. At that moment 
the parrot began to ^ repeat the usual question: "Who is there ? 
Who is there?" The peasant, terrified at these words, let his 
gun fall ^ from his hands. Then taking his hat off, he said, very 
respectfully: "My dear sir, I pray you to ^ excuse me, I thought 
that it was a bird." 

» § 250. 3 I 413. 6 § 278, 6. « § 230, 6, o, and 7. » § 280, 6. 

« § 279. 6. * § 296, 1. 

EXERCISES Lix a-Lx a 263 

LIX a 

The unknown ^ author of Beowulf was not a * native of 
England, and so the first of the long line of Enghsh ' poets ia 
really Caedmon. Baeda tells us a pretty story of the way in 
which * Caedmon became a ^ poet. He was already almost an ' 
old man before he knew anything * of the art of poetry. At 
the feasts, in those days, everybody used to sing ^ in turn to ' 
amuse the company, but Caedmon used to leave ® the table 
before the harp was given * to him. One evening, when he 
had done thus, he went to the stable and lay down, after hav- 
ing ' cared for the cattle, because, you must know, he was 
only a farm servant in the monastery at Whitby. As he 
slept,*" some one appeared to him, and said, "Caedmon, sing 
a song to me." "I cannot** sing," he replied, "and that is 
why I left the feast." "Nevertheless," was the answer, "you 
must sing to me." "Well, then," asked Caedmon, "what shall 
I sing?" The other replied, "Sing the beginning of created 
things."** Thereupon he made some verses, which he still 
remembered when he awoke. The Abbess Hilda, hearing of 
his dream, believed (that) the grace of God had been given 
him, and made him a * monk. 

t § 352, 1 (3). M 398. ^ § 282, 2. » § 282, 4. " § 230, 4. 

« S 330, 3. ' § 405, 4, a. « 5 241, 2, a. " § 258, 1. " § 321. 

» § 352, 1 (2). • § 258, 2. 

LX a 

A miser went * one day to market,* and bought ^ some ' 
fine apples. He carried * them home, arranged * them carefully 
in his cupboard, and used to go * and look at them almost every 
day, but would * not eat any until they began to spoil. Every 
time he did eat one he regretted it. But he had a son, a young 
school-boy, who liked apples; and one day, with a comrade, 
he found the miser's treasure. I do not know how he found the 
key of the cupboard; but he did,® and you may imagine how 
many apples they ate. When they had ^ finished the apples, 
*,he old father came and caught them. How angry * he was ! 
How he shouted at them! "Wretches! where are my beauti- 

264 EXERCISES LXi a-Lxii a 

f ul apples ? You shall both be hanged ! You have eaten them 
all!" His son replied: "Do not be angry, father! ' You only 
eat the bad apples; we have not touched (d) those; we have 
eaten the good ones, and left you yours." 

1 § 260. » § 324, 1. 6 § 265, 1,6. ^ § 262, 3. • § 376, 4. 

2 § 331, ex. 4. * § 258, 2. « § 256. « § 350, o. 

LXI a 

A hungry ^ fox was one day looking for ^ sl poultry yard. It 
was late in the afternoon, and, as he was passing ^ a farm- 
house, he saw * a cock and some hens which had * gone up into 
a tree for the night. He drew near,* and invited * them to ® 
come down and ^ rejoice with him on account of a new treaty 
of peace which had been formed between the animals. The 
cock said he was * very glad of it, but that he did not intend * 
to ^ come down before the next morning. "But," said he, "I 
see two dogs coming; ^° I have no doubt they will be ^^ glad 
to ^^ celebrate the peace with you." Just then the fox remem- 
bered that he had business *' elsewhere, and, bidding the cock 
good-bye, began** to run. "Why do you run?" said the cock, 
"if the animals have made a peace, the dogs won't hurt you. 
I know them, they are good, loyal ^* dogs, and would not harm 
any one." "Ah," said the fox, "I am afraid they have ^^ not 
yet heard the news." 

» § 352, 1 (3). * § 260. 7 § 456, 2. " § 287, 3. " § 323. 

« § 258, 1; § 296, 3. » § 229; § 262, 2 J § 258, 5. " § 269, 5. " § 352. 
» § 258, 1. • § 279, 6. » § 280, 2, o. " § 356. » § 269, 4, a. 


A woodman, who was cutting ^ wood on the bank of a river, 
let 2 his ax fall ' into the water. He at once * began ^ to * pray 
[to] the gods to ^ find it for him. Mercury appeared ^ and 
asked '^ him what was ^ the matter. "I have lost my ax," 
said ^ he. Having heard this. Mercury dived * into the water, 
and brought' up a golden ax. "Is this » yours?" "No," 
said the man. Next time Mercury brought up a silver one. 
"Is this one yours?" "No," said* the chopper again. The 


third time Mercury brought up an iron one, which the man 
recognized, as soon as he saw * it. "It is yours," said the god, 
"and for your honesty I shall give you the other two also." 

> § 258, 1. » § 230, 6, o, and 7. » § 279, 6. » § 258, 6. • § 236, 2 
« 8 260. < § 413. • § 280, 6. 

LXm a 

Two men were traveling * together, when they saw ' a bear 
coming out ' of the forest. The one cUmbed into a tree, and 
tried to * conceal himself in the branches. The other, when 
he saw that the bear would ( = was going to) attack him, 
threw himself upon the ground, and, when the bear came up, 
he ceased to * breathe, for it is said * that a bear will not touch • 
a dead ^ body. When the bear had * gone, his companion came 
down, and asked: "What was it that the bear was saying to 
you?" His friend replied: "He advised me not ^ to travel 
with a friend who runs away at the approach of danger."^" 

» § 258, 1. » § 287, 3. » § 241, 2, a. M 352, 1 (3). • § 416, a. 
« \ 260. « 5 280, 6. • § 296, 6. « § 262, 3. " § 321. 


A well-known * English * actor, traveling to Birmingham by 
the Great Western ' railway the other day, on approaching * 
Banbury, began to feel hungry, and determined to have one of 
the buns for (par) which the town is famous. 

The train having stopped, he called a boy, gave him six- 
pence, and asked him to get "two Banburys," promising him 
one of the two for his trouble. 

Just as the train was about to start, the boy rushed up to 
the carriage in which the impatient actor was seated, and 
offering him three pence, exclaimed: 

"Here's your change, sir." 

•"Bother the change; where's the bun?" roared the hungry 

"There was only one left," replied the boy, "and I'm eating 
•* . 1 8 352, 1 (3). « 8 352, 1 (2). » 8 330, 4, c, note. * 8 296, 1. 


LXV a 

Under a magnificent walnut tree near the village, two little 
boys found a walnut. "It belongs to me," said the one, "for 
it was ^ I ^ who was the first to see it ( = who have seen it the 
first)." "No, it belongs to me," exclaimed the other, "for it 
was 1 I "^ who picked it up." Thereupon there ^ arose between 
them a violent quarrel. "I am going to make peace ^ between 
you," said to them a third boy, who was passing at that mo- 
ment. The latter placed himself between the two claimants, 
opened the walnut, and pronounced this sentence: "One of 
the shells belongs to him ^ who was the first to see the walnut; 
the other to him ^ who picked it up; as to the kernel, I keep it 
for the costs of the court. That's how lawsuits ^ generally end," 
added he, laughing. 

1 § 257, 3, 6. M 372, 3. » § 252, 2. * § 321. b § 38I. 


Many years ago ^ a celebrated ^ physician who was very 
fond of animals lived in the city of Paris. One day a friend of 
his ^ brought to his house a favorite "^ dog, whose leg had been 
broken, and asked him if he could do anything for the poor 
creature. The kind doctor examined the wounded ^ animal, 
and, prescribing a treatment for him, soon cured him, and 
received the warm thanks of his friend, who set a very high 
value upon his dog. Not very long afterwards, the doctor was 
in his room busy studying. ^ He thought ^ he heard a noise at 
the door, as if some animal was scratching in order to be let ' 
in. For some time he paid no attention to the noise, but con- 
tinued studying.8 At last, however, he rose and opened the 
door. To his great astonishment he saw enter the dog which 
he had cured, and with him another dog. The latter also had 
a broken * leg, and was able to move only with much difficulty. 
The dog which the surgeon had cured had brought his friend to 
his benefactor, in order that he, too, might be ' healed; and 
he made the doctor 1° understand that this was what he wanted. 

1 § 250, 4. ' § 377, 3. » § 279, 2. ^ § 241, 2, o. » § 271, 2. 

» § 351. * % 352, 1 (3). « § 283, 1. « § 27C, 6. " § 230, 6, 6. 

Lxvii a-LXviii a 267 


There was once a cat who was a ^ great enemy of the rats. 
He had eaten a great many,'* and they were much afraid of 
him. So the chiefs of the rats called a meeting to ' discuss 
what they should do to ' rid themselves of him. A great many 
plans were proposed, but after a httle discussion they were all 
abandoned. At last a young rat, who thought himself very 
clever, rose and said: "Do not despair, my friends, I have not 
yet proposed a plan. A splendid idea occurs to me; I know what 
we can do. We can, if we are economical, soon save enough 
money to ' buy a httle bell. This we can attach to the neck 
of our old enemy, and, if he approaches, we can * flee to (dans) 
a place of safety." 

The young rats all applauded the idea, but one of the old 
Qones], who up to this time had said nothing, gravely ' asked 
the one who had made the speech if he would promise to put 
the bell on the cat. The young rat blushed, and said he would 
think of it.* 

The meeting broke up shortly after, and the rats dispersed 
without doing anything.' 

1 § 330, 3. » § 282, 2. » § 413. « § 368. M 405, 4, a. 

« § 367, 2 (1). * § 263, 2. 

LXVm a 

Long ago * the frogs, tired of having ^ a republic, resolved to ' 
ask Jupiter to send them a king. Jupiter did not receive their 
petition with much favor but, as they seemed really to * 
desire one, he thought (that) it would be better to please * 
them. So, one fine day, when they were all expecting * their 
king, a great log fell from the sky into the pond where they 
were.* They were very much afraid of the noise' it made, 
and they took refuge in holes and in the mud at the bottom of 
the pond. Little by httle, however, they approached « their 
king to ' get a good look at him, and, seeing that he was so 
quiet, they became more bold, and finally leaped on him, and 
treated him with great familiarity ( = very familiarly). Then 
they complained again to Jupiter saying that the king he had 

268 Lxix a-LXX a 

sent was not worthy of their respect, and that they desired 
another, who would show ^^ more vigor. In order to please 
them, Jupiter sent them this time a stork, who immediately 
began to devour them with much avidity. They complained 
again, but Jupiter told them that, since " they had desired a 
king, they would be forced to submit quietly to the one " he 
had sent. 

» § 250, 4. •• § 278, 6. ^ § 402, 1. » § 282, 2. » § 459, 3. 
>§280, 2. 6 §296, 2. « § 296, 1. "§270,1. "§381; 402,1. 
» § 280, 6. « § 258, 1. 


The two youngest of my children were already in bed and 
asleep, the third had ^ gone out, but at my return I found him 
sitting beside my gate, weeping * very sore. I asked him the 
reason. "Father," ' said he, "I took this morning from ^ my 
mother, without her knowing ^ it, one of those three apples 
you brought her, and I kept ^ it a long while; but, as I was 
playing some time ago ^ with my little brother in the street, a 
slave that went * by snatched it out of my hands, and carried 
it off; I ran after him asking for it, and, besides, told him 
that it belonged to my mother, who was ill, and that you had 
taken a fortnight-'s journey to fetch it; but all in vain, he 
would ^ not give it back. And because I still followed him, 
crying out, he stopped and beat me, and then ran away as fast 
as he could, from one street to another, till at length I lost 
sight of him. I have since then been walking outside the 
town, expecting your return, to pray you, dear father, not to 
tell my mother [of] it, lest it (cela) should make her worse." 
And when he had ^° said these words, he began weeping again 
more bitterly than ever. 

» § 229. 3 § 376, 4. « § 271, 5. " § 250, 4. » § 265, 1, 6. 

« § 286, 2. •• § 296, 4. « § 259, 2. » § 258, 1. " § 262, 3. 

LXX a 

A celebrated Italian ^ painter had told his pupils to * ask 
the name of any (tout) person who might come ' to his house 

Lxxi a-LXXii a 269 

during his absence in the city. One day three gentlemen 
came to * see the painter, and the latter was not at home. 
One of the pupils, whose name was John, opened the door for 
them,^ said that his master was not in, and let them depart 
without asking their names. When the master returned and * 
heard of the three gentlemen, he asked ' John who they were. 
John could say nothing but, "I do not know, sir." The painter 
got angry, but John, with a few strokes of his pencil, drew 
(Jaire) the portrait of the three, and gave it to his master, who 
immediately « recognized them. The artist admired the skill 
of the young man so much that he took the drawing, and kept 
it afterwards among his most precious possessions. It is need- 
less to ' add that he pardoned the pupil. (// est may be omitted.) 

> § 352, 1 (2). » § 270. 1. « § 362, 2. ' § 296, 2. • 5 384, 1, o. 
« \ 280, 6. * § 278, 6. • S 458, 2. » § 413. 


A man (celui) who would ^ have friends must show himself 
friendly. A man (homme) was passing the night at (dans) an inn. 
He had just left a town where he had spent several years. The 
landlord asked ^ him why he had left the (cet) place. He re- 
plied, "Because my neighbors were so disagreeable and dis- 
obliging that one could not live with them." The landlord 
replied, "You will find exactly the same sort of neighbors where 
you are going." The following day, another traveler came from 
the same place. He told the landlord that he was obliged to 
leave the place where he had been living, and that it caused 
him great pain to part with his neighbors, who had been so 
kind and obliging. The landlord encouraged him by teUing ' 
him that he would find exactly the same sort of neighbors 
where he was going. 

M 230, 1. ^ « § 296, 2. » § 286, 3. 

LXXn a 

When I was * at school, I was ^ often very idle. Even in 
[the] class I used to play * with boys as idle as myself. We 


used to try ^ to hide this from ^ our master, but one day he 
caught ' us cleverly. 

"You must not be idle," said he. "You must not raise 
your * eyes from your books. You do not know what you lose 
by idleness.^ Study while you are young; you will not be 
able to study when you arQ ^ old. If any one sees another boy 
who is not studying, let him tell me." ^ 

"Now," said I to myself, "there is Fred Smith; I do not 
like him. If I see that he is not studying, I shall tell." ^ 

Soon after, I saw Fred Smith looking » out of the window, 
and I told the master what I had seen. "Indeed!" said he, 
"how do you know he was idle?" "If you please, sir," said 
I, "I saw ^ him." "0 you saw ^ him, and where were your 
eyes when you saw ^ him?" 

I saw the other boys laugh,^ and I was ashamed, for the 
master smiled, and sai ■ it was a good lesson for me. 

» §258. » §260. 6 §321. '§365. » § 259, 2. 

« § 296, 4. * § 328. « § 263, 2. » § 287, 3. 


The princes of Europe ^ have found out a manner of reward- 
ing ^ their subjects who have behaved well, by presenting ' 
them [with] about two yards of blue * ribbon, which is worn ^ 
on the shoulder. Those who are honored with this mark of 
distinction are called knights, and the king himself is always 
at the head of the order. This is a cheap method of recom- 
pensing 2 the most important services; and it is very fortunate 
for kings ^ that their subjects are ^ satisfied with such * trifling 
rewards. Should ^ a nobleman lose his leg in a battle, the king 
presents him with two yards of ribbon, and he is recompensed 
for the loss of his leg. Should ^ an ambassador spend all his 
fortune in ^^ supporting the honor of his country abroad, the 
king presents him with two yards of ribbon, which is con- 
sidered ^ the equivalent of his estate. In short, as long as a 
European king has a yard or two of blue or green ribbon, he 
will not lack statesmen, generals,, and soldiers. 

1 § 333, 2. ' § 286, 3. » § 241, 2. ' § 269, 4. » § 275. 

» § 280, 2. •• § 352, 1 (1). • § 321. » § 406, 5, a, note. i» § 279, 2. 

Lxxiv a-LXXv a 271 


At a time when ancient art was attracting so much atten- 
tion in Italy that modern art ^ was being neglected,'' Michael 
Angelo had resort to a stratagem in order to teach the critics 
the folly of judging such things according to fashion ^ or repu- 
tation. ^ He made a statue which represented ' a beautiful 
girl (jeune fille) asleep,* and, breaking off an arm, buried the 
statue in a place where excavations were being made.^ It was 
soon found, and was lauded by critics ^ and by the public as 
a valuable relic of antiquity. ^ When Michael Angelo thought 
the time opportune, he produced the broken arm, and, to the 
great mortification of the critics, revealed himself as the sculptor. 
» S 321. « § 211, 2. « S 258, 3. * S 352, 1 (3). 


Had you seen us, Mr. Harley, when we were turned out of 
South-hill, I am sure you would have wept at that sight. You 
remember old Trusty, my dog; I shall never forget it while I 
live (fut.); the poor creature (bete) was old and almost blind, 
and could scarce crawl after us to the door; he went, however, 
as far as the gooseberry-bush, which, as you may remember, 
stood on the left side of the yard; he was wont to bask in the 
sun there; when he had reached that spot, he stopped; we went 
on (coniinuer notre chemin); I called him; he wagged his tail, but 
did not stir; I called again; he lay down; I whistled, and cried 
"Trusty"; he gave a howl, and died! I could have lain down 
and died ( = should have liked to lie down and die) too; but 
God gave me ^ strength to (de) live for my children. 

» §321. 



a Zsl] S sg. pres. indie, avoir 

k [a] to, towards, at, for, in, into, 
around, by, with, from; — 
votre montre by your watch; 
— demain good-bye till to- 

abondant [abSda] abundant 

abord: d' — [dabo:r] at first, 
first (of all), at the outset 

abreuver QabrcEve] to water, fill, 

accent [|aksa] m. accent, tone 

accepter [aksepte] to accept 

accident [aksida] m. accident, 

accompagner QakSpajie] to ac- 
company, go with 

accord [ako:r] m. agreement; 
etre d' — to agree 

accourir [akuriir] § 164 to run or 
hasten up; run or hasten to 
one's aid 

accourut Cakury] S sg. past def. 

accueil [akceij]] m. welcome 

achat [aSa] m. purchase 

acheter [aSte] § 158 to buy, pur- 

acti-f [aktif] -ve active, energetic 

action [aksjo] /. action 

actuellement [aktqelma^ now, at 
this very time 

Adele [add] /. Adele 

adieu [adj0j w. good-bye, fare- 


admettre [admetr] § 198 to admit 
aflfectueu-x [af£ktii0] -se affec- 
tionate, kindly 
afin de QaiedaJ + infin. in order 

afin que [afeka] in order that, 

that (takes subjunctive) 
Afrique [afrik] /. Africa 
fige [aisD ni. age, centurj', time; 

en — de of an age to; quel — 

a-t-il ? how old is he? 
fige [aise] aged, old 
agent [asa] m. agent; — de 

police policeman 
agir [asiir] to act, operate, work, 

move, manage; il s'agit de it is 

a question of 
agreable [agreabl] agreeable, 

agricole [agrikol] agricultural 
ai [ej 1 sg. pres. ind. avoir 
aider [sde] to aid, help, assist 
aie [e] 1 sg. pres. subj. and 2 sg. 

impve. avoir 
ailleurs [ajoe:r] elsewhere; d* — 

moreover, besides, furthermore 
aimable [smabl] kind, amiable, 

aimer [sme] to love, like; — 

mieux to prefer 
ainsi [esi] thus, so; — que as, 

just as; pour — dire so to say 
air Ceii"] ^- ^•ir, atmosphere; air, 

look, appearance; a 1* — , en 

P — in the air; le grand — the 

open air; en plein — in the 

open air; avoir 1' — de to seem to 



aise [e:z] /. gladness; ease, con- 
venience; a ton — comfort- 
ably, at your ease, just as you 
like, suit yourself 

aisement [ezema] easily 

ait [s] S sg. pres. subj. avoir 

ajouter [asute] to add 

algebre [alseibr] /. algebra 

Allah [alia] m. Allah 

Allemagne [almap] /. Germany 

allemand [almd] adj. German; 
1' — m. German (language); 
un Allemand a German 

aller [ale] § 160 to go, be (of 

health); \- infin. to go to, 

go and; y — de bon cceur 
to go at (a thing) with spirit; 
s'en — to go away, depart, set 
out; allez-vous-en ! go away ! 
qu'elle s'en aille! let her go 
(away) ! aliens ! come ! cour- 
age! up! arise! — a la ren- 
contre de to go to meet; — 
ch archer to go for, go and get; 
— trouver to go and find, go 
to (meet) ; — to fit {of garments) 

alors [aloir] then, so 

Alpes [alp] /. Tpl. Alps 

Alsace [alzas] /. Alsace 

ambition [abisj5]/. ambition 

Sme [a:m]/. soul, heart 

amener [amne] § 158 to bring, 

americain [amerike] American; 
un Americain an American 

Amerique [amerik]/. America 

ami [ami] m. friend; men — my 
good fellow, my boy 

amie [ami] /. friend, loved one 

amour [amu;r] m. in sing, and f. 
in pi. love, affection; un — de 
petite chevre a dear little goat 

amusant [amyza] amusing 

amuser [amyze] to amuse; s' — 
to amuse or enjoy oneself, play, 
have a good time 

an [a] m. year; avoir quarante 
— s to be forty years old or 
forty years of age; le jour de 
I'an New Year's day 

ancien [asje] ancient, old; former; 
un — an ancient 

ine [am] m. ass, donkey 

anecdote [anegdot] /. anecdote 

anglais [ogle] adj. English; 1' — 
m. English {language); un An- 
glais an Englishman 

Angleterre [agbte:r]/. England 

animal [animal] m. animal, beast 

annee [ane]/. year, twelvemonth; 
I' — derniere last year 

anniversaire [aniverseir] m. an- 
niversary, birthday 

antichambre [atiSa:br] /. ante- 

aoiit [u] m. August 

apercevoir [apersavwair] § 213 to 
perceive, see, observe, notice; 
s' — to perceive, observe 

apergoit [aperswa] 8 sg. pres. In- 
die, apercevoir 

apergu [apersy] p. part, apercevoir 

aperfut [apersy] 3 sg. p. def. 

appel [apsl] m. call 

appeler [aple] § 158 to call; call 
in, summon; name; faire — 
to send for; s' — to be called 
or named; comment s'appelle- 
t-il? what is his name? 11 
s'appelle Jean Bart his name 
is Jean Bart 

appetit [apeti] m. appetite; bon 
— I wish you a good appetite 

apporter [aporte] to bring (to, a) 

apprendre [apraidr] §202 to 
learn; teach 

appreter [aprete] to prepare; s* — 
to prepare, get ready 

approche [apro^] /. approach 

approcher [apro^e] tr. and intr. to 
approach, draw near, bring up; 



— de to approach, draw near; 
s' — to approach, draw near (to, 

apres [apre] prep, after, next (to); 
adv. afterwards, after 

apres-demain [apredmej the day 
after to-morrow 

aprds-midi [apremidi] m. or f. 

arabe [arab] Arabian; un Arabe 
(an) Arabian, Arab 

Arabic [arabi] /. Arabia 

arbre [arbr] m. tree 

arc [ark] m. arch, bow 

Arc de Triomphe [arkdetriSif] 
name of an arch in Paris 

architecture [arSitektyir] /. ar- 

argent [arsa] m. silver, money 

argument [argyma] m. argu- 

arithmetique [aritmetik] /. arith- 

Aries [arO /• city tn the south of 
France, famous for Roman re- 

arreter [arete] to stop, delay, 
stay, check, arrest; s' — to 
stop, pause, give heed (to, k); 
du monde arrete people stand- 

arrivee [arive]/. arrival 

arriver [arive] to arrive (at, &, 
dans, sur); come, come to, 
come up; happen, occur; les 
voilil qui arrivent see them com- 
ing (there) 

articuler [artikyle] to articulate, 

as [a] S sg. pres. indie, avoir 

Asie [azij/. Asia 

assassiner [asasine] to assassi- 
nate, murder 

asseoir [aswair] § 215 to seat; 
s' — to sit down, seat oneself, 
be seated 

assez [ase] enough, sufficiently; 
pretty, rather, quite, very; — 
bon good enough 

assiette [as jet]/, plate 

assis [asi] p. pari, s'asseoir seated, 

associe [asosje] m. partner 

assurer [asyre] to assure 

attendre [ata:dr] § 210 to wait; 
wait for, expect; s' — a to expect 

attenti-f [atotif] -ve attentive 

attention [atdsjS] /. attention; 
faire — to pay attention 

attentivement [atativma] atten- 

au [o] contr. of k +le 

auberge [obersD/. inn 

aubergiste [obersist] m. inn- 

aucun [okde] any, no; ne . . . — 
no, none, no one 

au-dessus [odsy] above; — de 

Auguste [ogyst] m. Augustus 

aujourd'hui [osurdqi] to-day, 
now; — en huit a week from 

aupres de [oprede] into the pres- 
ence of, to 

aural [ore] 1 sg. fvi. avoir 

auraient [ore] S pi. condl. avoir 

aussi [_osy\ too, also, likewise; as 
(in comparison); — bien be- 
sides; — bien que as well as 

aussit6t [osito] immediately, 
forthwith, at once 

autant [ota], — de as or so much, 
as or so many; d* — plus the 
more so; bien — quite as much 

autobus [otobys] m. motor car, 
auto car (pubUc) 

automne [oton] m. autumn; en 
— in autumn 

auto(mobile) [otomDbil] m. or f. 
automobile, motor car, auto 



autour de [otuirda] prep, around, 

autre [otr] other; les — s others, 
the others, other people; d* — s 
others; Pun et 1' — both; les 
uns les — s one another, both, 
all; nous — s Franjais we 
Frenchmen; bien — chose 
something very different 

autrefois [otrafwa] formerly, once 

Autriche [otriS]/. Austria 

aux [o] Gontr. of k + les 

avancer [avase] § 156 to advance, 
forward; s' — to advance, move 
forward; avance advanced; 

avant [ava] before; en — for- 
ward; la tete en — head first, 
head foremost; — de before 

avant-hier [ava(t)je:r] the day 
before yesterday 

avant que [avaka] conj. + subj. 

avec [avek] with; — le temps 
qu'il fait in such weather as 

avenue [avny]/. avenue 

avez [ave] 2 pi. pres. indie. 

Avignon [avijio] m. city in the 
south of France, famous for 
medieval remains 

avis [avi] m. opinion, notice 

avoir [avwair] § 154 to have; ob- 
tain, receive, get; y — impers., 
il y a there is, there are; il y 
avait there was, etc.; il y a huit 
jours a week ago; il y eut there 
was, etc.; il eut le moulin he 
obtained or received the mill; 
cet enfant a quelque chose there 
is something the matter with 
that child; qu'est-ce que vous 
avez? what is the matter with 
you ? il a dix ans he is ten years 
old or ten years of age; vous 

n'avez qu*a parler you have only 
to speak; — raison to be (in 
the) right; en — a to be angry 
avril [avril] m. April 
ayez [eje] 2 pi. impve. avoir 
ayons [ej5] 1 pi. pres. svhj. avoir 


bah ! [ba] pooh ! pshaw I 
bain [ht\ m. bath 
baisser [bese] to lower, let down, 
hang (down); — la tete bow 
down, hang one's head; se — 
to stoop down, stoop 
balle [bal] /. ball (for playing) 
Balzac, Honore de [onore da bal- 
zak] great French novelist b. 
1799, d. 1860 
bander [bade] to bind up 
banque [ba:k]/. bank {fin) 
banquier [bakje] m. banker 
Bart, Jean [sa ba:r] famous 
French seaman, h. at Dunkirk 
1651, d. 1702 

bas [ba] -se low; Ik over 

there, yonder; tout — in an 
undertone, to oneself, softly, 
silently; au — at the bottom; 
en — below, at the bottom, 
down (below), downstairs; 
d'en — from down below 
bas [ba] m. stocking 
baseball [besbal] m. baseball 
bassin [base] m. basin, pool 
Bastille [bastiij] /. Bastille {state 
prison in Paris, captured and 
destroyed by the populace, July 
14, 1789) 
bataille [bataij]/. battle 
bateau [bato] m. boat; se pro- 
mener en — to go for a boat- 
ride, row, sail {in a boat) 
batir [batiir] to build 



bfttob Cbato] m. stick; stroke 
(in learning to write); coup de 
— blow with a stick 

beau, bel, belle, pi. beaux, belles 
[bo, bel, bel, bo, bel] beautiful, 
handsome, fine; au — milieu 
in the very midst; il fait — 
(temps) it is fine; avoir — to 
be in vain 

beaucoup (de) [bokuda] much, a 
great deal, very much, many, 
very many, a great many 

Beaumarchais, Pierre [pje:r bo- 
mar^ej celebrated French play- 
mright, b. 1782, d. 1799 

beaute [bo:te]/. beauty 

becher [beSe] to dig, delve 

bel, belle pbel] see beau 

benir [benirr] § 163 to bless 

berger [bersc] m. shepherd; chien 
de — shepherd's dog 

besoin [bazwe] m. need, neces- 
sity ; avoir — de to need, be in 
need of; vous avez — que je 
vous aide you need my help; 
aussi bien nous fera-t-il — 
then besides we shall need him 

bete [belt]/, beast, brute, animal 

bete [be:t] stupid 

beurre [boe:r3 m. butter 

bibliotheque [bibliateik]/. library 

bicyclette [bisiklet] /. bicycle 

bien [bjeH well, very, indeed, 
really, I am sure, surely, of 
course, quite; — plus much 
more; j'ai — le temps I have 
plenty of time; etre — to be 
well, be well off, be comfort- 
able, be happy; — que (+ subj., 
though, although; ou — or 
indeed, or on the contrary; — de 
(du, des) much, a great deal of 

bien [bje] m. good 

biens [bje] m. pi. estate, prop- 
erty, goods, wealth, possessions; 

bien tot Cbjeto] soon, shortly, 

bijou [bisu^ m. jewel 

billet [bijej m. note, letter; 
promissory note; ticket; — 
d'entree ticket (of admission); 

— de banque, bank bill, bank 

blanc [bla(:S)] blanche white; le 

— n. m. the white 

blanchir [bloSiir] to become white, 
make white, wash, launder 

ble [ble] m. wheat, wheat field 

blesser [blese] to wound, hurt 

blessure [blesyir]/. wound, hurt 

bleu [bl0] blue 

Blois [[blwa] m. toum southwest of 
Paris, with famous castle 

boeuf [boef] m. ox; beef 

boire Cbwair] § 181 to drink; 
donner pour — to give a gra- 
tuity or tip {coUoq.) 

bois [Tjwa] m. wood(s), forest 

boite [bwa:t]/. box 

bon Cb5] -ne good; kind; moins 

— worse, not so good; sentir — 
to smell sweet 

bonbon [b5b3] m. bonbon, candy 

bon jour [Tb33u:r] m. good morn- 
ing, good day 

bonne [[bon] /. maid, servant, 
nursery maid 

bonte |l)5te3 /. goodness, kind- 

bord P3o:r] m. shore, bank, mar- 
gin, edge; board {nav.) ; a — de 
on board of 

Bordeaux [T)ordo] m. important 
seaport on the Garonne, and a 
centre of wine trade 

bomer Cbome] to Umit; se — 
to be Umited 

botte [bot] /. boot (riding) 

bottine [botin] /. high shoe (for 
men or women, particularly the 



bouche [buiS] /. mouth; a la — 
in one's mouth 

boulanger Cbula3e] m. baker 

bouquiniste [bukinistj m. second- 
hand book dealer 

bourgeois [burswa] m. middle- 
class person 

bout [bu] m. end, tip; edge, ex- 
tremity; au — de at the end of 

boutique [butik]/. shop, store 

branche [broiiS]/. branch 

bras [bra] m. arm 

brave [lDra:v] brave, gallant; 
good, kind, honest, worthy 

brigand [briga] m. brigand, thief 

brin [bre] m. blade, sprig 

brosse [bros] /. brush 

brosser [brose] to brush 

bruit [brqi] m. noise, sound; 
fame, reputation; faire tant de 
— to attract so much attention 

brfilant [bryla] burning hot 

brfiler [bryle] to bum 

brusque [brysk] blunt 

bureau [byro] m. office 

but [byt or by] object, end, goal; 
ar river Sl son — to attain his ob- 

fa [sa] (for cela) that 

f'a ete [sa ete] for fa or ce a ete 

fi [sa] here; — et la here and 
there, up and down, hither and 

cabinet [kabine] m. cabinet; 
office, private office 

cacher [kaSe] to hide, conceal; 
se — to hide oneself 

cadeau [kado] m. present, gift 

cafe [kafe] m. coffee; coffee-house, 
restaurant, caf6 

cahier [kaje] m. notebook, ex- 
ercise book 

caillou [kaju] m. pebble, stone 

caissier [kesje] m. cashier 

calmer [kalme] to calm 

camarade [kamarad] m. or f. 
comrade, playmate, chum 

campagne [kapaji] /. country, 
fields; a la — in the country 

Canada [kanada] m. Canada 

canadien [kanadje] Canadian 

capitaine [kapiten] to. captain 

car [kar] for {conj.) 

caravane [karavan] /. caravan 

caresse [karss] /. caress; faire 
mille — s a to overwhelm (one) 
with kindness 

caresser [karese] to caress, stroke 

carte [kart]/. card, ticket; map 

cas [ka] m. case 

casser [ka:se] to break 

cathedrale [katedral] /. cathe- 

catholique [katolik] catholic 

cause [ko:z] /. cause; a — de 
because of 

causer [koze] to cause; chat, 
talk; — une impression to 
make an impression 

ce [sa] pron. it, this, that; c'est 
poxu-quoi that is why; c'est 
nous it is we; ce sont eux it is 
they; ce qui, ce que that which, 
which, what 

ce, cet, cette, ces [sa, set, set, se] 
adj. this, that; ce . . . -I& that 

ceci [sasi] pron. this 

cela [sala] pron. that; — s'entend 
that is evident; of course 

celebre [selebr] celebrated, fa- 

celebrer [selebre] § 158 to cele- 

celle [sel] see celui 

celui, celle, ceux, celles [salqi, 
ssl, 's0, sel] this or that, this or 
that one; the one, he, him; 
— qui the one who, he or him 



celui-ci [salqisi], celle-ci, ceux-ci, 
celles-ci pron. this, this man, 
this one, the latter, he (too) 

celui-1^, etc. [salqila] pron. that, 
that man, that one, the former, 

cent [sa] (a) hundred 

centime [satim] m. the hundredth 
part of a franc 

cependant [sapada] yet, never- 
theless; still, however, in the 
meantime, meanwhile 

cerise [sari:z]/. cherry 

cerisier [sarizje] m. cherry tree 

certain [sertej certain 

cesser [s£se] to cease, leave off (de) 

ceiix [s0] see celui 

cbacun [5akce] pron. each, each 
one, every one 

chaise [Se:z]/- chair 

chaleur [5aloe:r]/. heat 

chambre [Sa:br] /. room, bed- 
room; Chambre des deputes 
House of Parliament, Congress 

chameau CSamo] m. camel 

cbamp [Sa] m. field, farm 

Champs-Ely sees [Sazelize] m. pi. 
name of a celebrated promenade 
in Paris 

changement [SSsmci] m. change 

changer [Sase] § 156 to change, 
alter, transform; se — to 
change or transform oneself, 
change (intr.) 

chanson CSQs3] /. song 

chant [Sa] m. singing, song; crow- 
ing {of a cock) 

chanter [Sate] to sing; chant, in- 
tone, play 

Chantilly CSstiJO fo"^"^ famous for 
its forests and magnificent chd- 

chapeau [Sapo] m. hat 

chaque [Sak] each, every 

Charlemagne [Sarbmaji] Char- 
lemagne, Charles the Great 

(the great Emperor of the West, 

channant [Sarma] charming 
charmer [Sarme] to charm, de- 

hght; channe de charmed with, 

dehghted with 
Chartres [Sartr] /. cit